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The time of onset of uveitis in relation to vaccination and the number and the pattern of distribution of vesicles were noted. The patient received oral acyclovir and topical steroids and cycloplegic drops.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes severe morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Treatment of HCMV infections with conventional antiviral drugs like ganciclovir and cidofovir has major drawbacks (i.e. serious side effects). Therefore, combination therapies using drugs with different antiviral mechanisms should be envisaged. Potential synergy between lactoferrin (LF), an antibacterial, antimycotic and antiviral protein, and the antiviral drugs acyclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir was investigated, using an in vitro test system with the recombinant RC256 HCMV strain.
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Review of all papers in the field on Medline 1994-98. A descriptive retrospective analysis of symptoms, seroprevalence, treatment, complications and follow-up of 49 HSV-1 and HSV-2 seropositive patients.
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Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in some endemic areas and yet, no vaccine is available against any form of the disease. Historically, leishmanization (LZ) which is an inoculation of individual with live Leishmania, is the most effective control measure at least against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Due to various reasons, LZ is not used today. Several live attenuated Leishmania have been developed but their use is limited. Previously, we developed a transgenic strain of L. major that harbors two suicide genes tk and cd genes (lmtkcd+/+) for use as a challenge strain in vaccine studies. These genes render the parasite susceptible to Ganciclovir (GCV) and 5-flurocytosine (5-FC). The dual drug sensitive strain of L. major was developed using gene targeting technology using a modified Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase gene (hsv-tk) sensitive to Ganciclovir antibiotic and Saccharomyces cerevisae cytosine deaminase gene (cd sensitive to 5-flurocytosine) that were stably introduced into L. major chromosome. BALB/c mice inoculated with lmtkcd+/+ developed lesions which upon treatment with GCV and 5-FC completely healed. In the current study, the transgenic lmtkcd+/+strain was assessed as a live vaccine model to determine the time necessary to develop a protective immune response. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with the transgenic lmtkcd+/+strain, and treated at the time of inoculation (day 0) or at day 8 after inoculation. Immunized animals were challenged with wild-type L. major, and complete protection was induced in mice that were treated at day 8. The results show that in contrast to leishmanization, in group of mice inoculated with a dual sensitive L. major development and persistence of lesion is not necessary to induce Th1 response and protection.
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Leishmania parasites cause important human morbidity and mortality. Essential Leishmania genes escape genetic assessment by loss-of-function analyses due to lethal null mutant phenotypes, even though these genes and their products are biologically most significant and represent validated drug targets. Here we overcome this limitation using a facilitated null mutant approach applied for the functional genetic analysis of the MAP kinase LmaMPK4. This system relies on the episomal expression of the target gene from vector pXNG that expresses the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene thus rendering transgenic parasites susceptible for negative selection using the antiviral drug ganciclovir. Using this system we establish the genetic proof of LmaMPK4 as essential kinase in promastigotes. LmaMPK4 structure/function analysis by plasmid shuffle allowed us to identify regulatory kinase sequence elements relevant for chemotherapeutic intervention. A partial null mutant, expressing an MPK4 derivative with altered ATP-binding properties, showed defects in metacyclogenesis, establishing a first link of MPK4 function to parasite differentiation. The approaches presented here are broadly applicable to any essential gene in Leishmania thus overcoming major bottlenecks for their functional genetic analysis and their exploitation for structure-informed drug development.
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One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients (131 men and 18 women aged 48+/-13 years) were randomized to receive either ganciclovir or placebo during the initial 28 days after heart transplantation. Immunosuppression consisted of muromonab-CD3 (OKT-3) prophylaxis and maintenance with cyclosporine, prednisone, and azathioprine. Mean follow-up time was 4.7+/-1.3 years. In a post hoc analysis of this trial designed to assess efficacy of ganciclovir for prevention of CMV disease, we compared the actuarial incidence of TxCAD, defined by annual angiography as the presence of any stenosis. Because calcium blockers have been shown to prevent TxCAD, we analyzed the results by stratifying patients according to use of calcium blockers. TxCAD could not be evaluated in 28 patients because of early death or limited follow-up. Among the evaluable patients, actuarial incidence of TxCAD at follow-up (mean, 4.7 years) in ganciclovir-treated patients (n=62) compared with placebo (n=59) was 43+/-8% versus 60+/-10% (P<0.1). By Cox multivariate analysis, independent predictors of TxCAD were donor age >40 years (relative risk, 2.7; CI, 1.3 to 5.5; P<0.01) and no ganciclovir (relative risk, 2.1; CI, 1.1 to 5.3; P=0.04). Stratification on the basis of calcium blocker use revealed differences in TxCAD incidence when ganciclovir and placebo were compared: no calcium blockers (n=53), 32+/-11% (n=28) for ganciclovir versus 62+/-16% (n=25) for placebo (P<0.03); calcium blockers (n=68), 50+/-14% (n=33) for ganciclovir versus 45+/-12% (n=35) for placebo (P=NS).
Observational case report.
Valganciclovir has been reported to improve physical and cognitive symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with elevated human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG antibody titers. This study investigated whether antibody titers against HHV-6 and EBV were associated with clinical response to valganciclovir in a subset of CFS patients. An uncontrolled, unblinded retrospective chart review was performed on 61 CFS patients treated with 900 mg valganciclovir daily (55 of whom took an induction dose of 1,800 mg daily for the first 3 weeks). Antibody titers were considered high if HHV-6 IgG ≥ 1:320, EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG ≥ 1:640, and EBV early antigen (EA) IgG ≥ 1:160. Patients self-rated physical and cognitive functioning as a percentage of their functioning prior to illness. Patients were categorized as responders if they experienced at least 30% improvement in physical and/or cognitive functioning. Thirty-two patients (52%) were categorized as responders. Among these, 19 patients (59%) responded physically and 26 patients (81%) responded cognitively. Baseline antibody titers showed no significant association with response. After treatment, the average change in physical and cognitive functioning levels for all patients was +19% and +23%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Longer treatment was associated with improved response (P = 0.0002). No significant difference was found between responders and non-responders among other variables analyzed. Valganciclovir treatment, independent of the baseline antibody titers, was associated with self-rated improvement in physical and cognitive functioning for CFS patients who had positive HHV-6 and/or EBV serologies. Longer valganciclovir treatment correlated with an improved response.
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To develop an animal model of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection uniquely suited to evaluate longitudinal patterns of viral gene expression, cell tropism, and immune responses, we injected NOD/SCID mice intravenously with purified virus and measured latent and lytic viral transcripts in distal organs over the subsequent 4 months. We observed sequential escalation of first latent and then lytic KSHV gene expression coupled with electron micrographic evidence of virion production within the murine spleen. Using novel technology that integrates flow cytometry with immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that the virus establishes infection in murine B cells, macrophages, NK cells, and, to a lesser extent, dendritic cells. To investigate the potential for human KSHV-specific immune responses within this immunocompromised host, we implanted NOD/SCID mice with functional human hematopoietic tissue grafts (NOD/SCID-hu mice) and observed that a subset of animals produced human KSHV-specific antibodies. Furthermore, treatment of these chimeric mice with ganciclovir at the time of inoculation led to prolonged but reversible suppression of KSHV DNA and RNA levels, suggesting that KSHV can establish latent infection in vivo despite ongoing suppression of lytic replication.
Patients were treated for a median of 207 days (range, 15-376). Four of 6 patients had no detectable CMV DNAemia within 6 weeks of starting MBV therapy. One patient, who had an initial viral load of 1.8 million copies/mL, developed MBV resistance mutations. One patient, who had low serum levels of MBV, had persistent CMV DNAemia and viruria without developing genotypic or phenotypic resistance to MBV. One patient cleared CMV DNAemia, but died of pneumonia and multiorgan failure. No significant adverse effects attributable to MBV were observed.
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Hydrophilic drugs are poorly absorbed when applied topically, due to low partitioning through the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum. Cutaneous blood flow rapidly clears the absorbed drug, which may result in low tissue levels. This is of importance for topically applied drugs whose site of action is within the epidermis or dermis. Dermal drug levels can be measured using cutaneous microdialysis, which is a means of continuously sampling substances from the dermal extracellular fluid.
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Prolonged therapy with ganciclovir (GCV) can result in the development of GCV-resistant strains due to mutations in the viral phosphotransferase (UL97 gene) and/or in the viral DNA polymerase (UL54 gene).
This review included data from 98 trials that randomised a total of 5211 participants. Compared to idoxuridine, the topical application of vidarabine, trifluridine, or acyclovir resulted in a significantly greater proportion of participants healing within one week of treatment. Among these latter three antiviral agents, no treatment emerged as significantly better for the therapy of dendritic epithelial keratitis. Insufficient placebo-controlled studies were available to assess debridement and other physical or physicochemical methods of treatment. Interferon monotherapy had a slight beneficial effect on dendritic epithelial keratitis but was not better than other antiviral agents. Interferon was very effective when combined with another antiviral agent such as trifluridine.
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In continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, acyclovir-induced neurotoxicity is reported to be associated with high serum drug levels even when following the recommended reduced doses for this renal failure population. In view of the high oral bioavailability of valaciclovir (the L-valyl ester of acyclovir) the risk of neurotoxicity becomes more prominent. The present study was conducted in 12 CAPD patients who were administered a single oral dose of 500 mg valaciclovir. Acyclovir was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Relative pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated based on acyclovir concentrations at 8, 12 and 24 h post-dose. High inter-patient variations were observed with acyclovir apparent total clearance 7.238 +/- 4 l/h and half-life (T1/2) 22.27 +/- 16.82 h. However, dosage simulations confirmed supratherapeutic acyclovir concentrations for all participants when following the recommended dose of 1,000 mg valaciclovir/24 h for varicella zoster infections.
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A total of 85 patients diagnosed with SSNHL were treated with combination therapy (group A, 46 patients) or systemic steroids only (group B, 39 patients). Hearing improvement was defined as a hearing gain of more than slight improvement using Siegel's criteria. All patients were treated with a 10-day course of systemic steroids (10-mg dexamethasone for 5 days, followed by tapering for 5 days). Acyclovir, heparin, and stellate ganglion block were included in the group A treatment regimen.
Four dose levels (3 × 10(10) to 1 × 10(12) vector particles) were evaluated as adjuvant to surgery for resectable disease (Arm A) or to 5-FU chemoradiation for locally advanced disease (Arm B). Each patient received two cycles of AdV-tk + prodrug.
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pFR-Z is a specific gene therapy vehicle for EBV-positive carcinomas.
The valaciclovir was used as the model drug, the bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-NP) were prepared by desolvation process. Glycyrrhizin (GL) was oxidized by sodium periodate to be conjugated to surface reactive amino groups (SRAG) of the VACV-BSA-NP. Gel filtration method combined with HPLC method verified that GL was covalent coupling to the surface of VACV-BSA-NP with mean 9 GL residues per albumin molecule. The mean diameter of the VACV-BSA-NP-GL was 268 +/- 23 nm, the drug loading was 1.35%, and embedding ratio was 68.76%. The characteristics of release in vitro were in accord with two-phase kinetics. The uptake amount of VACV-BSA-NP-GL by primary cultured rat hepatocytes in vitro was higher, compared to the control-VACV-BSA-NP. 69.89% and 64.82% of the VACV were concentrated in liver at 15 min after i.v. VACV-BSA-NP-GL and VACV-BSA-NP, respectively. There is a significant difference between surface-modified group and control group (P<0.10). VACV-BSA-NP-GL was successfully prepared, which is considered to be a novel drug delivery system for targeting to hepatocytes.
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The translation initiation factor, eIF4E, is commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. This elevation allows for efficient translation of mRNA that are normally repressed by their 5' untranslated region, many of which encode growth-promoting proteins. This property was exploited to modulate the synthesis of HTK at the translational level to selectively kill cancer cells. Various breast cancer cell lines can efficiently synthesize HTK from the translationally regulated mRNA, whereas normal cells cannot. Accordingly, only cancer cells were killed at low concentrations of ganciclovir. By altering the expression of eIF4E, it was possible to modulate the sensitivity of various cell lines to ganciclovir.
We analyzed our data of dermatology in-patients in a tertiary care centre in South India from April 2008 to November 2009 (20 months). The data were tabulated and analyzed.