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Zofran (Ondansetron)
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Zofran

Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dexamethasone, Scopolamine, Anzemet

 

Also known as:  Ondansetron.

Description

Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).

Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.

Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.

Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.

Dosage

Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.

Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

zofran odt generic

This column is the first in a two-part series exploring lessons for psychiatric drug development that can be learned from the development of six central nervous system drugs with novel mechanisms of action over the past 25 years. Part 1 presents a brief overview of the neuroscience that supported the development of each drug, including the rationale for selecting a) the target, which in each case was a receptor for a specific neurotransmitter system, and b) the indication, which was based on an understanding of the role that target played in a specific neural circuit in the brain. The neurotransmitter systems on which the development of these agents were based included serotonin for ondansetron and lorcaserin, dopamine for varenicline, substance P (or neurokinin) for aprepitant, melatonin for ramelteon, and orexin for suvorexant. The indications were chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for ondansetron and aprepitant, smoking cessation for varenicline, weight loss for lorcaserin, and insomnia for suvorexant and ramelteon.

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Data for patients (n=159) receiving platinum-based chemotherapy regimens were retrospectively collected . Patients getting 5-HT(3) antagonists without steriods or those with known history of brain metastasis, gastroparesis, and intestinal obstruction were not eligible for the study. Patient characteristics including age, gender, primary diagnosis, history of heavy alcohol intake, chemotherapy regimen administered , number of cycles, and Eastern Cooperative Group performance status at the start of therapy were noted. Primary outcome was the complete control of platinum-induced acute nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcome measures included control of > or = grade 1 nausea or vomiting, comparison of two doses of dexamethasone, and antiemetic eficacy among various platinum drugs. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0 was used to assess toxicity.

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To compare risk model-guided (RMG) antiemetic prophylaxis with physician's choice (PC) in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

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Postoperative vomiting (POV) continues to be a common complication in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. The incidence of POV is between 62% and 73% when no prophylactic antiemetic is given. Numerous antiemetics have been studied for the management of POV after pediatric tonsillectomy. As traditional antiemetics, benzamides (e.g., metoclopramide), butyrophenones (e.g., droperidol), phenothiazines (e.g., perphenazine), and antihistamines (e.g., dimenhydrinate) are used for POV. The available nontraditional antiemetics are propofol, dexamethasone, and midazolam. Serotonin receptor antagonists, which include ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, and ramosetron, are more effective than traditional antiemetics. However, these drugs are not entirely effective, perhaps because most of them act through the blockade on one type of receptor. Combination antiemetic therapy with a serotonin receptor antagonist (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron) plus droperidol or dexamethasone is highly effective for the prophylaxis against POV. Nonpharmacological techniques include acustimulation, acupressure, and acupuncture at P6 (Nei-Kuwan) point. Most of published trials indicate an improved antiemetic prophylaxis in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy when risk factors for POV would be avoided and/or effective antiemetic therapy would be performed. For the prevention of POV after pediatric tonsillectomy, baseline risk factors, including patient characteristics, surgical procedure, anesthetic techniques, and postoperative care, should be avoided, if possible. Clinicians should also consider these clinical strategies as mentioned above for the prevention of POV after tonsillectomy in children.

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Drug-induced nausea and vomiting, both post-operatively and following chemotherapy, is often distressing for the patients. Our clinical impression is that certain patients are not prone to but instead protected against both post-operative and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). If support for this hypothesis could be generated, it might be easier to identify such patients as low-risk patients and judge all other patients as high-risk patients by default.

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166 patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy were entered into a randomised prospective study in which the efficacy of single dose ondansetron 8 mg, tropisetron 5 mg and granisetron 3 mg in the prophylaxis of acute vomiting was evaluated. 130 patients were evaluable for analysis. During the 24 h following the start of chemotherapy complete control of vomiting was achieved in 80% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73.1; 86.9] of patients receiving granisetron compared with 75% (95% CI 67.1; 82.1) of those on tropisetron and 69% (95% CI 60.5; 76.5) on ondansetron. The patients experienced significantly fewer failures with granisetron (6.2%, 95% CI 2.1; 10.3) than with either ondansetron (14.6%, 95% CI 8.5; 20.6) or tropisetron (13.8%, 95% CI 7.9; 19.7). When asked, 34 (26%) patients out of 130 expressed no preference, 54 (42%) preferred granisetron, 22 (17%) preferred ondansetron and 20 (15%) preferred tropisetron. All the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were highly effective in the prophylaxis of acute vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The observed differences in the control of emesis, although statistically significant, may not have clinical significance.

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The relation between pretreatment night-time urinary catecholamine excretion and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was studied. The first cohort included 17 women and three men with various cancer forms receiving low or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The second cohort included 42 women receiving cisplatinum (50 mg m-2) for ovarian cancer and ondansetron as an antiemetic (8 mg i.v. x 3 at chemotherapy and 8 mg p.o. x 3 for 5 days). Relatively higher noradrenaline, but not adrenaline, excretion was associated with an increased intensity of delayed nausea following treatment. Vomiting was not consistently related to the excretion of either catecholamine. The results indicate that noradrenaline modulates delayed nausea resulting from chemotherapy.

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All doses of oral casopitant as a 3-day regimen (and likely as a 150-mg single oral dose) in combination with Ond/Dex provided significant improvement in the prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis.

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Both ondansetron and cyclophosphamide are thought to be metabolized by hepatic microsomal processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interactions between ondansetron and high-dose alkylating agent chemotherapy.

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Anesthesia department of an urban academic medical center.

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Emesis cessation, use of intravenous fluid for rehydration, hospital admission, return to care, and medication adverse effects.

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Anxiolytic drugs, such as the benzodiazepines and the azapirones (ipsapirone, gepirone, buspirone), are well known to affect states of vigilance and to decrease the firing rate of serotoninergic neurones within the dorsal raphe nucleus in rats. In order to examine whether the newly developed 5-HT3 antagonists with potential anxiolytic properties act through similar mechanisms, the effects of several of such antagonists: MDL 72222, ICS 205-930, ondansetron and/or zacopride on both sleep-wakefulness and the discharge of serotoninergic neurones within the dorsal raphe nucleus were investigated in rats. When tested in a wide range of doses (0.05-10 mg/kg, i.p.), none of these drugs significantly affected the states of vigilance, except ondansetron, at 0.1 mg/kg, which increased paradoxical sleep for the first 2 hr after administration and MDL 72222, at 10 mg/kg, which reduced both paradoxical and slow wave sleep and increased wakefulness for the same initial period after treatment. In vivo, in chloral hydrate anaesthetized rats, as well as in vitro, in slices of brain stem, none of the 5-HT3 antagonists tested affected the firing rate of serotoninergic neurones. Similarly, no change in the electrical activity of serotoninergic neurones could be evoked in vitro by superfusion of the tissue with the 5-HT3 agonists, phenylbiguanide (10 microM) and 2-methyl-5-HT (1 microM). At a larger concentration (10 microM), the latter compound reduced the neuronal discharge probably through the stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors since this effect, as that of ipsapirone, could be prevented by 10 microM l-propranolol. Comparison of these data with those obtained with benzodiazepines and 5-HT1A agonists of the azapirone series, supports the concept that different mechanisms are responsible for the anxiolytic-like properties of 5-HT3 agonists, compared to those of other anxiolytic drugs.

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Previous studies have demonstrated that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are regulated by multiple mechanisms such as neurotransmitters and enzymes. The neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) may contribute to alcohol effects and serotonin receptors, including 5-HT3, play an important role in AUDs. Recent studies have also implicated histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases (HATS) in regulation of drug addiction, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been reported as transcriptional modulators of monoaminergic neurotransmission. Therefore, we hypothesize that HDACs may play a role in ethanol-induced serotonergic modulation. The effects of ethanol on serotonin and 5-HT3, and the role HDACs, HDAC activity and the HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), play in alcohol-induced serotonergic effects were studied. Human SK-N-MC and neurons, were treated with ethanol (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%), and/or TSA (50 nM), and 5-HT3 levels were assessed at 24-72 h. Gene expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and protein by western blot and flow cytometry. Serotonin release was assessed by ELISA and HDAC activity by fluorometric assay. Our results show an increase in 5-HT3 gene after ethanol treatment. Further, ethanol significantly increased HDACs 1 and 3 genes accompanied by an increased in HDAC activity while TSA significantly inhibited HDACs. Studies with TSA show a significant upregulation of ethanol effects on 5-HT3, while surprisingly TSA inhibited ethanol-induced serotonin production. These results suggest that ethanol affects 5-HT3 and serotonin through mechanisms involving HDACs and HATs. In summary, our studies demonstrate some of the novel properties of HDAC inhibitors and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involve in alcohol-serotonergic modulation in the CNS.

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Inpatient clinical research center.

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In a randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial to study the effect of ondansetron pretreatment on the pain produced after intravenous injection of rocuronium and propofol in comparison with lidocaine, 60 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received 5 ml of intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution pretreatment, group 2 received ondansetron 4 mg (2 mg.ml-1 solution) diluted into a 5-ml solution, and group 3 received 50 mg lidocaine (5 ml 1% solution); this was followed 1 min later by rocuronium and propofol. Pain was reduced significantly in the ondansetron and lidocaine groups (p < 0.0001) compared with placebo, and significantly better with lidocaine than with ondansetron (p = 0.02). We conclude that ondansetron is effective in relieving the pain of rocuronium but is not as effective as lidocaine.

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Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution, and cumulative concentration-response curves for 5-HT were generated in the absence and presence of 5-HT antagonists, Nω-nitro-l-arginine and indomethacin. Responses to α-methyl-5-HT were also examined.

zofran 8mg tablets

Prospective, randomized, stratified, double-blind study.

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The incidence of postoperative emesis was 55% and 10% in placebo and ondansetron group respectively. As to the severity of emetic symptoms it was milder in the ondansetron group. There was no difference in the incidence of other complications between the two groups.

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When it was added to a standard regimen of intravenous ondansetron and oral dexamethasone in the current study, aprepitant reduced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and was generally well tolerated, although increases in infection were noted that were assumed to be due to elevated dexamethasone levels as a result of the pharmacokinetic interaction. The aprepitant 125/80-mg regimen had the most favorable benefit:risk profile.

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The cost efficacy of various ondansetron regimens for the control of emesis induced by noncisplatin, moderately emetogenic chemotherapy was examined from a hospital perspective. Previous cost-efficacy analyses of ondansetron provide limited insight into the economic impact of ondansetron when used with moderately emetogenic chemotherapies. Clinical efficacy results of trials that used ondansetron to control emesis were retrieved from the biomedical literature published between January 1966 and December 2000. Only direct antiemetic treatment costs were considered. A total of 55 trials were analyzed, with a total of 22 regimens identified. Costs of antiemetic treatments were calculated by multiplying the milligrams of each product by the cost per milligram. For each injectable dose, the average cost of an administration device was Can$1.28. Pharmacy time required for preparing an i.v. dose was 2.5 minutes, at an average hourly rate of Can$25. Nursing time to administer each i.v. dose was estimated at one minute at an average rate of Can$23 per hour. The efficacy rate of the 22 regimens varied between 24.2% and 90.4%, while the cost varied from Can$20 to Can$413. A cost-efficacy analysis of ondansetron regimens for control of emesis caused by noncisplatin, moderately emetic antineoplastic treatment revealed regimens that should be avoided as well as regimens that are, in comparison, at least as efficacious and less expensive. The analysis supported the concomitant use of a corticosteroid, twice-daily administration of ondansetron, and limitation of ondansetron administration to a period not exceeding four days.

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Insignificant EGG changes during chemotherapy suggest that chemotherapy has a minimal direct effect on gastric pacemaker. Tachygastria seemed to be a secondary effect of vomiting rather than the cause of it. These preliminary findings suggest that efforts to modify gastric electrical rhythm as a means of management of chemotherapy-induced vomiting may be futile. Further studies to identify factors responsible for vomiting are warranted.

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Fifty-five cancer patients who received tropisetron for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting were enrolled into this single center, prospective study. Standard 12-lead ECG recordings were performed at baseline and 30 min after tropisetron (5 mg given over 1 min IV bolus) administration. P wave durations and corrected QT intervals were measured; P wave dispersion and QTc dispersion were calculated.

zofran children dosage

A randomised, double-blinded study.

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The number of transient relaxations induced by a 1.7 kPa gastric distension (7.9 +/- 0.4/30 min) was dose-dependently reduced by ondansetron (1-100 micrograms/kg) and by granisetron (100 micrograms/kg). Ondansetron (100 micrograms/kg) did not modify the number of relaxations under a 1.0 kPa gastric pressure (2.7 +/- 0.4 vs 2.6 +/- 0.4/30 min) but reduced the increase of the occurrence of relaxations induced by CCK8S under a gastric pressure of 1.0 and 1.7 kPa.

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Ondansetron and meperidine have similar effects on shivering. We concluded that 8 mg of intravenous ondansetron can control shivering and this is the dose of choice, especially in patients with POS with nausea and vomiting.

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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents an aggressive tumor type with poor prognosis. The majority of GBM patients cannot be cured. There is high willingness among patients for the compassionate use of non-approved medications, which might occasionally lead to profound toxicity. A 65-year-old patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been treated with radiochemotherapy including temozolomide (TMZ) after surgery. The treatment outcome was evaluated as stable disease with a tendency to slow tumor progression. In addition to standard medication (ondansetron, valproic acid, levetiracetam, lorazepam, clobazam), the patient took the antimalarial drug artesunate (ART) and a decoction of Chinese herbs (Coptis chinensis, Siegesbeckia orientalis, Artemisia scoparia, Dictamnus dasycarpus). In consequence, the clinical status deteriorated. Elevated liver enzymes were noted with peak values of 238 U/L (GPT/ALAT), 226 U/L (GOT/ASAT), and 347 U/L (γ-GT), respectively. After cessation of ART and Chinese herbs, the values returned back to normal and the patient felt well again. In the literature, hepatotoxicity is well documented for TMZ, but is very rare for ART. Among the Chinese herbs used, Dictamnus dasycarpus has been reported to induce liver injury. Additional medication included valproic acid and levetiracetam, which are also reported to exert hepatotoxicity. While all drugs alone may bear a minor risk for hepatotoxicity, the combination treatment might have caused increased liver enzyme activities. It can be speculated that the combination of these drugs caused liver injury. We conclude that the compassionate use of ART and Chinese herbs is not recommended during standard radiochemotherapy with TMZ for GBM.

zofran dose infants

The population model adequately described the differences in ondansetron pharmacokinetics between paediatric patients, young, elderly and aged volunteers. Different covariates were identified by the various methods. Weight was found to have a strong positive linear relationship with all four pharmacokinetic parameters. Clearance showed a weak negative relationship with age. Males were found to have a greater clearance than females after weight adjustment.

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Patients presenting with acetaminophen toxicity and vomiting are often treated with antiemetics so that orally administered N-acetylcysteine can be retained. The policy at the West Virginia Poison Center is to reserve ondansetron, an antiemetic with a higher cost than other antiemetics, as a second line agent for patients presenting within 8 hours of an acetaminophen ingestion.

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Intravenous NAC reduced antiemetic utilization, and it costs less than oral therapy. Furthermore, antiemetic use appeared to be determined by a combination of acetaminophen concentration and NAC administration route.

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1. Tritiated derivatives of the potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists GR65630 and LY278584 were used to identify 5-HT3 recognition sites in the rat gastrointestinal tract. 2. Binding studies were carried out in homogenates of the rat oesophagus, the cardia, fundus, body and antrum of the stomach, regions of the small intestine, caecum and large intestine. The specific binding of a single concentration of GR65630 (0.5 nM) defined by granisetron (10 microM) in these areas indicated that the density of 5-HT3 recognition sites varied from 2.4 +/- 1.0 to 10.1 +/- 1.0 fmol mg-1 protein. 3. Saturable binding of [3H]-GR65630 could only be demonstrated in the terminal regions of the small intestine (Bmax in the range of 13.83 +/- 4.54-21.19 +/- 0.89 fmol mg-1 protein; mean +/- s.e. mean) and of high affinity (Kd in the range of 0.42 +/- 0.18-0.79 +/- 0.24 nM). Use of [3H]-LY278584 revealed a similar binding density (Bmax 19.54 +/- 0.26 fmol mg-1 protein) and affinity (Kd 1.04 +/- 0.07 nM) in the terminal small intestine. 4. Binding of [3H]-GR65630 and [3H]-LY278584 to the terminal region of the small intestine was inhibited by 5-HT3 receptor ligands ondansetron and S-zacopride (and 5-hydroxytryptamine), but not by 5-HT1, 5-HT2, catecholamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and opioid receptor ligands. 5. These data demonstrate that there are regional variations in the density of 5-HT3 recognition sites within the rat gastrointestinal tract. Such data are relevant to the potential use of 5-HT3 receptor ligands to modify secretory and contraction responses in the gastrointestinal system.

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zofran dosage pregnancy 2016-01-02

ONE HUNDRED THIRTY TWO PARTURIENTS WERE RANDOMLY ALLOCATED TO ONE OF THREE GROUPS: group M (n = 44) that received intravenous midazoalm 30 μg/kg; group O (n = 44) that received intravenous ondansetron 8 mg; group MO (n = 44) that received intravenous midazoalm 30 μg/kg combined with intravenous ondansetron 8 mg if patients had vomiting or VAS of nausea ≥ 3 during surgery (after umbilical cord clamping) and 24 hours after that. The incidence and severity of vomiting episodes and nausea buy zofran online with visual analog scale (VAS) > 3 were evaluated at 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after injection of study drugs.

zofran dose infants 2017-03-05

The aim of this paper is to compare ondansetron to other antiemetic products used in cancerology. Twenty randomised trials studying ondansetron, and published in international reviews, were analyzed and synthesized. The conclusion is that buy zofran online ondansetron is of demonstrated short term efficiency. It seems to be slightly more efficient than metoclopramide, and its association with dexamethasone increases its efficiency. Doses of 8 mg or 24 mg do not differ from doses of 32 mg, and bolus administration from infusion administration. There are no data on the duration of the protection after the first course of chemotherapy.

zofran generic picture 2015-01-06

Vomiting and nausea are the most distressing side-effects of cancer chemotherapy. With standard antiemetic regimens (e.g. metoclopramide based combinations) sufficient antiemetic control is achieved in 50-70% of cisplatin treated patients. Ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist has shown efficacy in cisplatin-induced emesis. In the present study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ondansetron in cisplatin pretreated patients who had suffered from severe emesis in spite of antiemetic prophylaxis. Complete antiemetic control was reached in 43.5% on the day of treatment and in 27.2% of the patients regarding a worst day analysis. 25% of the patients suffered from buy zofran online severe cisplatin-induced emesis (greater than 5 emetic episodes per 24 h). We try to characterise risk-factors for cisplatin-induced emesis by performing a multivariate analysis. Sex, cisplatin dose, and combination therapy with cisplatin plus anthracyclines seem to be independent risk-factors for vomiting on day 1 and on worst day. Delayed emesis occurred less often when sufficient antiemetic protection from acute vomiting had been obtained. Female sex, cisplatin dose and recurrent disease seem to influence the probability for occurrence of delayed vomiting.

zofran common dosage 2017-08-26

IV fosaprepitant is as safe and effective as oral aprepitant in the Indian subpopulation and offers an buy zofran online alternative to the oral formulation.

zofran tablets dosage 2015-09-02

Demographic data were not statistically different among groups. HR was statistically different between the experimental groups and the control group. Ten patients (14%) in the control group had HR < 50 bpm, that required intravenous atropine compared to experimental groups (P =0.02). In the control group 12 (17%) patients had MAP < 80 mm Hg and required vasopressors compared to experimental groups (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in MAP and HR between the experimental groups (P =0. buy zofran online 06). Incidence of shivering in the control group was 45% (32.70) that was statistically more than experimental groups (P = 0.02).

zofran kid dosage 2016-04-22

We describe a case of intestinal obstruction in a pregnant woman with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy treated with ondansetron, which is known to slow gut motility. buy zofran online

zofran 3 mg 2016-03-24

Overall, 120 studies and 27,787 patients were included after screening of 7,608 citations and 1,014 full-text articles. Significantly more patients receiving granisetron plus dexamethasone experienced an arrhythmia relative to placebo (odds ratio (OR) 2.96, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.11-7.94), ondansetron (OR 3.23, 95 % CI 1.17-8.95), dolasetron (OR 4.37, 95 % CI 1.51-12.62), tropisetron (OR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.02-10.43), and ondansetron plus dexamethasone (OR 5.75, 95 % CI 1.71-19.34) in a NMA including 31 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 6,623 patients of all ages. No statistically significant differences in delirium frequency were observed across all treatment comparisons in a buy zofran online NMA including 18 RCTs and 3,652 patients.

zofran oral dose 2017-07-06

Ondansetrone is believed to be more reliable agent buy zofran online than metoclopramide when used with mivacurium.

zofran drug test 2017-06-27

The neurokinin-1 antagonist buy zofran online aprepitant (EMEND; Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA) has been shown to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting when it is given with a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. The current study sought to define the most appropriate dose regimen of oral aprepitant.

zofran 300 mg 2016-10-17

We investigated the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)2 and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes in acute itch-associated scratching behavior as well as in an allergic pruritus model in rats. Intradermal 5-HT evoked hind limb scratching directed toward the injection site in naïve rats. Scratching behavior was significantly reduced by pretreatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin. Intradermal injection of alpha-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, also elicited scratching behavior in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that acute 5-HT-induced scratching is mediated via peripheral 5-HT2 receptors. To produce a model of allergic pruritus, skin was sensitized buy zofran online by topical application of 5% dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). One month later, repeated challenge of the skin with 0.2% DNFB at weekly intervals elicited scratching as part of the immediate allergic response. Scratching was not affected by ketanserin or by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, indicating that neither 5-HT2 nor 5-HT3 receptors is involved in itch-associated scratching behavior caused by allergic skin dermatitis in rats.

dosage zofran 2015-09-24

Five female CFS-patients who met the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were recruited. There were two test days, one week apart. Each participant received placebo and ATD. To evaluate the efficacy of the ATD procedure tryptophan and the large neutral amino acids were measured. The outcome measures were fatigue severity, concentration and mood states. ATD resulted in a significant plasma tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratio reduction of 96%. There were no significant differences buy zofran online in fatigue-, depression and concentration between the placebo- and ATD condition.

zofran 10 mg 2016-12-18

A total of 66 patients were included: 37 had parenteral ondansetron, 14 were treated with traditional therapy, and 15 did not receive any pharmacological therapy. Nineteen percentage of children treated with ondansetron continued vomiting after the administration of the therapy vs 93% of children who received traditional therapy (P < 0.05, relative risk = 0.2). Children who received ondansetron or no therapy were less likely to require an admission overnight compared with those who received traditional therapy (P buy zofran online  < 0.05).

zofran reviews 2017-06-16

We selected the studies of the antiemetics droperidol, metoclopramide, hydroxyzine, propofol, dexamethasone, ondansetron, and ramosetron when used for the stated indication. When assessing drug efficacy, we compared the Precose 25 Mg antiemetics used at the time the article was written.

zofran sublingual dose 2015-12-27

Ondansetron did not affect Paxil Therapeutic Dose the gastric emptying of solids, the dominant gastric electrical frequency or the plasma concentrations of the analysed gastrointestinal peptides.

zofran otc dosage 2015-06-01

Thirty-five subjects received ketorolac. Demographic data were similar. The incidence of vomiting during the postoperative period was 31% in the codeine-group and 40% in the ketorolac-group. Intraoperative blood losses was 1.3 +/- 0.8 ml. Duricef Capsules kg-1 after codeine and 2.2 +/- 1.9 ml.kg-1 after ketorolac (mean +/- SD) P < 0.05. Five ketorolac-treated patients had bleeding which led to unscheduled admission to hospital, P < 0.05, Exact Test.

zofran 32 mg 2017-10-20

To examine the economic impact of Viagra Recommended Dosage a home chemotherapy program (HCP) for pediatric oncology patients.

zofran generic otc 2017-06-20

Incidence of postoperative vomiting, time of vomitting onset, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were measured. Patients who were admitted were excluded from LOS analysis. The postoperative incidence of vomiting was 54% for patients receiving metoclopramide, 26% for patients receiving ondansetron, and 69% for the placebo group. These Luvox Usual Dosage differences were significant for ondansetron versus metoclopramide (p = 0.008) and placebo (p = 0.001). The mean (SD) LOS was significantly shorter for patients not vomiting 488 (88) minutes for vomiters versus 435 (65) minutes for non-vomiters.

zofran maximum dosing 2017-04-11

The overall incidence of nausea was 56.9% and of emesis was 19.4%. The incidence of PDNV was highest on the day of surgery (DOS), with PDNV of 44.8% and decreasing over time to 6.0% on day 7. Using the simplified risk score for PDNV the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.766 (0.707, 0.825). A previous history of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV; OR 3.51, CI 1.70 - 7.27), operating room time (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, 95 Valtrex Generic % CI 1.34 - 3.60), use of ondansetron in the Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU; OR 6.39, CI 1.65-24.79), and pain during days 3-7 (OR 1.67, CI 1.30 - 2.14) were the strongest predictors of PDNV on days 3-7.

zofran 1 mg 2016-07-26

Randomized, double-blind Missed Combivir Dose trial.

zofran dosage iv 2016-03-26

Patients were analyzed for the number of episodes of vomiting from the time of their emergence from anesthesia through the first 24 hours postoperatively, including the convalescent period at home. Patients were also analyzed for length of hospital stay. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding age, premedication time, surgery time, or discharge time. Droperidol and droperidol-metoclopramide were significantly more effective (p < 0.012) than either the metoclopramide group or the placebo group in preventing Plavix Drug Classification postoperative nausea and vomiting following strabismus surgery.

zofran daily dosage 2015-02-26

The incidence of PONV was lower for the H/O-Group (23 vs. 57% for the H-Group). Especially the incidence of vomiting was reduced for the Zanaflex Generic Name H/O-Group (7 vs. 27% in the H-Group). No significant differences could be detected regarding adverse events.

zofran drug class 2015-02-04

Ondansetron hydrochloride was subjected to forced degradation studies under various conditions of hydrolysis (acidic, basic, and neutral), oxidation, photolysis, and thermal as prescribed by International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q1A (R2). A simple, selective, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed on a Waters Xterra C18 (150 × 4.6 mm id, 3.5 μm) column using 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 3.0)/methanol as a mobile phase in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The method was extended to liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for identification and structural characterization of stress degradation products of ondansetron. The drug showed significant degradation in base hydrolytic and photolytic stress conditions in the liquid state, while it was found to be stable in neutral, acidic, thermal, and oxidative stress conditions. A total of five degradation products were characterized and most probable mechanisms for the formation of degradation products have been proposed on the basis of a comparison of the fragmentation of the [M + H](+) ions of the drug and its degradation products. Finally, the developed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness as per International Conference on Neurontin Recommended Dosage Harmonisation guideline Q2 (R1).

zofran vile dose 2016-03-24

The preventive efficacy of ramosetron when used for postoperative nausea and vomiting was similar to that of ondansetron Duloxetine Cymbalta Dose up to 48 hours after surgery in patients undergoing microvascular decompression with retromastoid craniotomy. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our findings.

zofran zydis dose 2016-11-24

In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized control trial, the authors investigated, with institutional review board approval and informed consent, 220 women undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery anesthetized with fentanyl, sevoflurane, and rocuronium. During anesthesia, neuromuscular blockade was monitored by a conventional nerve stimulator at a frequency of 1 Hz over the ulnar nerve (n = 110, control group) or over the median nerve (n = 110, P6 group) stimulating at the P6 acupuncture point at the same time. The authors evaluated the incidence of nausea and vomiting during Duricef Reviews the first 24 h.

zofran 6 mg 2015-06-18

When asked what kind of general anaesthesia they prefere in a woman at a very high risk to suffer PONV, the following answers were obtained: anaesthesia induction with propofol (78%), thiopentone (17%), etomidate (5%). Maintenance of anaesthesia with an inhalation anesthetic (44%) or with propofol (44%). The remaining 14% would use a combination of these techniques (6%) or neuroleptanaesthesia with droperidol (5%) or midazolam (1%). Only 10% of the respondants would omit nitrous oxide. There is no consensus about the optimal amount of intraoperative opioids. Fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil are rated to contribute equally to the occurence of PONV, whereas opioids used for postoperative analgesia are thought to have substantial differences: piritramid is rated to be much less emetogenic than tramadol and morphine. 70% advocate routine antiemetic prophylaxis for high-risk patients (most often mentioned risk factors were: female sex: 85%, obesity: 81%, high doses of intraoperative opioids: 72%) and 23% administrate antiemetics even for all patients. Ondansetron and droperidol are suggested to be superior to metoclopramide, triflupromazine, dimenhydrinate, and transdermal scopolamine. However, metoclopramide is the drug of first choice for more than 50% of the respondants followed by droperidol, whereas only 29% use ondansetron as a first line drug. An Crestor Go Generic unexpected high number of anaesthesiologists (13%) have experience with non-pharmacological methods for prophylaxis and treatment of PONV. Acupuncture/acupressure (10%) was most often mentioned.

zofran tabs 2015-01-21

Randomised controlled trials comparing antiemetics and/or placebo in children and adolescents, under the age of 18, with vomiting due to gastroenteritis.

zofran brand name 2015-11-26

The physiology, risk factors, and prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are discussed.

zofran 9 mg 2016-08-29

Despite great advances in modern medicine, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) continue to be a significant problem without a definitive cure. This article describes a prospective study conducted with 143 plastic surgery patients at a single institution between 1998 and 2000 to identify preoperative risk factors for PONV that may be specific to plastic surgery patients. In addition, a prophylactic regimen was identified that demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of PONV from the published incidence of 22% to 3%. The regimen includes the use of multiple antiemetic agents including ondansetron (Zofran) promethazine (Phenergan), and metoclopramide (Reglan), with the addition of dexamethasone (Decadron) in selected cases

zofran overdose 2017-11-15

To systematically review published literature on costs and utilization associated with CINV prophylaxis with palonosetron and other 5-HT3RAs.

zofran generic lawsuit 2016-11-30

The patients operated by residents need more aggressive prophylaxis for PONV than those operated by specialists in middle ear surgery.