zetia drug info
In 2004, ezetimibe represented 2.5% of cholesterol-lowering dispensations. In 2011, its use increased to 8.8% of cholesterol-lowering dispensations and 13.2% of the total cost of cholesterol-lowering agents. Overall, ezetimibe was used as first-line monotherapy in 23% of all new users (4024 of 17,475 patients). Approximately half of all cases of first-line monotherapy were prescribed by 10.4% (112 of 1074) of prescribers in the cohort. Patients who had experienced previous acute coronary syndrome or who had undergone coronary revascularization procedures were significantly less likely to receive first-line monotherapy.
zetia brand name
Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear.
zetia generic availability
Three months of ezetimibe treatment significantly decreased the total cholesterol (TC) (-10.1%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (-12.0%) (p < 0.001) and triglyceride (Tg) (-8%) levels (p < 0.05). After 6 and 12 months of treatment reduction in TC, LDL-C and Tg levels were even more pronounced. The genotype distribution of the patients were 2/2: 4.8%, 2/3: 7.9%, 3/3: 68.3%, 3/4: 19.0%. There were no patients with 2/4 and 4/4 genotypes. In patients with 2/3, 3/3 or 3/4 genotype, the ezetimibe treatment tended to be more effective on TC and LDL-C levels than in the 2/2 group, and the efficacy of ezetimibe on Tg levels were slightly better in 2/2 carriers compared to other patients.
A total of 614 patients were randomized and administered doses. Evolocumab treatment reduced LDL-C from baseline, on average, by 55% to 57% more than placebo and 38% to 40% more than ezetimibe (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Evolocumab treatment also favorably altered other lipoprotein levels. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), muscle-related AEs, and laboratory abnormalities were comparable across treatment groups.
zetia 10mg tab
Phytosterolemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dramatically elevated circulating levels of plant sterols (PS). Phytosterolemia is believed to be responsible for severe premature atherosclerosis. The clinical, biological and molecular genetic features of 5 patients with phytosterolemia and transient severe hypercholesterolemia challenge this hypothesis.
zetia generic release
Niacin has been reported to lower apoB and Lp(a) and to raise apoA-1.
New approaches to lipid lowering include new uses of proven treatments and development of novel agents. Several large-scale clinical trials are assessing whether additional reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin therapy results in additional benefit in coronary artery disease prevention. Statins with increased LDL-C-lowering potency, such as the new statin rosuvastatin (formerly known as ZD4522), have been developed and are in advanced-phase clinical trials. New cholesterol transport inhibitors, such as ezetimibe, have been found to produce significant reductions in intestinal cholesterol absorption, and new bile acid transport inhibitors are in development. Inhibitors of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase, which can reduce cholesterol storage in macrophages and thereby in arterial lesions, have also been developed, with the agent avasimibe currently being evaluated in phase 2/3 trials. Combination approaches hold considerable promise, including combined use of statins with fibrates, niacin, and the new sterol absorption inhibitors.
zetia 20 mg
Recent guidelines recommend strict goals for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (70-100 mg/dL; 1.8-2.6 mmol/L). These goals were set following the publication of several trials. In the current issue of the journal, a study compares different doses of the combination tablet (ezetimibe/simvastatin) with statin monotherapy (rosuvastatin). In keeping with previous literature, the combination therapy was more effective in achieving LDL-C goals. This editorial comments on the potential disadvantages of using monotherapy with high-dose statins and considers the issue of statin-induced proteinuria. Combination therapy may need to be increasingly used to achieve the LDL-C targets set by recent guidelines.
zetia generic glenmark
A glucuronide of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor was synthesized on a 200-mg scale in one step via bovine liver glucuronyltransferase-catalyzed coupling of the glucuronyl moiety of UDP-glucuronic acid with the phenolic hydroxyl of Sch 58235. It was shown that the product yield is limited by the hydrolysis of UDP-glucuronic acid by impurities present in the commercial microsomal preparation of the transferase. This detrimental effect of UDPGluA hydrolysis could be diminished by the presence of high concentration of glucuronlytransferase. Optimization of reaction conditions and purification procedure resulted in a process that proceeded with 95% conversion and 88% isolated product yield. The 13C6-glucuronide of Sch 58235 was prepared with the help of a cascade of eight enzymes operating concurrently in one pot.
zetia brand coupon
A considerable number of patients with severely elevated LDL-C do not achieve recommended treatment targets, despite treatment with statins. Adults at high cardiovascular risk with hypercholesterolemia and LDL-C ≥ 2.59 and ≤ 4.14 mmol/L (N = 250), pretreated with atorvastatin 20 mg were randomized to ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg or atorvastatin 40 mg for 6 weeks. The percent change in LDL-C and other lipids was assessed using a constrained longitudinal data analysis method with terms for treatment, time, time-by-treatment interaction, stratum, and time-by-stratum interaction. Percentage of subjects achieving LDL-C < 1.81 mmol/L, < 2.00 mmol/L, or < 2.59 mmol/L was assessed using a logistic regression model with terms for treatment and stratum. Tolerability was assessed.
zetia 4 mg
In aortic valve stenosis (AS), having a small aortic root may influence both the assessment of AS severity and the treatment strategy. The aim was to test the prognostic implications of having a small aortic root in AS within a large prospective study.
zetia medication coupon
1418 patients with mild-moderate, asymptomatic AS in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study were followed for a mean of 43±14 months during randomized, placebo-controlled treatment with combined simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg daily. High global LV load was defined as Zva >5 mm Hg/ml/m2. The impact of baseline global LV load on rate of major cardiovascular (CV) events, aortic valve events and total mortality was assessed in Cox regression models reporting hazard ratio (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI).
zetia max dose
Retrospective studies have suggested a beneficial effect of lipid-lowering treatment on the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in milder stages of the disease. In the randomized, placebo-controlled Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, 4.3 years of combined treatment with simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg did not reduce aortic valve events (AVEs), while ischemic cardiovascular events (ICEs) were significantly reduced in the overall study population. However, the impact of baseline AS severity on treatment effect has not been reported. Baseline and outcomes data in 1,763 SEAS patients (mean age 67 years, 39% women) were used. The study population was divided into tertiles of baseline peak aortic jet velocity (tertile 1: ≤ 2.8 m/s; tertile 2: > 2.8 to 3.3 m/s; tertile 3: > 3.3 m/s). Treatment effect and interaction were tested in Cox regression analyses. The rates of AVEs and ICEs increased with increasing baseline severity of AS. In Cox regression analyses, higher baseline peak aortic jet velocity predicted higher rates of AVEs and ICEs in all tertiles (all p values < 0.05) and in the total study population (p < 0.001). Simvastatin-ezetimibe treatment was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in AVEs in any individual tertile. A significant quantitative interaction between the severity of AS and simvastatin-ezetimibe treatment effect was demonstrated for ICEs (p < 0.05) but not for AVEs (p = 0.10). In conclusion, the SEAS study results demonstrate a strong relation between baseline the severity of AS and the rate of cardiovascular events but no significant effect of lipid-lowering treatment on AVEs, even in the group with the mildest AS.
In this retrospective, observational study, patients with CHD/CHD risk equivalent on statin therapy were identified during 2004 to 2008 in a US managed care database. Prescribing patterns and effect of switching from statin monotherapy to combination ezetimibe/simvastatin therapy vs uptitration to higher statin dose/potency level and no change from initial statin potency on LDL-C lowering were assessed. Percentage of change from baseline in LDL-C levels and odds ratios for LDL-C goal attainment were estimated with analyses of covariance and logistic regression.
zetia 10 mg
Cholesterol homeostasis is achieved by balancing rates of endogenous synthesis, absorption, and elimination. Although biliary secretion into the intestinal lumen is classically considered as the only significant route for cholesterol elimination, Jakulj et al. (2016) reveal in this issue how transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) accounts for substantial cholesterol losses.
zetia medication reviews
Ezetimibe glucuronide inhibited bromosulfophthalein uptake in all OATP-transfected cells (50% inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.14-0.26 mumol/l) whereas ezetimibe was 30-100 times less potent. Only the glucuronide was accumulated significantly in cells expressing OATP1B1 and OATP2B1. Its uptake in cells expressing OATP1B1*1b and *5 was reduced. In-vivo studies showed there was a gene-dose-dependent decrease in the area under the curve of ezetimibe in participants with the OATP1B1*1b protein (*1a/*1a, N=12, 112+/-66 ngxh/ml vs. *1a/*1b, N=8, 88+/-39 ngxh/ml vs. *1b/*1b, N=5, 55+/-18 ngxh/ml; Jonkheere-Terpstra, P=0.041) and a tendency for increased glucuronide exposure (704+/-296 vs. 878+/-369 vs. 1059+/-363 ngxh/ml; P=0.092). Fecal ezetimibe excretion was significantly decreased whereas renal glucuronide excretion was increased in carriers of *1b/*1b. Fecal excretion was also diminished in carriers of OATP1B1*5 and *15. The sterol-lowering effect of ezetimibe was not influenced by OATP1B1 polymorphisms.
A total of 877 subjects were eligible and followed-up for a median of 7 years. There were no differences between statins regarding diabetes development. However, a higher risk of incident diabetes was observed in prediabetic individuals receiving high-intensity statin therapy compared with those on moderate intensity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-4.24, P < .05) and those not taking a statin (adjusted OR = 4.90; 95% CI = 1.16-20.66, P < .05). The addition of ezetimibe to statin treatment did not increase the risk of incident diabetes in prediabetic individuals (adjusted OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.36-2.22, P > .05). Baseline fasting glucose, presence of metabolic syndrome, family history of diabetes, and follow-up duration were independent predictors of new-onset diabetes.
zetia drug interactions
This post-hoc analysis compared the lipid-altering efficacy of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin 10/20 mg (EZ/Simva) versus Rosuvastatin 10 mg (Rosuva) in patients stratified by statin potency/dose prior to randomization.
zetia drug information
Statins prevent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is little information regarding the vascular effects of statins on arterial wall stiffness in CAD patients.
zetia prices usa
More patients switched from ezetimibe/simvastatin and ezetimibe plus statin to statin monotherapy 6 months after the reporting of the ENHANCE trial, the majority of which were prescribed less potent, LDL-C-lowering therapies. On the basis of the known LDL-C lowering efficacies for these therapies, such changes would be expected to increase LDL-C levels in these patients and may reduce the proportion of patients who achieve guideline-recommended LDL-C goals.
zetia cholesterol medicine
Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a multi-transmembrane transport protein highly expressed in the small intestine. It mediates sterol transfer throughout the brush border membrane of enterocytes, becoming essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption and ensuing whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. This protein is targeted by ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NPC1L1 have been associated to variation in both plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering medication with ezetimibe. However, there are no data evaluating the impact of NPC1L1 variants on Chilean subjects medicated with ezetimibe monotherapy. Therefore, we assessed the contribution of two unexplored NPC1L1 variants on plasma lipids and response to ezetimibe in Chilean hypercholesterolemic individuals.
zetia generic cost
Hypothyroid patients taking sevelamer hydrochloride or chromium picolinate should be advised to separate the time of ingestion of these drugs from their thyroid hormone preparation by several hours.
zetia replacement drug
Two open-label, prospective, non-randomised, observational studies (study 1 with n = 19 194 patients, predominantly with CHD; study 2 with n = 19 484 patients, predominantly with DM). Patients received--almost all after statin pre-treatment--ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 10 mg (study 1: 15%, study 2: 16%), 20 mg (in 68% each), 40 mg (12%/10%) or 80 mg (1%/1%) as fixed dose combinations over 3 months (dosage at investigator's discretion).
zetia generic alternative
We compared the effect of statin therapy (either alone or combined with ezetimibe) on the inhibition of cholesterol resorption and endothelial function by measuring forearm blood flow in male patients with the metabolic syndrome. Compared to 40 mg atorvastatin alone, combination therapy with 10 mg ezetimibe and 10 mg atorvastatin for 8 weeks resulted in significantly decreased total serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels (n = 14). Endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation was significantly better with combination therapy (p < 0.05). In contrast, endothelium-independent forearm blood flow response to sodium nitroprusside was comparable in both groups. Our data suggest a more effective restoration of endothelial function with the statin/ezetimibe combination compared to statin monotherapy in patients with the metabolic syndrome.
zetia medication guide
Residual lipid risk has been defined as the excess of cardiovascular events observed in patients with adequate control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and has been mainly attributed to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical features and the magnitude and characteristics associated with residual lipid risk in patients with a history of coronary revascularization.