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we conclude that oral analgesics are effective for pain relief following endoscopic urological surgery. Pipemidic acid was found to have a superior analgesic effect than phenazopyridine HCl and sodium diclofenac.
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To evaluate the efficacy of the selective alpha-blocker tamsulosin on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) of renal stones.
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These data suggest that factors other than evidence-based medicine have a dominant effect on the use of NSAIDs in Serbia. Targeted education from independent sources in the prescribing, dispensing, and use of drugs is important to improve the quality of the prescribing behavior and the use of NSAIDs.
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The effects of opiate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents on the in vitro canine ureter were compared using a new model for the assessment of ureteric pharmacology. A pressure measuring catheter attached to a pressure transducer and pre-calibrated pen recorder was ligated into the lumen of 2.5 cm segments of normal canine ureter. The segments were immersed in an organ bath at physiological pH and temperature and spontaneous contractility was observed in 90% of them. Morphine had a spasmogenic effect on ureteric activity which was unaffected by naloxone. This effect was similar to that of histamine and prostaglandin F2 alpha and was abolished by chlorpheniramine but not by cimetidine. Pethidine produced a transient stimulation followed by inhibition of ureteric activity which was unaffected by naloxone. Both indomethacin and diclofenac produced an abrupt inhibition which was reversible with prostaglandin F2 alpha. These data suggest that pethidine or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent may by virtue of their spasmolytic effects be a superior choice of therapy for the acutely obstructed ureter.
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To determine whether tenidap regulates extracellular matrix metabolism in chronic arthritis.
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The use of intravenous low-dose ketamine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery was associated with longer postoperative analgesia and lower early postoperative analgesia consumption than bupivacaine alone.
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Data are reported on toxicity of a majority of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAD), which are the most frequently used in clinical practice and whose chemical structures are different. The action mechanism and side effects of some NSAD, in particular, of diclofenac, ibuprofen and indometacin, are also in the focus of attention.
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Effects of amlodipine, lacidipine and nicardipine on acute phase of inflammation in the carregeenan model in intact rats were investigated in this study. In addition, the most effective dose of nicardipine that had the highest anti-inflammatory impact was investigated in carregeenan test in adrenalectomized rats. The effective dose of nicardipine was tested in the chronic phase of inflammation in the model of cotton pellet granuloma, and its efficiency was compared with diclofenac sodium. Amlodipine at 5 and 10 mg/kg doses showed 61%, 80%, lacidipine 73%, 34% and nicardipine 38%, 87% inhibition of carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. Nicardipine (10 mg/kg) and diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg) showed 11.6% and 16.2% inhibition, respectively against carrageenan-induced edema. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg showed 43% inhibition of the inflammation. In cotton pellet test, antiproliferative effects of nicardipine (10 mg/kg) and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg) were evaluated as 60% and 39.5%, respectively. The obtained results showed that calcium channel blockers and diclofenac sodium significantly blocked acute and chronic phases of inflammation in intact rats, but in adrenalectomized rats calcium channel blockers and diclofenac sodium had no significant antiinflammatory effect.
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We report the case of a 72-old patient with persistent neutropenia diagnosed during investigation of sialadenitis. Further examination led to the diagnosis of immune neutropenia and systemic lupus erythematosus. Anamnesis and the clinical course made initial diagnosis of drug-induced lupus erythematosus implausible. Steroid trial was done, followed by maintenance therapy, with good control of symptoms.
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Ninety-five homeopathy and conventional medical practices in Germany.
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Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multiple applications of S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP), a novel Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch, for the alleviation of inflammatory pain and edema in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model as compared to other NSAID patches. The AIA model was induced by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum and rats were treated with a patch (1.0 cm × 0.88 cm) containing each NSAID (SFP, ketoprofen, loxoprofen, diclofenac, felbinac, flurbiprofen, or indomethacin) applied to the paw for 6 h per day for 5 days. The pain threshold was evaluated using a flexion test of the ankle joint, and the inflamed paw edema was evaluated using a plethysmometer. cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition was evaluated using human recombinant proteins. Multiple applications of SFPP exerted a significant analgesic effect from the first day of application as compared to the other NSAID patches. In terms of paw edema, SFPP decreased edema from the second day after application, Multiple applications of SFPP were superior to those of other NSAID patches, in terms of the analgesic effect with multiple applications. These results suggest that SFPP may be a beneficial patch for providing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects clinically. Drug Dev Res 77 : 206-211, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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siRNA against the POR gene was delivered using lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) into rats. The time course of POR mRNA knockdown, POR protein knockdown, and loss of POR enzyme activity was monitored. The rat livers were harvested to produce microsomes to determine the impact of POR knockdown on the metabolism of several probe substrates. Midazolam (a CYP3A substrate with high intrinsic clearance) was administered into LNP-treated rats to determine the impact of POR knockdown on midazolam pharmacokinetics.
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We monitored the laser-Doppler (LD) response in 14 healthy male volunteers on the skin of the forearm. In the case of endothelium dependent vasodilatation [acetylcholine (ACh) induced], a saline solution (used as control) or a solution of glibenclamide (K(ATP) channel blocker) were randomly injected each into a distinct measurement site on different forearms followed by the iontophoresis of ACh. In the case of endothelium dependent vasodilatation with the inhibition of prostaglandin production, diclofenac (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or the combination of diclofenac and glibenclamide were randomly injected each into a distinct measurement site on different forearms followed by the iontophoresis of ACh. In the case of endothelium independent vasodilatation [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced], a saline solution or glibenclamide were randomly injected each into a distinct measurement site on different forearms, iontophoresis of SNP followed.
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Minimally invasive glucose biosensors with increased functional longevity form one of the most promising techniques for continuous glucose monitoring. In the present study, we developed a novel nanoengineered microsphere formulation comprising alginate microsphere glucose sensors and anti-inflammatory-drug-loaded alginate microspheres.
PRP extracts were found to inhibit the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE(2), reduce the expressions of COX-2 at the mRNA and protein levels induced by LPS, and reduced the production of LTB₄ induced by A23187. Furthermore, PRP extracts significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB-DNA-binding activity.
Hospitalization for PUBP was highest from the date of NSAID/COX-2 dispensing through the end of an exposure period that corresponded to the days supply; the rate dropped steadily thereafter. The covariate-adjusted ORs by comparison to naproxen were: ibuprofen 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68, 1.09), rofecoxib 0.79 (0.62, 1.02), diclofenac 0.66 (0.47, 0.94), valdecoxib 0.50 (0.26, 0.97), and celecoxib 0.45 (0.35, 0.58). The nonselective NSAIDs had an OR for PUBP of 1.51 (1.26, 1.98) compared to the selective COX-2 inhibitors.
We consider topical diclofenac therapy as a useful alternative treatment for DD patients, in which previous therapies have not shown efficacy. We did not observed topical adverse effects, neither systemic absorption symptoms, but werecognized further and larger studies are needed to asses the efficacy and safety of this treatment in DD.
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Flurbiprofen appeared to be the most effective NSAID for the treatment of pain, even at 24 hours after surgery when pain was at a maximum.
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Idiopathic, acute and clinically relevant liver injury, which has the use of drugs as the most probable aetiology, is a rare event in the general population. The relative risks of 40 drugs/therapeutic classes are provided, along with the crude incidence rates for 15 of them where a statistical association was found.
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At the end of gynecologic laparoscopy, in a double-blind, randomized manner, one of the following injections was given intraperitoneally. Patients were allocated into three groups: Patients in R Group (n=18) were given 0.75% ropivacaine 3 mg/kg in 200 mL saline; patients in RM Group (n=17) were given meperidine 50 mg plus 0.75% ropivacaine 3 mg/kg in 200 mL saline; patients in C Group (n=18) were given 200 mL saline through the trocars. All patients were given diclofenac sodium when they had pain (VAS 3) and 1 mg/kg meperidine i.v. was also given when pain persisted.
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To assess the relative bioavailability of a new subcutaneous (SC) diclofenac hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin (HPbCD) formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen.
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We investigated the effects of diclofenac sodium and indomethacin on the proliferation of and collagen synthesis by lens epithelial cells (LECs) of human cataracts in culture. The anterior capsule with attached LECs, obtained by anterior capsulotomy during cataract surgery, was cultured directly without cell dispersion. When the culture became almost confluent, diclofenac sodium or indomethacin at various concentrations was added to the incubation medium. The incorporation of 3H-thymidine and 3H-proline into the LECs was measured after the cells were labeled with these radioactive materials. Both drugs greatly suppressed the incorporation of 3H-thymidine and of 3H-proline, indicating that they inhibit cell division and collagen synthesis by LECs. Both drugs may help prevent posterior capsule opacification.
A 31-yr-old parturient with myotonic dystrophy and asthma presented for elective Caesarean section. The patient was receiving warfarin having had two previous episodes of thromboembolism. Anticoagulation was subsequently provided by heparin in the weeks prior to delivery. The combination of the patient's medical conditions and the continuing need for anticoagulation presented a considerable anaesthetic problem in planning anaesthesia and analgesia for both elective and emergency delivery. Heparin was discontinued on the day prior to surgery and restarted immediately after surgery. During surgery flowtron anti-embolitic boots were used. Warfarin therapy was recommenced on the seventh postoperative day. Anaesthesia for Caesarean section was provided using a combined spinal epidural technique using a separate needle, separate interspace method. Postoperative pain was relieved by using a continuous epidural infusion, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and diclofenac. No new neurological problems arose despite the use of epidural analgesia in the presence of heparin anticoagulation. This method of providing anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia without the use of opioids in an anticoagulated, asthmatic, myotonic parturient has not been described elsewhere.
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A novel absorbable hydrophilic copolyester developed in our laboratory, amorphous 40/60 poly(ethylene diglycolate-co-glycolide), exhibits outstanding physical properties. Films made from this material appear fully transparent, colorless, soft and slightly elastic, but relatively strong and durable materials so that they can be potentially used as stand-alone devices in various in-vivo medical applications. In this study, in-vitro drug release characteristics of this copolyester were examined.
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The occurrence of 73 representative pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) was assessed in a sewage-impacted section of the Llobregat River (NE Catalonia, Spain). This Mediterranean river is characterized by flow rate fluctuations strongly influenced by seasonal rainfall. River flow variations increase the potential environmental risk posed by organic micro-pollutants as their concentrations may increase substantially under low flow conditions. Little is known about the transport behavior of emerging contaminants in surface waters once they are discharged from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) into rivers. This research aimed to study the presence and fate of emerging contaminants under different hydrological conditions by sampling two different sites along the river in different seasons. The highest levels of pharmaceuticals were determined during cold and dry periods. The impact of the flow changes on the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the river was assessed with the relative sensitive coefficients. Due to expected dilution effects, the response of pharmaceuticals to river flow was negative. Only in a few cases, positive relationships between drug concentrations and flow were detected, suggesting an important role of other hydrological phenomena like sediment re-suspension as well as the source of pollutants. To evaluate the role of other factors influencing PhAC concentrations, a plug-flow model was applied to obtain disappearance constants "k" for a set of selected compounds. Erythromycin presented k values of -0.15 h(-1) in both sites being the compound more efficiently removed from the water column. The k values for ibuprofen, furosemide, enrofloxacin, enalapril, acetaminophen, diclofenac and Ketoprofen were between -0.04 and -0.10 h(-1) showing less disappearance than erythromycin in the water column. However, other compounds presented k values<0.06, which suggested conservative behavior of these compounds in the water column. This study supports the reliability of the calculated k values for the disappearance of compounds in river waters.
All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel.
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The effects of human urotensin II on coronary flow were studied in the perfused rat heart. Urotensin II transiently decreased coronary flow, then induced sustained vasodilatation. In the presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, diclofenac, coronary vasodilatation was significantly inhibited. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), attenuated the urotensin-induced vasodilatation. These data suggest that urotensin II modulates coronary flow through factors such as cyclooxygenase products and nitric oxide to elicit coronary vasodilatation.
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In clinical studies, imiquimod 3.75% was shown to detect and treat actinic keratosis (AK) lesions across an entire sun-exposed field such as the full face or balding scalp. The aim of this study was to evaluate imiquimod 3.75% in a real-life clinical setting.