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Vasotec (Enalapril)

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Vasotec is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure. Vasotec can be also helpful for patients after heart attack. Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Enalapril.


Vasotec is created by pharmacy specialists to combat not also diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure but it can be helpful for patients after heart attack.

Target of Vasotec is to control and decrease level of blood pressure.

Vasotec is also known as Enalapril, Renitec, BQL, Benalipril, Amprace, Alphapril, Converten, Enalagamma, Enatec, Envas, Invoril, Xanef.

Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Vasotec can be used in combination with medicines for heart failure treatment.

Vasotec is ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor.

Generic name of Vasotec is Enalapril.

Brand name of Vasotec is Vasotec.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Vasotec once or twice a day at the same time with meals or without it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.


If you overdose Vasotec and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Vasotec overdosage: fainting, dizziness.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Vasotec are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Vasotec if you are allergic to Vasotec components.

Be very careful with Vasotec if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of having angioedema, throat, heart disease, diabetes, hands, kidney disease, lower legs, lupus, scleroderma.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of taking diuretics; aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) as indomethacin (Indocin); potassium supplements; lithium (such as Eskalith, Lithobid).

Nimotop can be not safety for elderly people.

Avoid dehydration.

Be careful with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.

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A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) capable of measuring either lisinopril (1-[N2-[(S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-lysyl] -L-proline) or enalaprilat (1-[N-[(S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-alanyl] -L-proline), the active metabolite of enalapril has been developed. A suitable antiserum was raised against an immunogen prepared from conjugation of lisinopril, the lysyl analogue of enalapril, with succinoylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. A novel radiotracer was also prepared for use in the assay by acylation of the epsilon amine group on the lysyl side chain of lisinopril with N-succinimidyl [2,3-3H]propionate. The antiserum was used at a final dilution of 1:44,500 and the sensitivity of the assay for enalaprilat was estimated at 2 pmol/mL plasma sample and 0.4 pmol/mL for lisinopril. Enalapril, the ethyl ester of enalaprilat, exhibited little cross-reactivity (0.005%), and several other compounds (captopril, proline, lysine, tyrosine, hippuric acid, and tryptophan) were found not to crossreact. In rabbits given a 2.03 mumol/kg iv dose of enalapril, plasma concentrations of enalaprilat were determined by the RIA technique and compared with an estimation of the enalaprilat concentrations derived from the extent of inhibition of plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The plasma levels estimated by ACE inhibition were less than those obtained by the RIA in the first 45 min but were always greater in the samples taken after this time. Both assay methods showed that the conversion of enalapril to enalaprilat was rapid, and also indicated that there was initial rapid clearance of enalaprilat from the plasma.

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The human angiontensin-converting enzyme I (hACEI) is a zinc metalloproteinase that hydrolytically cleaves a C-terminal dipeptide from a wide range of peptide substrates, and it plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. MD simulations and interaction energy calculations for docking and crystal structures were performed to investigate the correct conformation of the ACE with enalaprilat and nanopepetide. The analysis of root-mean-squrared fluctuation (RMSF), which is usually applied to measure the mobility and flexibility of the proteins, and dynamic correlation of residues show that the fluctuation pattern of the each two structure of the same ligand is almost the same mode. Hydrogen bond analysis shows that the correct crystal conformation is more stable than a wrong docking conformation. In addition, we are demonstrating that calculating interaction energy between protein and its ligands is an accurate and efficient way to select the correct conformation from docking conformations.

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A novel human zinc metalloprotease that has considerable homology to human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (40% identity and 61% similarity) has been identified. This metalloprotease (angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog (ACEH)) contains a single HEXXH zinc-binding domain and conserves other critical residues typical of the ACE family. The predicted protein sequence consists of 805 amino acids, including a potential 17-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide sequence and a putative C-terminal membrane anchor. Expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of a soluble, truncated form of ACEH, lacking the transmembrane and cytosolic domains, produces a glycoprotein of 120 kDa, which is able to cleave angiotensin I and angiotensin II but not bradykinin or Hip-His-Leu. In the hydrolysis of the angiotensins, ACEH functions exclusively as a carboxypeptidase. ACEH activity is inhibited by EDTA but not by classical ACE inhibitors such as captopril, lisinopril, or enalaprilat. Identification of the genomic sequence of ACEH has shown that the ACEH gene contains 18 exons, of which several have considerable size similarity with the first 17 exons of human ACE. The gene maps to chromosomal location Xp22. Northern blotting analysis has shown that the ACEH mRNA transcript is approximately 3. 4 kilobase pairs and is most highly expressed in testis, kidney, and heart. This is the first report of a mammalian homolog of ACE and has implications for our understanding of cardiovascular and renal function.

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To investigate the potential modulating influence of angiotensin II (ANG II) on sympathetic activity in response to changes in baroreflex activity, renal and total norepinephrine (NE) spillover rates were examined during sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE) infusions in four groups of conscious rabbits: 1) saline (control); 2) subpressor ANG II (ANG II, 2; 3) enalaprilat (MK-422, 200 micrograms/kg and 3.3; and 4) MK plus ANG II (MK+ANG II). Upper plateaus of baroreflex-NE spillover curves for renal and total NE spillover were reduced in the MK group (25 and 81 ng/min) compared with control (38 and 125 ng/min) and MK+ANG II (37 and 155 ng/min). To investigate the interaction of ANG II and sympathetic activity during treadmill exercise, hindlimb NE spillover rate was examined in three groups of rabbits: 1) control, 2) MK, and 3) MK+ANG II. Exercise at 6 and 12 m/min produced similar effort-related hemodynamic responses in the three groups. At maximal exercise, hindlimb NE spillover was reduced in the MK group (29 +/- 3 ng/min) compared with control (62 +/- 17 ng/min, P < 0.05) and MK+ANG II group (51 +/- 10 ng/min). It is concluded that endogenous ANG II enhances sympathetic activity during pharmacological (baroreflex) and physiological stimulation.

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may affect reactive oxygen species in humans in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we evaluated whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may affect NAD(P)H oxidase activity.

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The effect of rapid converting enzyme inhibition (CEI) with intravenous enalaprilat on technetium-99m-(99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renograms was evaluated in rats with two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension. Rapid sequential DTPA renograms, performed immediately before and five minutes after enalaprilat injection (30 micrograms/kg), demonstrated a selective decrease in clipped kidney DTPA plasma clearance following CEI and no significant effect on unclipped kidney function. Pre- and post-CEI data were obtained with a single injection of DMSA by administering enalaprilat five minutes after the radiopharmaceutical. Enalaprilat slowed the rate of DMSA accumulation in clipped relative to unclipped kidneys, and reduced the clipped/unclipped kidney ratio of absolute DMSA uptake at 10 and 30 min. DTPA and DMSA were equally effective in demonstrating the CEI effect. Enalaprilat was also compared with captopril (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), using sequential DTPA renograms. Clipped kidney DTPA plasma clearance was reduced to an identical degree (40%) by both converting enzyme inhibitors. Clinical renographic protocols can probably be devised to take advantage of the rapid, reliable CEI of enalaprilat, thereby shortening total procedure time.

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In study 1, there were no effects of angiotensin II on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, norepinephrine clearance or norepinephrine spillover compared with the vehicle control when the patient was in the supine position. Mean arterial pressure increased from 85 +/- 13 to 95 +/- 10 mm Hg with angiotensin II. During upright tilt, plasma norepinephrine and norepinephrine spillover increased comparably with angiotensin II and the vehicle control. During head-down tilt, plasma norepinephrine decreased with both angiotensin II and the vehicle control. Norepinephrine spillover remained elevated relative to control values on both study days during head-down tilt. In study 2, both enalaprilat and vehicle control administration were associated with a slight decrease in mean arterial pressure (5 +/- 2 vs. 3 +/- 4 mm Hg, p = NS), but no changes were seen in plasma norepinephrine. Norepinephrine clearance and spillover decreased comparably with time after both enalaprilat and vehicle control.

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Studies in the once-through perfused rat liver with the simultaneous delivery of 14 C-enalapril and its polar diacid metabolite, 3H-enalaprilat, revealed different extents of elimination (exclusively by biliary excretion) for the generated (14C-enalaprilat) and preformed (3H-enalaprilat) metabolite (18 and 5% dose) [Pang, Cherry, Terrell, and Ulm: Drug Metab. Dispos. 12, 309-313 (1984)]. The present re-examination of data provided an explanation for these discrepant observations: enalaprilat, being a polar dicarboxylic acid, encounters more of a diffusional barrier than its precursor, enalapril, an ethyl ester of enalaprilat. Programs written in Fortran 77 on mass balance relationships were employed to simulate data upon varying the diffusional clearances for drug (CLd) and metabolite [CLd(mi)] from 1 to 5000 ml/min. The metabolic and biliary intrinsic clearances for drug and metabolite were found by trial and error such that the combinations of all clearance parameters yielded data similar to enalaprilat, and 3H-enalaprilat. Our finding indicated that the diffusional clearance for enalaprilat was low (2 ml/min) compared to that of enalapril (75 ml/min). The presence of a diffusional barrier for enalaprilat retards entry of the preformed metabolite into hepatocytes but prevents efflux of the intracellularly formed generated metabolite into sinusoidal blood, thereby enhancing generated metabolite elimination.

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We analyzed 16 patients with no structural heart disease referred for electrophysiologic study due to supraventricular tachycardia. During the control period, right and left atrial effective refractory periods (ERP) were determined before and after a 10-minute period of rapid atrial pacing (250 ms) to quantitatively assess pacing-induced shortening of the ERP. After full recovery, a bolus dose of enalaprilat (0.015 mg/kg) was infused and the measurement and stimulation procedure repeated to quantify remodeling after enalaprilat administration.

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Recent clinical studies suggest a potential antiarrhythmic role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing atrial fibrillation. Studies in an animal model suggested that these drugs may prevent sustained atrial fibrillation by avoiding the occurrence of detrimental atrial electrical remodeling secondary to temporary episodes of fibrillation or atrial tachycardia. We sought to determine whether intravenous enalaprilat, administered at doses habitually used in clinical practice, prevented pacing-induced acute atrial remodeling.

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Cocaine, like catecholamines or angiotensin II, may induce lethal cardiac or cerebral damage. Restrained rats were fitted with a caudal arterial catheter for on-line cardiovascular monitoring and antidote administration. They were given 60 mg/kg of cocaine i.p., a dose which produces behavioral and cardiovascular effects, convulsions and death in an average time of 10 min. Selected antidotes were administered 5 min after the lethal dose of cocaine. Incidence of lethality was not changed by propranolol, prazosin, labetalol, diazepam or enalaprilat, a converting enzyme inhibitor. Animals treated with any one of the following agents, alpha- or beta-blockers, diazepam or competitive inhibitors of angiotensin II [Sar-1-ile-8] and [Sar-1-thr-8] angiotensin II, presented myocardial infarction. All animals treated with calcium channel antagonists or enalaprilat, whether they survived or not, did not present myocardial infarction. Treatment with nitrendipine, flunarizine or diltiazem, resulted in survival of the animals with no observable aftereffects. Similar results were observed when enalaprilat was administered, with diazepam as an antidote, to a lethal dose of cocaine. Antagonists to the sympatho-adrenal system and to the renin angiotensin system appear to be effective antidotes to cocaine toxicity in the present experimental model.

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Zofenopril calcium (CAS 81938-43-4) is a new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which in addition to the typical activity of the class, proved to possess a specific cardioprotective effect due also to the presence of the sulfhydryl group. In this trial zofenopril calcium and enalapril maleate (CAS 76095-16-4) were given to 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes in repeated dose regiment at two dose levels: 30 mg and 60 mg zofenopril calcium and 10 mg and 20 mg enalapril maleate. The study was conducted according to a two-period, two-sequence, crossover design, with washout. ACE activity in serum and zofenopril, zofenoprilat, enalapril and enalaprilat plasma concentrations were determined during and on the last day of the two study periods. Both zofenopril and enalapril were extensively converted through hydrolysis to their active metabolites zofenoprilat and enalaprilat, respectively. Zofenopril exhibited a complete and a more rapid hydrolysis rate compared to enalapril, which is reflected by the higher metabolite to parent drug ratio of Cmax and AUCss, tau showed by this compound. Even though only two dose levels were investigated in this trial, the pharmacokinetics of both drugs seem to be linear. In line with previous trials, both compounds at both dose levels investigated produced complete or almost complete inhibition of ACE activity in serum, for a period lasting 6-8 h after administration, the inhibition being still relevant 24 h thereafter. The tolerability of the two drugs at both dose levels proved to be very good as demonstrated by subjective and objective symptoms, by the absence of relevant adverse events, and by laboratory biochemical parameters and vital signs evaluated before and after the trial. Blood pressure showed a fairly decreasing trend with both the drugs, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values being however within normal range in all the subjects. In no case symptoms of hypotension were experienced. In conclusion, zofenopril calcium and enalapril maleate show very good tolerability and appear to exert similar activity on serum ACE. The main difference in the pharmacokinetics of the two compounds is the conversion from pro-drug to the active metabolite which is faster with zofenopril.

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The clinical utility of cyclosporin A (CyA) as an immunosuppressive agent has been significantly limited by the frequent occurrence of chronic nephrotoxicity, characterised by tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and progressive renal impairment. The pathogenesis of this condition remains poorly understood, but has been postulated to be due to either direct cytotoxicity or indirect injury secondary to chronic renal vasoconstriction. Using primary cultures of human proximal tubule cells (PTCs) and renal cortical fibroblasts (CFs) as an in vitro model of the tubulointerstitium, we have been able to demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of CyA are directly toxic to these cells and promote fibrogenesis by a combination of suppressed matrix metalloproteinase activity and augmented fibroblast collagen synthesis. The latter effect occurs secondary to the ability of CyA to stimulate autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I by CFs and paracrine secretion of transforming growth factor-beta(1) by PTCs. Many of these pro-fibrotic mechanisms are completely reversed by concurrent administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, which has proven efficacy in preventing chronic CyA nephropathy in vivo. These studies highlight the unique potential that human renal cell cultures offer for studying the role of local cytokine networks in tubulointerstitial disease and for developing more effective treatment strategies which specifically target fibrogenic growth factor activity following nephrotoxic injuries.

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Our data indicate that stimulation of local kinin formation by use of a precursor for kinin formation or inhibition of kinin degradation by use of ACE inhibitors increases NO formation and is important in the control of cardiac O2 consumption. Vasodilation and control of myocardial O2 consumption by NO may contribute importantly to the therapeutic actions of ACE inhibitors in cardiac disease states.

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Structural changes within the blood vessel wall such as hyperplasia and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells are important factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Humoral growth factors such as angiotensin II (AII) and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) may participate in the remodelling of the blood vessel wall. Whether and by which mechanisms antihypertensive treatment is capable of influencing the structural blood vessel alterations to date remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of nifedipine and diltiazem on AII- and PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation was examined. Nifedipine and diltiazem at a concentration of 10 microM did not affect baseline DNA synthesis in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. AII (final concentration 100 nM) and PDGF-BB (50 ng/ml) stimulated DNA synthesis by approximately 9.0- and 4.6-fold, respectively. Both AII- and PDGF-BB-induced DNA synthesis was significantly blunted by diltiazem and nifedipine in a concentration of 10 microM, while no significant influence was seen with concentrations from 10 nM up to 1 microM. In contrast, no significant influence of these drugs could be observed on fetal calf serum 5%-induced DNA synthesis. The findings indicate that calcium antagonists possess antimitogenic potential and that they may thus contribute to the regression of structural changes of the blood vessels associated with hypertension.

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To determine the role of the renin-angiotensin system and the bradykinin pathway in the mechanism of action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure, the acute effects of enalaprilat (1 mg/kg) were compared with those of a renin inhibitor (ciprokiren, 1 mg/kg i.v.) in 10 chronically instrumented conscious dogs with heart failure induced by right ventricular pacing (3 wk, 240 beats/min). The effects of enalaprilat and ciprokiren on bradykinin infusion (3, 10, and 30 micrograms/min) and the effects of enalaprilat in the presence of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140 (10 micrograms/kg i.v.) were also examined. Both inhibitors significantly decreased mean aortic pressure and increased cardiac output. However, enalaprilat induced significantly greater hemodynamic effects than ciprokiren (mean aortic pressure, -13 +/- 3 vs. -6 +/- 1 mmHg; cardiac output, 0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.1 l/min). Bradykinin infusion led to dose-dependent decreases in mean aortic pressure and increases in cardiac output that were not modified by pretreatment with ciprokiren but were potentiated 10-fold by enalaprilat. Hoe-140 significantly reduced the hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat. Thus endogenous bradykinin is involved in the acute hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat in experimental heart failure.

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Arterial plasma kinins and mean arterial pressure were measured in intact and bilaterally nephrectomized rats infused with vehicle or bradykinin to study the role of 1) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and other peptidases and 2) the kidney (a kininase-rich organ) in the metabolism of kinins in vivo. Before the infusion, rats were pretreated with vehicle, enalaprilat (an ACE inhibitor), or a cocktail of kininase inhibitors containing 1) enalaprilat, 2) DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethyl-thiopropanoic acid (MGTA), a carboxypeptidase N inhibitor, 3) phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, and 4) bestatin, an aminopeptidase B inhibitor. In the rats with vehicle (n = 8), the cocktail did not significantly increase endogenous kinins (from 31 +/- 6 to 41 +/- 9 pg/ml, p = 0.94). In the rats infused with bradykinin (peptidase substrate), plasma kinins increased threefold in the group pretreated with the vehicle, 21-fold in the enalaprilat group, and 22-fold in the cocktail group. These increases were doubled by nephrectomy but were not affected by ureteral ligation. In the groups pretreated with the cocktail or enalaprilat, the hypotensive effect of bradykinin was correlated with plasma kinin concentration (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). After bradykinin infusion was stopped, plasma kinins decreased by half in 10-12 seconds in the rats pretreated with vehicle, enalaprilat, or cocktail. We concluded that ACE and the kidney are important to the metabolism of circulating kinins while carboxypeptidase N, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and aminopeptidase B are not. We also concluded that other tissue peptidases, not affected by either the above inhibitors or nephrectomy, play an important role in kinin metabolism.

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We investigated whether captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a sulfhydryl group, enalaprilat, an ACE inhibitor without a sulfhydryl group, and cysteine, an amino acid with a sulfhydryl group but no ACE-inhibiting properties, could scavenge hydrogen peroxide and prevent oxidant-induced cell injury. When 0.1-2.5 mM concentrations of captopril, cysteine, or enalaprilat were incubated with xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine for 0-120 min, the recovery of hydrogen peroxide was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in the presence of captopril or cysteine, whereas enalaprilat had no effect on the recovery of hydrogen peroxide. Captopril and cysteine could not scavenge hydrogen peroxide when the sulfhydryl group was blocked with N-ethylmaleimide. When human renal tubular epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, oxidant-induced depletion of ATP and efflux of [3H]adenine metabolites was mildly reduced in the presence of captopril or cysteine but was not altered by enalaprilat. Cysteine was more effective in preventing oxidant-induced cell injury than captopril. We conclude that because of its sulfhydryl group, captopril at millimolar concentrations can scavenge hydrogen peroxide and can slightly reduce, but does not eliminate, oxidant-induced cell injury.

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The production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) under basal conditions and after exposure to angiotensin II (ANG II) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in vitro in isolated glomeruli. The glomeruli were obtained from control rats and rats with bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) of 24-h duration that were pretreated or not with an inhibitor of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). Basal prostanoid production was greater in isolated glomeruli from BUO rats than in controls. Administration of an ACE inhibitor, enalaprilat, given in vivo returned basal prostanoid production by isolated glomeruli of BUO rats to levels seen in glomeruli of control rats. The prostanoid production in response to addition of ANG II or AVP in vitro was blunted in glomeruli from BUO rats, but the response was restored to "normal" after blockade of ANG II synthesis in vivo in BUO rats. Blockade of ANG II synthesis in vivo did not affect prostanoid synthesis by isolated glomeruli of control rats. The prostanoid generation in response to addition of both ANG II and arachidonic acid in vitro compared with ANG II addition alone was not significantly stimulated in glomeruli from BUO rats. In contrast, it was significantly stimulated in glomeruli of control rats. The results indicate that endogenous ANG II has an important role in the increased synthesis of prostanoids found in isolated glomeruli of rats with BUO and that the in vitro prostanoid production in response to ANG II and AVP can be restored to normal when the synthesis of ANG II is inhibited in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The objective of the study was to determine if bradykinin-induced airway microvascular leakage in rats was altered by pretreatment of animals with enalaprilat, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), or phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.11 (EP 24.11). We found that the intravascular infusion of bradykinin induced microvascular leakage of Evans blue dye in tracheal tissue (0.088 +/- 0.035 micrograms/mg tissue) that was significantly amplified by pretreatment with 3.27 mM enalaprilat (0.458 +/- 0.226 micrograms/mg tissue), but not by pretreatment with 10 mM phosphoramidon (0.082 +/- 0.0453 micrograms/mg tissue). Leakage in carinal tissue was also amplified by pretreatment with 3.27 mM enalaprilat (0.205 +/- 0.050 vs. 0.036 +/- 0.006 micrograms/mg tissue for bradykinin alone), whereas no amplification was observed in parenchymal tissue by pretreatment with either inhibitor. These findings indicate that in the rat, ACE, but not EP 24.11, modulates bradykinin-induced airway microvascular leakage following intravascular infusion of these agents.

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The acute hemodynamic, hormonal, and pharmacokinetic aspects of treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril were assessed in two studies in 24 patients with chronic stable congestive heart failure (CHF). Lisinopril, the lysine analogue of enalaprilat, is biologically active following absorption and is cleared via the urine without any known metabolic transformation. In the hemodynamic study, single doses of lisinopril (1.25-10.0 mg) were administered on days 1 and 3, each followed by 48 h of intensive hemodynamic observation in 12 patients. Arterial and mixed venous blood from the right atrium were sampled frequently and assayed for angiotensin I, angiotensin II, ACE activity, plasma renin activity, renin substrate, plasma aldosterone, and serum drug concentration. Across all doses, reductions in mean arterial pressure (-17.2%), mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (-28.0%), and systemic vascular resistance (-25.6%) were observed compared to baseline values. No significant changes in heart rate or cardiac index were observed. The analysis of the hormonal parameters indicate potent inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for a period exceeding 24 h. In the pharmacokinetic study, 12 hospitalized patients with chronic CHF received lisinopril both orally and intravenously, with each dose followed by a 72-h arterial blood and urine sampling schedule. Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously for 6 h following each dosage using an intraarterial cannula. Mean urinary recovery of lisinopril was found to be 15% following oral administration and 88% following intravenous administration. Maximal serum drug concentration occurred at 6 h after oral drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was normal at rest and pathologically increased at 60+/-13 W only in groups 1 and 2 (27.2+/-3 and 32.2+/-8 mm Hg, respectively), but not in group 3 (12.2+/-4 mm Hg; p<0.001). At the identical load level, the PCWP in patients with microangiopathy (group 1) was significantly (p<0.01) reduced after enalaprilat (-21.7%) and even normalized in 5 of 10 patients. This was accompanied by a significant (p>0.01) decrease in ST segment depression (-73.9%) and in the occurrence of angina pectoris, despite the fact that the rate-pressure product as a measure of myocardial oxygen consumption was significantly (p<0.05) increased. Also in patients with CAD enalaprilat had a significant effect on PCWP (p<0.01), ST segment depression (p<0.01), occurrence of angina pectoris (p<0.001), cardiac index (p<0.05), and stroke index (p<0.05) during exercise. In group 3 there were no significant changes in PCWP, cardiac index, and stroke index after enalaprilat either at rest or during exercise.

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The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is a paramount target for the pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular diseases. As modeling and simulation techniques are becoming increasingly utilized in cardiovascular research, our aim was to develop a physiology-based model that describes the effect of different drugs at different doses on the RAAS and integrates physiology-based description drug pharmacokinetics (PK). First, a basic RAAS model was developed in which equations for drug effects were included and missing parameters estimated. Next, a physiology-based PK model for enalapril and enalaprilat was developed and coupled to the RAAS model. Simulation of the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aliskiren administration on angiotensins I and II did not reveal significant overestimation or underestimation. For all drugs, the error numerics were acceptable. The model also encompassed the PK of intravenous and oral enalapril and its conversion to enalaprilat. In summary, we report a physiology-based model for the interaction of the RAAS biomarkers angiotensin I and II with enalapril, benazepril, aliskiren, and losartan that allows for an adequate description of the RAAS response after single administration of the drugs. Such a comprehensive description may lead to a better understanding of the effects of pharmacological interventions in the RAAS.

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vasotec generic name 2016-09-10

Several trials have showed that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors possess some extent of antiarrhythmic properties. To evaluate the effects of Enalaprilat on His bundle recording, patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiogram due to angina pectoris and a positive thallium exercise test subsequently underwent His bundle electrogram. A double-blind crossover protocol was used with conduction velocity measurements at baseline and after saline (placebo) and Enalaprilat 2.5 mg intravenously. There were no significant changes in heart rate (64 plus minus 9 versus 65 buy vasotec online plus minus 11 versus 65 plus minus to beats min(minus sign1)) at baseline, after saline and enalaprilat infusion, respectively, mean blood pressure (97 plus minus 11 versus 94 plus minus 10 versus 94 plus minus 7 mm Hg, respectively), atrioventricular conduction time (100 plus minus 20 versus 100 plus minus versus 100 plus minus 20 versus 100 plus minus ms), and His--Purkinje (HV) conduction time (40 plus minus 12 versus 40 plus minus 13 versus 40 plus minus 12 ms). Ventricular activity duration was 110 plus minus 11 ms at baseline, 110 plus minus 10 ms after saline infusion (p = NS), and 88 plus minus 13 ms after Enalaprilat administration (p < 0.001). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition appears to produce significant reduction in ventricular activity duration (increase in intraventricular conduction velocity).

vasotec drug classification 2015-01-27

This report describes a newly identified potential of grapefruit juice (GFJ) in mediating pharmacokinetic drug interactions due to its capability to inhibit esterase. The study demonstrates that GFJ inhibits purified porcine esterase activity toward p-nitrophenyl buy vasotec online acetate and the prodrugs lovastatin and enalapril. In rat and human hepatic or gut S9 fractions and rat gut lumen, GFJ inhibited the hydrolysis of enalapril and lovastatin, which are known to be metabolized principally by esterases, lovastatin being metabolized also by CYP3A. In Caco-2 cells, with minimal CYP3A activity, permeability of these prodrugs was increased in the presence of GFJ. In rats, oral coadministration of GFJ or an esterase inhibitor, bis-(p-nitrophenylphosphate), with the prodrugs led to respective increases in plasma area under the curve by 70% or 57% for enalaprilat and 279% or 141% for lovastatin acid. In addition, portal vein-cannulated rats pretreated with GFJ at -15 and -2 h before lovastatin administration (10 mg/kg p.o.) as a solution, 1) in water and 2) in GFJ, showed, respectively, a 49% increase (CYP3A-inhibited) and a 116% increase (both CYP3A and gut esterase-inhibited) in the portal plasma exposure to the active acid, compared with a non-GFJ pretreatment group. Overall, along with the CYP3A inactivation by GFJ, the decreased esterase activity also played a significant role in increasing the metabolic stability and permeability of esters leading to enhancement of exposure to the active drugs in rats. These new esterase inhibition findings indicate that the potential of drug interaction between ester prodrugs and GFJ should also be considered in the clinic.

vasotec buy online 2016-02-12

Since certain non-vascular angiotensin II (AII) receptors may be activated by angiotensin I (AI), and since sustained increase in AI levels accompanies chronic treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors (CEI) which block conversion of AI to AII, the question of whether AI has significant biological effects is of clinical relevance. We therefore sought to develop an in vitro culture system in which effects of angiotensin I, independently of its conversion to AII, could be studied in cloned aortic vascular endothelial cells (VEC). This was complicated by peptide degradation during the period of observation, both by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) on the surface of VEC and by angiotensinases in either the serum component of culture media or associated with the cell monolayer. Accordingly, we examined the half life of AI under relevant cell culture conditions, with and without confluent fetal bovine aortic endothelial cells (FBAEC). Factors assessed included (1) fetal calf serum: commercial source, concentration in culture media, effects of converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI: MK422) and/or heat inactivation (superimposed on the commercially performed process); and (2) effect of FBAEC in monolayer culture, with and without CEI. Results showed that (1) in buy vasotec online the absence of cells, loss of AI in culture media, when present, was solely due to the presence of fetal calf serum (FCS) and showed a dose dependent response; (2) FCS from differing sources may vary dramatically in capacity for AI breakdown; and (3) serum related AI disappearance included a heat resistant ACE like component (inhibitable by CEI) and a heat sensitive/CEI resistant component dominant at concentrations of FCS exceeding 5%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

vasotec non generic 2016-07-19

The effect of enalaprilat on hydrogen peroxide buy vasotec online (H2O2) production by cultured murine mesangial cells exposed to 5.5 (basal condition), 30 and 50 mM glucose concentrations was examined over 8 h. A fluorimetric method quantifying, in arbitrary units, the intracellular dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation to the highly fluorescent compound 2'7'dichlorofluorescein (DCF) from the non-fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) was employed (a method not previously reported for cultured mesangial cells). Experiments were repeated three times in quadruplicate wells.

vasotec drug interactions 2016-07-08

The interactions of the converting enzyme inhibitors buy vasotec online captopril and enalaprilat and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist saralasin with cardiac autonomic neuroeffector transmission were investigated in guinea pig isolated atria. Noradrenergic transmitter stores were radiolabeled by incubation with [3H]-noradrenaline. In other atria, cholinergic transmitter stores were radiolabeled by incubation with [3H]-choline. Neither captopril nor enalaprilat significantly altered the resting or stimulation-induced (2 Hz, 30 s) efflux of radioactivity in atria that had been incubated with either [3H]-noradrenaline or [3H]-choline. Saralasin also did not significantly alter the resting or stimulation-induced efflux in atria incubated with [3H]-choline. However, in atria incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline, saralasin slightly increased the resting efflux without altering the stimulation-induced efflux. The findings of the present study suggest that neither captopril, enalaprilat, nor saralasin interferes with either noradrenergic or cholinergic transmitter release.

vasotec 50 mg 2015-08-16

Perioperative hypertension is commonly encountered in patients that undergo surgery. While attempts have been made to standardize the method to characterize the intraoperative hemodynamics, these methods still vary widely. In addition, there is a lack of consensus concerning treatment thresholds and appropriate therapeutic targets, making absolute recommendations about treatment difficult. Nevertheless, perioperative hypertension requires careful management. When treatment is necessary, therapy should be individualized for the patient. This paper reviews the pharmacologic agents and strategies buy vasotec online commonly used in the management of perioperative hypertension.

vasotec to buy 2017-08-04

The effects of enalaprilat (MK-422), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, were compared to those of SCRIP, a renin inhibitor, in experimentally induced left ventricular failure. In anesthetized dogs, acute left ventricular failure was induced by repeated embolization, via the left main coronary artery, with 50 microns plastic microspheres. Embolization significantly increased left ventricular enddiastolic pressure from 6 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 1 (p less than 0.05) mm Hg and decreased both left ventricular maximal dP/dt (3,135 +/- 338 to 1,636 +/- 126 mm Hg/second, p less than 0.05) and cardiac output (3.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.6 +/- 0.1 liters per minute, p less than 0.05). Embolization also significantly reduced heart buy vasotec online rate and mean arterial pressure. These parameters remained stable after induction of heart failure. Forty-five minutes after embolization, 16 dogs received enalaprilat (100 microns/kg intravenously) and six dogs received SCRIP (100 microns/kg intravenously followed by 10 microns/kg per minute). Both agents caused similar reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (21 percent versus 26 percent) and total peripheral resistance (25 percent versus 32 percent) and rise in peak positive cardiac contractility, as measured by (dP/dt)/P, (12 percent versus 11 percent). The data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin II formation by two agents, each or which acts at a different point in the cascade, results in similar beneficial hemodynamic effects in dogs with acute left ventricular failure. In addition, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition failed to further increase sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate caused by embolization. In summary, inhibition of angiotensin II production by two different inhibitors of the renin system causes an improvement in left ventricular performance in a model of acute experimental left ventricular failure.

vasotec tab 10mg 2017-05-13

The positive inotropic effects of bradykinin (BK) and 2 analogs resistant to angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were potentiated on isolated guinea pig atrial preparations by enalaprilat. The stable BK analogs, dextran-BK and [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK, were as active as BK. Pretreatment for 5 min with enalaprilat augmented the maximal positive inotropic effect of [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK 2.8-fold, from 19% to 53% and that of BK from 28% to 42% over baseline; inotropic responses to dextran-BK (1 microM) were similarly increased. The activity of atrial ACE, a zinc-requiring enzyme, was completely inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (QSA, 10 mM), which raised the maximal inotropic effect of BK to 39% above baseline. This value rose to 67% when in addition to QSA, 1 microM enalaprilat was added; enalaprilat thus, potentiated the effects of BK independently of enzyme inhibition. The positive inotropic effects buy vasotec online to BK and its analogs decline with time in the presence of these agonists. After 10 min of exposure, the response to 1 microM [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK decreased to about half, and after 20 min, to 0. Enalaprilat, when present in the tissue bath, prevented the decline in inotropy; even after tachyphylaxis occurred, it reversed this decrease in activity when added. The effects of 1 microM [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK, in the absence or presence of enalaprilat, were abolished by the BK B2 receptor antagonist icatibant (0.75 microM). The results indicate that ACE inhibitors, by potentiating the BK effects and blocking BK B2-receptor desensitization, may contribute to the beneficial cardiac effects of BK independently of blocking its inactivation.

vasotec normal dose 2017-09-18

We reported evidence of bradykinin (BK) regeneration from C-terminal extended BK sequences that behave as peptidase-activated B2 receptor (B2R) agonists. Further to these in vitro studies, we carried out in vivo experiments to verify hemodynamic effects of BK analogs exhibiting variable susceptibility toward vascular and blood plasma peptidases. Rats were anesthetized and instrumented to record blood pressure and heart rate responses to bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of increasing doses of BK, B-9972 (D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Igl(5),Oic(7),Igl(8)]-BK), BK-Arg, BK-His-Leu or BK-Ala-Pro, in the absence or presence of specific inhibitors. In some experiments, pulsed Doppler flow probes measured hindquarter Doppler shift in response to i.v. injections of kinins. BK caused rapid, transient and dose-related hypotensive effects. These effects were potentiated ∼15-fold by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalaprilat, but extensively inhibited by icatibant (a B2R antagonist) and not influenced by the Arg-carboxypeptidase (CP) inhibitor (Plummer's inhibitor). The hypotensive responses elicited by the peptidase-resistant B2R agonist, B-9972, were not affected by enalaprilat, but were inhibited by icatibant. The hypotensive responses to BK-Arg were abolished by pre-treatment with either the Arg-CP inhibitor or icatibant, pharmacologically evidencing BK regeneration. The hypotensive effects of BK-His-Leu and BK-Ala-Pro, previously reported as ACE-activated substrates, were abolished by icatibant, but not by enalaprilat. In vivo regeneration of BK from these two C-terminally extended analogs with no affinity for the B2R must follow alternative cleavage rules involving unidentified carboxypeptidase(s) when ACE is blocked. The transient hypotensive responses to BK and three tested analogs coincided with concomitant vasodilation (increased Doppler shift signal). Together, these results provide in vivo evidence that interesting hypotensive and vasodilator effects can be extracted from buy vasotec online prodrug peptides that behave as peptidase-activated B2R agonists.

vasotec generic cost 2016-08-09

The PBMNCs from the chronic hemodialysis patients formed fewer BFU-Es than those from healthy volunteers. AT1 receptor antagonist in both healthy volunteers and hemodialysis patients suppressed the number of BFU-Es. The ACE inhibitors produced a smaller effect than the AT1 receptor buy vasotec online antagonist.

vasotec dose iv 2016-10-18

A new procedure, namely the in situ perfused rat intestine-liver preparation, was introduced to examine the roles of the intestine and the liver in the elimination of enalapril, a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The in situ perfused rat intestine preparation was used to determine the rate and extent of enalapril absorption after an-intraduodenal dose. In the former technique, enalapril in blood perfusate (10 ml/min) was delivered via the superior mesenteric artery into the once-through perfused rat intestine-liver preparation, with sampling effected in reservoir, portal vein and hepatic vein. The ease of sampling, proximal and distal to the intestine and liver, allowed the direct estimation of the extraction ratios by the intestine and the liver. The steady-state intestinal extraction ratio of enalapril was small (0.04 +/- 0.066) compared to that for the liver (0.74 +/- 0.06), indicating that the liver was responsible for most of the hydrolytic conversion of enalapril to its pharmacologically active diacid metabolite, enalaprilat. Moreover, no trend in the values of the extraction ratios by both organs was apparent among the buy vasotec online input concentrations of enalapril (0.55, 2.6 and 13.3 microM) used. Portal venous plasma consisted mainly of enalapril and was devoid of enalaprilat, whereas both enalapril and enalaprilat were detected in bile and hepatic venous plasma. With the latter technique, an intraduodenal injection of a tracer dose of [14C]enalapril (0.14-0.39 mumol) was made close to the pyloric sphinctor, whereas the intestine preparation was recirculated (7.5 ml/min) with blank perfusate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

vasotec 4 mg 2015-08-23

The prescribing and usage patterns of two antihypertensive agents, terazosin (Hytrin) and enalapril maleate (Vasotec) were analyzed and compared over a 6-month study period, using data from the PDS Alpha Data Base. The study analyzed several variables for both physician prescribing patterns and patient responses. Overall, the two agents performed equally well during the study period, with 6-month retention rates (% of patients who continued to take the same medication) of approximately 60%. Although both drugs are judged to be good candidates for first-line antihypertensive therapy, it was observed during the study that family practitioners write considerably more prescriptions for terazosin than enalapril, while internists write more enalapril prescriptions. We concluded that these differences in prescribing and usage patterns were largely attributable buy vasotec online to the manufacturers' marketing strategies and to how various physicians perceive the two agents, rather than to actual clinical differences between them.

vasotec recommended dosage 2016-01-12

We described in mouse inner medullary-collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3) the somatic and the N-domain ACE synthesis and its interaction with the kallikrein-kinin system co-localized in the same cells. We purified two ACE forms from culture medium, M1 (130 kDa) and M2 (N-domain, 60 kDa), and cellular lysate, C1 (130 kDa) and C2 (N-domain, 60 kDa). Captopril and enalaprilat inhibited the purified enzymes. The immunofluorescence studies indicated that ACE is present in the membrane, cytoplasm and in the cell nucleus. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors were detected by immunofluorescence and showed to be activated by BK and DesR9 BK, increasing the acidification rate which was enhanced in the presence of enalaprilat. The presence of secreted and intracellular ACE in mIMCD-3 confirmed the hypothesis previously proposed by our group for a new site of ACE secretion in buy vasotec online the collecting duct.

vasotec 10mg tablet 2017-02-11

We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) release by the coronary circulation in the failing and nonfailing human heart is, in part, regulated by local kinin production in coronary microvessels. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) also known as kininase II, inactivates kinins. ACE inhibitors prevent kinin breakdown by ACE, thereby increasing the concentration of bradykinin (BK) and related kinins. The goal of this study was to buy vasotec online determine if kinins contribute to the therapeutic action of ACE inhibitors. Six hearts from end-stage heart failure patients were harvested at the time of orthotopic cardiac transplantation. Microvessels were prepared as previously described, and nitrite production, a metabolic product of NO in vitro, was determined by the Griess reaction. Microvessels were incubated in the presence of kininogen and bradykinin, and with the ACE inhibitors ramiprilat, enalaprilat, or captopril. All caused dose-dependent increases in nitrite. For instance, ramiprilat increased nitrite from 76 +/- 5.6 to 155 +/- 15 pmol/min per mg wet weight. Nitrite production in response to ACE inhibition was blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, and icatibant (HOE 140), a B2-kinin receptor-specific antagonist. Furthermore, NO production was prevented by 3 different serine protease inhibitors, which block kallikrein, the enzyme responsible for conversion of kininogen to kinins. Our results indicate that ACE/kininase inhibitors increase NO production by the coronary microvasculature in the failing human heart, through increased available active kinins. The therapeutic action of ACE inhibition in the failing human heart may result in part from increased NO production by coronary microvessels.

vasotec 5mg tab 2016-04-27

Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), often used in critically ill patients, reduces cardiac output, and its adverse effects on splanchnic circulation imply a risk of regional secondary organ failure. To investigate if the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) mediates PEEP-induced circulatory changes, hemodynamic effects of PEEP were measured in four groups of pigs: controls (C), nephrectomized (N), or given enalaprilate, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (E), or saralasin, a competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II (S). Groups N, E and S represented interference with RAS effects at different sites. With PEEP at 10 cmH2O, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, portal venous and hepatic arterial blood flow decreased in all groups, while portal and central venous pressures rose, without significant intergroup difference. Systemic and preportal bloodflow resistance increased in groups S and N, and hepatic arterial resistance in group C. Accentuation of the flow and pressure changes occurred with 20 cm PEEP in all groups, with increase of systemic and hepatic resistance in S and N, or preportal resistance in group N and protal resistance in group C. The study suggested that RAS is not a major mediator of PEEP-induced circulatory changes. Differing responses within groups N, S and E Viagra 20 Mg may have been due to interference with the action of RAS and of other vasoactive substances.

vasotec drug card 2015-12-08

Experiments were performed to determine the effect of a chloride channel blocker (indanyloxyacetic acid, IAA-94) on renal arteriolar vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (AngII). The in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron technique was exploited to provide access to the renal microvasculature of enalaprilat-treated rats. Under control conditions, 1 to 100 nmol/L AngII evoked concentration-dependent afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Baseline diameter of Diamox Glaucoma Dosage afferent arterioles was not altered by 30 mumol/L IAA-94; however, AngII responsiveness was markedly attenuated. The afferent response to K-induced depolarization was sustained in the presence of IAA-94. In efferent arterioles, neither baseline diameter nor AngII responsiveness was altered by IAA-94. These results suggest that full expression AngII-induced afferent (but not efferent) arteriolar vasoconstriction requires participation of chloride channels, which likely engender depolarization and subsequent opening of voltage-gated calcium channels.

vasotec generic names 2015-01-20

Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 5% (P < 0.05) after the higher dose and remained unchanged after the lower dose of enalaprilat, whereas renal norepinephrine spillover increased after both doses Effexor Optimal Dose by 49 and 26% respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Cardiac and total body norepinephrine spillover remained unchanged after both doses of enalaprilat. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, which was measured in eight subjects after 2.5 mg enalaprilat, fell by 43% (P < 0.05).

vasotec medication 2017-02-15

This trial investigated the effect of enalapril, administered early, on left ventricular (LV) volumes after myocardial infarction. Four hundred twenty-eight patients included in the Cooperative New Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS II) were examined with echocardiography within 5 days, at 1 month and at 6 months after myocardial infarction. Enalaprilat (1 mg) or placebo infusion was initiated within 24 hours after infarction, followed by oral treatment to a target dose of 20 mg/day. A significant attenuation of LV dilatation was noted at 1 month in patients treated with enalapril compared with those receiving placebo. Changes in LV end-diastolic volume indexes during the first month were (mean +/- SEM) 5.7 +/- 1.0 ml/m2 for the placebo Online Order Viagra group and 1.9 +/- 0.8 ml/m2 for the enalapril group (p < 0.02). Changes in LV end-systolic volume indexes were 3.1 +/- 0.8 and 0.5 +/- 0.6 ml/m2, respectively (p < 0.02). The between-group difference was most marked in patients with anterior wall infarction (p < 0.005). Volume changes beyond the first month were similar in both groups but the differences observed at 1 month were maintained. The larger volumes in the placebo versus enalapril group were significant or borderline significant at 1 and 6 months. Thus, enalapril treatment initiated early after myocardial infarction and continued for 6 months can attenuate LV dilatation during the first month resulting in smaller LV volumes after 1 and 6 months.

vasotec dosage iv 2016-03-29

The complex pathogenesis of endothelial function abnormalities in sepsis may offer a large number of pharmacologic interventions. Administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat resulted in a reduced release of soluble endothelial-derived substances into the circulating blood, which may indicate an improved endothelial function. The Levaquin Recall Medication specific actions of enalaprilat on the endothelium have to be elucidated in further studies.

vasotec medication doctor 2017-08-30

The effect of rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) on hormonal stimulated osmotic water permeability (Jw, hydrosmotic effect) and net ion transport (short-circuit current, SCC, natriferic effect) was studied on toad skin, a tissue with functional similarities to Elavil Dosage Cats the mammalian distal nephron, in order to assess actions on transport mechanisms. Rat atrial natriuretic peptide, rANP-99-126 (rANP) inhibited stimulated SCC and Jw to submaximal concentrations of arginine vasotocin (AVT) at a site before cyclic AMP generation. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) MK-422 did not modify the inhibitory effect of ANP in the stimulated Jw.

vasotec overdose death 2015-07-28

We investigated the effect of enalaprilat (ET) on long-term preservation of cardiac explant. Isolated rat hearts (n = 7/group) were pretreated with 0 to 40 nM ET and stored at 0 degree C for 16 h. Functional viability was assessed after 30-min working reperfusion without ET. Prestorage control function (mean +/- S.E.M.) (n = 7) included heart rate (HR), 291 +/- 12 bpm; aortic flow (AF). 49.8 +/- 1.9 ml/min; coronary Sinequan Capsule flow (CF), 25.2 +/- 1.3 ml/min; cardiac output (CO), 75.0 +/- 1.2 ml/min; and work, 89.4 +/- 4.7 g-m/min. Post-storage function of untreated hearts was: AF, 61%; CF, 43%; CO, 55%; work, 48% of control. ET (20 nM) enhanced AF recovery to 85%; CF, 58%; CO, 76%; work, 73% of control (P < 0.05 v untreated). Hoe 140 (D-Arg-[Hyp2, Thi5,8, D-Phe7]BK) (1 nM) a bradykinin receptor antagonist, inhibited ET effect; function returned to the untreated level. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporine (15 nM) and bisindolylmaleimide I (0.5 microM) also blocked ET effect. After 4 h of cold storage, membrane PKC activity changed little from the prestorage level in the untreated hearts, but was elevated significantly from 52.8 +/- 5.2 pmol/min/mg to 74.7 +/- 8.2 by 20 nM ET (P < 0.05 v untreated). Cytosol PKC did not change during 4 h cold storage with or without ET. Neither end-storage nor end-reperfusion myocardial ATP content was affected by 20 nM ET treatment. In conclusion, ET improves cardiac preservation possibly via bradykinin receptor and PKC without affecting ATP metabolism.

vasotec common dosage 2015-02-21

The effects of angiotensin II and its precursors angiotensin I and tetradecapeptide renin substrate were investigated in isolated segments of the rat caudal artery. Each peptide constricted the rat caudal artery and also enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation (0.5 Hz, 10 s). The threshold concentrations for each peptide in enhancing sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses were lower than those required to produce vasoconstriction. Tetradecapeptide renin substrate was the least potent of the three peptides and had the slowest onset of action. Angiotensin II and angiotensin I each enhanced noradrenergic transmission to the same degree, whether perfused through the lumen or added to the adventitial surface of the artery. In contrast, tetradecapeptide renin substrate was more potent when applied to the adventitial surface. The effects of angiotensin I Lopressor Safe Dose were blocked by the converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, whereas the effects of tetradecapeptide renin substrate were unaltered by enalaprilat, or by the renin inhibitors pepstatin or a decapeptide renin inhibitor. These findings suggest that tetradecapeptide renin substrate and angiotensin I may be converted to angiotensin II within the rat caudal artery, with subsequent enhancement of noradrenergic neuroeffector function. However, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of tetradecapeptide renin substrate cannot be determined from the present findings.

vasotec overdose 2015-04-25

Cardiac ACE was localized and quantified in hearts from male Wistar rats with LVH due to chronic experimental aortic stenosis and from control rats. With the ACE inhibitor 125I-351A, a derivative of lisinopril, as a radioligand on coronal sections of LVH and control hearts, in vitro autoradiography demonstrated ACE binding in aorta, coronary arteries, atria, and ventricles of both groups. Quantitative analyses revealed that ACE density (counts per minute per cross-sectional area of tissue) was twofold higher within the myocardium of hypertrophied left ventricles compared with controls (p < 0.005). Quantitative morphometry demonstrated a modest increase in the fractional volume of myocytes as well as capillary volume without an increase in the fractional volume of endothelial cells in left ventricular tissue from aortic stenosis rats. These data suggest that an increase in endothelial cell volume per se cannot alone account for the observed doubling of ACE density and support an upregulation of ACE production in hypertrophied tissue. The role of cardiac ACE in intracardiac conversion of Ang I to Ang II and its specific inhibition was Zocor Normal Dosage studied in isolated, isovolumic beating, buffer-perfused LVH and control hearts. Biochemical conversion rates as well as functional changes in response to 3 x 10(-7) M Ang I were examined in the absence or presence of the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (4 x 10(-6) M). After a brief stabilization period, groups of LVH and control hearts were subjected to the following infusion protocols: 15 minutes of vehicle followed by 30 minutes of Ang I plus vehicle, 15 minutes of enalaprilat followed by 30 minutes of Ang I plus enalaprilat (enal/Ang I), or 45 minutes of vehicle only to allow comparison with a time control. Intracardiac Ang I-to-Ang II conversion rate was fourfold higher in LVH than in control hearts (p < 0.05). Infusion of enalaprilat reduced the intracardiac Ang I-to-Ang II conversion rate in LVH hearts by 70% (p < 0.05 versus Ang I). At similar levels of constant coronary flow per gram, Ang I increased coronary perfusion pressure by 23 +/- 5 mm Hg (p < 0.01 versus vehicle) in LVH hearts and by 36 +/- 10 mm Hg (p < 0.005 versus vehicle) in control hearts. When enalaprilat was infused with Ang I, the increase in perfusion pressure was limited to 5 +/- 5 mm Hg (NS versus vehicle) in LVH hearts and 12 +/- 3 mm Hg (p < 0.05 versus vehicle) in control hearts and was significantly lower than in hearts infused with Ang I only (p < 0.05 in LVH and p < 0.05 in control hearts, respectively). Systolic function was not affected by either infusion protocol. In contrast, Ang I infusion was associated with diastolic dysfunction. In LVH hearts, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) increased from 10 +/- 1 mm Hg at baseline to 25 +/- 2 mm Hg at the end of the Ang I infusion (p < 0.001 versus vehicle), which was inhibited by infusion of enalaprilat. In control hearts, there was a lesser increase in LVEDP from 10 +/- 1 mm Hg to 15 +/- 1 mm Hg in response to Ang I (p < 0.05 versus LVH). Control hearts treated with enalaprilat with Ang I displayed no increase in LVEDP:

vasotec tabs 2016-10-07

Several enzymes that hydrolyze angiotensin I (Ang I) and Ang Zantac 7 Tablets II to Ang-(1-7) have been identified, but their relative importance in the intact human heart is not known.

vasotec max dose 2015-12-13

Quinaprilat improves FDD in patients with CHF as the result of increased availability of nitric oxide, whereas enalaprilat does not. This observation suggests that intrinsic differences exist between quinaprilat and enalaprilat that determine the ability to improve endothelium-mediated vasodilation, ie, their different affinity to tissue ACE.

vasotec overdose symptoms 2015-08-26

We have reported previously the characterization of the angiotensin (A) II myocardial receptor and provided biological evidence that the inotropic activities of the octapeptide AII are receptor mediated. In addition to the inotropic activities that this compound demonstrates, it also has potent vascular contractile activities. The decapeptide AI exhibits both cardiac (+)-inotropic and vascular contractile activities. The responses to AI are in large part secondary to conversion to smaller peptides, principally the octapeptide AII. To attempt to separate the inotropic and vascular response to these peptides, several decapeptide A analogs with amino acid substitutions in either the 1, 5 or 7 positions were studied. The compounds were as follows: [Sar1Ile5Ala7]AI; [Sar1Ile5 alpha-MeAla7]AI; [Sar1Val5N-MeAla7]AI and [Sar1Val5Sar7]AI. These analogs were studied in rabbit point-stimulated left atria, isometrically contracting aortic rings and competition for [125I]AII binding to myocardial ventricular membranes. All the peptides exhibited partial AII agonist activities in cardiac and vascular tissues with potencies equivalent to or less than AI. The inotropic and vascular contractile response to the decapeptides was decreased in the presence of the A converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. The inotropic and vascular activities of these compounds in the presence of A converting enzyme inhibitor suggest that A converting enzyme may be responsible for the conversion to smaller peptides. Biologically active compounds were obtained with amino acid substitutions in the no. 1, 5 and 7 positions. Sarcosine substitution in position 1 did not enhance vascular potency as was observed with AII analogs.

vasotec iv dosage 2015-07-11

The production of PGE2 6-keto PGF1 alpha and TxB2 under basal conditions and after exposure to angiotensin II was examined in vitro in isolated glomeruli from sham-operated control rats and rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction of 24 hour duration, that were or were not pretreated with an inhibitor of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). Basal prostanoid production was greater in glomeruli from the obstructed kidney (OK) than in glomeruli from the contralateral kidney (CLK) of rats with obstruction or glomeruli from the kidneys of sham-operated rats. Glomeruli obtained from the CLK of rats with unilateral obstruction also produced more PGE2 and 6-keto PGF1 alpha than glomeruli obtained from kidneys of sham-operated rats. Administration of an ACE inhibitor to rats with unilateral obstruction in vivo returned basal prostanoid production in vitro to levels seen in glomeruli of sham-operated rats. The increase in prostanoid production in response to angiotensin II added in vitro was less in glomeruli from rats with unilateral obstruction than in glomeruli from sham-operated rats. However, the response was restored to that seen in glomeruli of sham-operated rats after blockade of angiotensin II synthesis in vivo in rats with unilateral obstruction. Blockade of angiotensin II synthesis in sham-operated rats did not affect prostanoid synthesis by their glomeruli.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)