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A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) capable of measuring either lisinopril (1-[N2-[(S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-lysyl] -L-proline) or enalaprilat (1-[N-[(S)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-alanyl] -L-proline), the active metabolite of enalapril has been developed. A suitable antiserum was raised against an immunogen prepared from conjugation of lisinopril, the lysyl analogue of enalapril, with succinoylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. A novel radiotracer was also prepared for use in the assay by acylation of the epsilon amine group on the lysyl side chain of lisinopril with N-succinimidyl [2,3-3H]propionate. The antiserum was used at a final dilution of 1:44,500 and the sensitivity of the assay for enalaprilat was estimated at 2 pmol/mL plasma sample and 0.4 pmol/mL for lisinopril. Enalapril, the ethyl ester of enalaprilat, exhibited little cross-reactivity (0.005%), and several other compounds (captopril, proline, lysine, tyrosine, hippuric acid, and tryptophan) were found not to crossreact. In rabbits given a 2.03 mumol/kg iv dose of enalapril, plasma concentrations of enalaprilat were determined by the RIA technique and compared with an estimation of the enalaprilat concentrations derived from the extent of inhibition of plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The plasma levels estimated by ACE inhibition were less than those obtained by the RIA in the first 45 min but were always greater in the samples taken after this time. Both assay methods showed that the conversion of enalapril to enalaprilat was rapid, and also indicated that there was initial rapid clearance of enalaprilat from the plasma.
The human angiontensin-converting enzyme I (hACEI) is a zinc metalloproteinase that hydrolytically cleaves a C-terminal dipeptide from a wide range of peptide substrates, and it plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. MD simulations and interaction energy calculations for docking and crystal structures were performed to investigate the correct conformation of the ACE with enalaprilat and nanopepetide. The analysis of root-mean-squrared fluctuation (RMSF), which is usually applied to measure the mobility and flexibility of the proteins, and dynamic correlation of residues show that the fluctuation pattern of the each two structure of the same ligand is almost the same mode. Hydrogen bond analysis shows that the correct crystal conformation is more stable than a wrong docking conformation. In addition, we are demonstrating that calculating interaction energy between protein and its ligands is an accurate and efficient way to select the correct conformation from docking conformations.
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A novel human zinc metalloprotease that has considerable homology to human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (40% identity and 61% similarity) has been identified. This metalloprotease (angiotensin-converting enzyme homolog (ACEH)) contains a single HEXXH zinc-binding domain and conserves other critical residues typical of the ACE family. The predicted protein sequence consists of 805 amino acids, including a potential 17-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide sequence and a putative C-terminal membrane anchor. Expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells of a soluble, truncated form of ACEH, lacking the transmembrane and cytosolic domains, produces a glycoprotein of 120 kDa, which is able to cleave angiotensin I and angiotensin II but not bradykinin or Hip-His-Leu. In the hydrolysis of the angiotensins, ACEH functions exclusively as a carboxypeptidase. ACEH activity is inhibited by EDTA but not by classical ACE inhibitors such as captopril, lisinopril, or enalaprilat. Identification of the genomic sequence of ACEH has shown that the ACEH gene contains 18 exons, of which several have considerable size similarity with the first 17 exons of human ACE. The gene maps to chromosomal location Xp22. Northern blotting analysis has shown that the ACEH mRNA transcript is approximately 3. 4 kilobase pairs and is most highly expressed in testis, kidney, and heart. This is the first report of a mammalian homolog of ACE and has implications for our understanding of cardiovascular and renal function.
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To investigate the potential modulating influence of angiotensin II (ANG II) on sympathetic activity in response to changes in baroreflex activity, renal and total norepinephrine (NE) spillover rates were examined during sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE) infusions in four groups of conscious rabbits: 1) saline (control); 2) subpressor ANG II (ANG II, 2 ng.kg-1.min-1); 3) enalaprilat (MK-422, 200 micrograms/kg and 3.3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1); and 4) MK plus ANG II (MK+ANG II). Upper plateaus of baroreflex-NE spillover curves for renal and total NE spillover were reduced in the MK group (25 and 81 ng/min) compared with control (38 and 125 ng/min) and MK+ANG II (37 and 155 ng/min). To investigate the interaction of ANG II and sympathetic activity during treadmill exercise, hindlimb NE spillover rate was examined in three groups of rabbits: 1) control, 2) MK, and 3) MK+ANG II. Exercise at 6 and 12 m/min produced similar effort-related hemodynamic responses in the three groups. At maximal exercise, hindlimb NE spillover was reduced in the MK group (29 +/- 3 ng/min) compared with control (62 +/- 17 ng/min, P < 0.05) and MK+ANG II group (51 +/- 10 ng/min). It is concluded that endogenous ANG II enhances sympathetic activity during pharmacological (baroreflex) and physiological stimulation.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may affect reactive oxygen species in humans in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we evaluated whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may affect NAD(P)H oxidase activity.
The effect of rapid converting enzyme inhibition (CEI) with intravenous enalaprilat on technetium-99m-(99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renograms was evaluated in rats with two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension. Rapid sequential DTPA renograms, performed immediately before and five minutes after enalaprilat injection (30 micrograms/kg), demonstrated a selective decrease in clipped kidney DTPA plasma clearance following CEI and no significant effect on unclipped kidney function. Pre- and post-CEI data were obtained with a single injection of DMSA by administering enalaprilat five minutes after the radiopharmaceutical. Enalaprilat slowed the rate of DMSA accumulation in clipped relative to unclipped kidneys, and reduced the clipped/unclipped kidney ratio of absolute DMSA uptake at 10 and 30 min. DTPA and DMSA were equally effective in demonstrating the CEI effect. Enalaprilat was also compared with captopril (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), using sequential DTPA renograms. Clipped kidney DTPA plasma clearance was reduced to an identical degree (40%) by both converting enzyme inhibitors. Clinical renographic protocols can probably be devised to take advantage of the rapid, reliable CEI of enalaprilat, thereby shortening total procedure time.
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In study 1, there were no effects of angiotensin II on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, norepinephrine clearance or norepinephrine spillover compared with the vehicle control when the patient was in the supine position. Mean arterial pressure increased from 85 +/- 13 to 95 +/- 10 mm Hg with angiotensin II. During upright tilt, plasma norepinephrine and norepinephrine spillover increased comparably with angiotensin II and the vehicle control. During head-down tilt, plasma norepinephrine decreased with both angiotensin II and the vehicle control. Norepinephrine spillover remained elevated relative to control values on both study days during head-down tilt. In study 2, both enalaprilat and vehicle control administration were associated with a slight decrease in mean arterial pressure (5 +/- 2 vs. 3 +/- 4 mm Hg, p = NS), but no changes were seen in plasma norepinephrine. Norepinephrine clearance and spillover decreased comparably with time after both enalaprilat and vehicle control.
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Studies in the once-through perfused rat liver with the simultaneous delivery of 14 C-enalapril and its polar diacid metabolite, 3H-enalaprilat, revealed different extents of elimination (exclusively by biliary excretion) for the generated (14C-enalaprilat) and preformed (3H-enalaprilat) metabolite (18 and 5% dose) [Pang, Cherry, Terrell, and Ulm: Drug Metab. Dispos. 12, 309-313 (1984)]. The present re-examination of data provided an explanation for these discrepant observations: enalaprilat, being a polar dicarboxylic acid, encounters more of a diffusional barrier than its precursor, enalapril, an ethyl ester of enalaprilat. Programs written in Fortran 77 on mass balance relationships were employed to simulate data upon varying the diffusional clearances for drug (CLd) and metabolite [CLd(mi)] from 1 to 5000 ml/min. The metabolic and biliary intrinsic clearances for drug and metabolite were found by trial and error such that the combinations of all clearance parameters yielded data similar to enalaprilat, and 3H-enalaprilat. Our finding indicated that the diffusional clearance for enalaprilat was low (2 ml/min) compared to that of enalapril (75 ml/min). The presence of a diffusional barrier for enalaprilat retards entry of the preformed metabolite into hepatocytes but prevents efflux of the intracellularly formed generated metabolite into sinusoidal blood, thereby enhancing generated metabolite elimination.
We analyzed 16 patients with no structural heart disease referred for electrophysiologic study due to supraventricular tachycardia. During the control period, right and left atrial effective refractory periods (ERP) were determined before and after a 10-minute period of rapid atrial pacing (250 ms) to quantitatively assess pacing-induced shortening of the ERP. After full recovery, a bolus dose of enalaprilat (0.015 mg/kg) was infused and the measurement and stimulation procedure repeated to quantify remodeling after enalaprilat administration.
Recent clinical studies suggest a potential antiarrhythmic role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing atrial fibrillation. Studies in an animal model suggested that these drugs may prevent sustained atrial fibrillation by avoiding the occurrence of detrimental atrial electrical remodeling secondary to temporary episodes of fibrillation or atrial tachycardia. We sought to determine whether intravenous enalaprilat, administered at doses habitually used in clinical practice, prevented pacing-induced acute atrial remodeling.
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Cocaine, like catecholamines or angiotensin II, may induce lethal cardiac or cerebral damage. Restrained rats were fitted with a caudal arterial catheter for on-line cardiovascular monitoring and antidote administration. They were given 60 mg/kg of cocaine i.p., a dose which produces behavioral and cardiovascular effects, convulsions and death in an average time of 10 min. Selected antidotes were administered 5 min after the lethal dose of cocaine. Incidence of lethality was not changed by propranolol, prazosin, labetalol, diazepam or enalaprilat, a converting enzyme inhibitor. Animals treated with any one of the following agents, alpha- or beta-blockers, diazepam or competitive inhibitors of angiotensin II [Sar-1-ile-8] and [Sar-1-thr-8] angiotensin II, presented myocardial infarction. All animals treated with calcium channel antagonists or enalaprilat, whether they survived or not, did not present myocardial infarction. Treatment with nitrendipine, flunarizine or diltiazem, resulted in survival of the animals with no observable aftereffects. Similar results were observed when enalaprilat was administered, with diazepam as an antidote, to a lethal dose of cocaine. Antagonists to the sympatho-adrenal system and to the renin angiotensin system appear to be effective antidotes to cocaine toxicity in the present experimental model.
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Zofenopril calcium (CAS 81938-43-4) is a new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which in addition to the typical activity of the class, proved to possess a specific cardioprotective effect due also to the presence of the sulfhydryl group. In this trial zofenopril calcium and enalapril maleate (CAS 76095-16-4) were given to 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes in repeated dose regiment at two dose levels: 30 mg and 60 mg zofenopril calcium and 10 mg and 20 mg enalapril maleate. The study was conducted according to a two-period, two-sequence, crossover design, with washout. ACE activity in serum and zofenopril, zofenoprilat, enalapril and enalaprilat plasma concentrations were determined during and on the last day of the two study periods. Both zofenopril and enalapril were extensively converted through hydrolysis to their active metabolites zofenoprilat and enalaprilat, respectively. Zofenopril exhibited a complete and a more rapid hydrolysis rate compared to enalapril, which is reflected by the higher metabolite to parent drug ratio of Cmax and AUCss, tau showed by this compound. Even though only two dose levels were investigated in this trial, the pharmacokinetics of both drugs seem to be linear. In line with previous trials, both compounds at both dose levels investigated produced complete or almost complete inhibition of ACE activity in serum, for a period lasting 6-8 h after administration, the inhibition being still relevant 24 h thereafter. The tolerability of the two drugs at both dose levels proved to be very good as demonstrated by subjective and objective symptoms, by the absence of relevant adverse events, and by laboratory biochemical parameters and vital signs evaluated before and after the trial. Blood pressure showed a fairly decreasing trend with both the drugs, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values being however within normal range in all the subjects. In no case symptoms of hypotension were experienced. In conclusion, zofenopril calcium and enalapril maleate show very good tolerability and appear to exert similar activity on serum ACE. The main difference in the pharmacokinetics of the two compounds is the conversion from pro-drug to the active metabolite which is faster with zofenopril.
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The clinical utility of cyclosporin A (CyA) as an immunosuppressive agent has been significantly limited by the frequent occurrence of chronic nephrotoxicity, characterised by tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and progressive renal impairment. The pathogenesis of this condition remains poorly understood, but has been postulated to be due to either direct cytotoxicity or indirect injury secondary to chronic renal vasoconstriction. Using primary cultures of human proximal tubule cells (PTCs) and renal cortical fibroblasts (CFs) as an in vitro model of the tubulointerstitium, we have been able to demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of CyA are directly toxic to these cells and promote fibrogenesis by a combination of suppressed matrix metalloproteinase activity and augmented fibroblast collagen synthesis. The latter effect occurs secondary to the ability of CyA to stimulate autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I by CFs and paracrine secretion of transforming growth factor-beta(1) by PTCs. Many of these pro-fibrotic mechanisms are completely reversed by concurrent administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, which has proven efficacy in preventing chronic CyA nephropathy in vivo. These studies highlight the unique potential that human renal cell cultures offer for studying the role of local cytokine networks in tubulointerstitial disease and for developing more effective treatment strategies which specifically target fibrogenic growth factor activity following nephrotoxic injuries.
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Our data indicate that stimulation of local kinin formation by use of a precursor for kinin formation or inhibition of kinin degradation by use of ACE inhibitors increases NO formation and is important in the control of cardiac O2 consumption. Vasodilation and control of myocardial O2 consumption by NO may contribute importantly to the therapeutic actions of ACE inhibitors in cardiac disease states.
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Structural changes within the blood vessel wall such as hyperplasia and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells are important factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Humoral growth factors such as angiotensin II (AII) and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) may participate in the remodelling of the blood vessel wall. Whether and by which mechanisms antihypertensive treatment is capable of influencing the structural blood vessel alterations to date remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of nifedipine and diltiazem on AII- and PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation was examined. Nifedipine and diltiazem at a concentration of 10 microM did not affect baseline DNA synthesis in isolated vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. AII (final concentration 100 nM) and PDGF-BB (50 ng/ml) stimulated DNA synthesis by approximately 9.0- and 4.6-fold, respectively. Both AII- and PDGF-BB-induced DNA synthesis was significantly blunted by diltiazem and nifedipine in a concentration of 10 microM, while no significant influence was seen with concentrations from 10 nM up to 1 microM. In contrast, no significant influence of these drugs could be observed on fetal calf serum 5%-induced DNA synthesis. The findings indicate that calcium antagonists possess antimitogenic potential and that they may thus contribute to the regression of structural changes of the blood vessels associated with hypertension.
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To determine the role of the renin-angiotensin system and the bradykinin pathway in the mechanism of action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure, the acute effects of enalaprilat (1 mg/kg) were compared with those of a renin inhibitor (ciprokiren, 1 mg/kg i.v.) in 10 chronically instrumented conscious dogs with heart failure induced by right ventricular pacing (3 wk, 240 beats/min). The effects of enalaprilat and ciprokiren on bradykinin infusion (3, 10, and 30 micrograms/min) and the effects of enalaprilat in the presence of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140 (10 micrograms/kg i.v.) were also examined. Both inhibitors significantly decreased mean aortic pressure and increased cardiac output. However, enalaprilat induced significantly greater hemodynamic effects than ciprokiren (mean aortic pressure, -13 +/- 3 vs. -6 +/- 1 mmHg; cardiac output, 0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.1 l/min). Bradykinin infusion led to dose-dependent decreases in mean aortic pressure and increases in cardiac output that were not modified by pretreatment with ciprokiren but were potentiated 10-fold by enalaprilat. Hoe-140 significantly reduced the hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat. Thus endogenous bradykinin is involved in the acute hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat in experimental heart failure.
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Arterial plasma kinins and mean arterial pressure were measured in intact and bilaterally nephrectomized rats infused with vehicle or bradykinin to study the role of 1) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and other peptidases and 2) the kidney (a kininase-rich organ) in the metabolism of kinins in vivo. Before the infusion, rats were pretreated with vehicle, enalaprilat (an ACE inhibitor), or a cocktail of kininase inhibitors containing 1) enalaprilat, 2) DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethyl-thiopropanoic acid (MGTA), a carboxypeptidase N inhibitor, 3) phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, and 4) bestatin, an aminopeptidase B inhibitor. In the rats with vehicle (n = 8), the cocktail did not significantly increase endogenous kinins (from 31 +/- 6 to 41 +/- 9 pg/ml, p = 0.94). In the rats infused with bradykinin (peptidase substrate), plasma kinins increased threefold in the group pretreated with the vehicle, 21-fold in the enalaprilat group, and 22-fold in the cocktail group. These increases were doubled by nephrectomy but were not affected by ureteral ligation. In the groups pretreated with the cocktail or enalaprilat, the hypotensive effect of bradykinin was correlated with plasma kinin concentration (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). After bradykinin infusion was stopped, plasma kinins decreased by half in 10-12 seconds in the rats pretreated with vehicle, enalaprilat, or cocktail. We concluded that ACE and the kidney are important to the metabolism of circulating kinins while carboxypeptidase N, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and aminopeptidase B are not. We also concluded that other tissue peptidases, not affected by either the above inhibitors or nephrectomy, play an important role in kinin metabolism.
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We investigated whether captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a sulfhydryl group, enalaprilat, an ACE inhibitor without a sulfhydryl group, and cysteine, an amino acid with a sulfhydryl group but no ACE-inhibiting properties, could scavenge hydrogen peroxide and prevent oxidant-induced cell injury. When 0.1-2.5 mM concentrations of captopril, cysteine, or enalaprilat were incubated with xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine for 0-120 min, the recovery of hydrogen peroxide was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in the presence of captopril or cysteine, whereas enalaprilat had no effect on the recovery of hydrogen peroxide. Captopril and cysteine could not scavenge hydrogen peroxide when the sulfhydryl group was blocked with N-ethylmaleimide. When human renal tubular epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, oxidant-induced depletion of ATP and efflux of [3H]adenine metabolites was mildly reduced in the presence of captopril or cysteine but was not altered by enalaprilat. Cysteine was more effective in preventing oxidant-induced cell injury than captopril. We conclude that because of its sulfhydryl group, captopril at millimolar concentrations can scavenge hydrogen peroxide and can slightly reduce, but does not eliminate, oxidant-induced cell injury.
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The production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) under basal conditions and after exposure to angiotensin II (ANG II) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in vitro in isolated glomeruli. The glomeruli were obtained from control rats and rats with bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) of 24-h duration that were pretreated or not with an inhibitor of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). Basal prostanoid production was greater in isolated glomeruli from BUO rats than in controls. Administration of an ACE inhibitor, enalaprilat, given in vivo returned basal prostanoid production by isolated glomeruli of BUO rats to levels seen in glomeruli of control rats. The prostanoid production in response to addition of ANG II or AVP in vitro was blunted in glomeruli from BUO rats, but the response was restored to "normal" after blockade of ANG II synthesis in vivo in BUO rats. Blockade of ANG II synthesis in vivo did not affect prostanoid synthesis by isolated glomeruli of control rats. The prostanoid generation in response to addition of both ANG II and arachidonic acid in vitro compared with ANG II addition alone was not significantly stimulated in glomeruli from BUO rats. In contrast, it was significantly stimulated in glomeruli of control rats. The results indicate that endogenous ANG II has an important role in the increased synthesis of prostanoids found in isolated glomeruli of rats with BUO and that the in vitro prostanoid production in response to ANG II and AVP can be restored to normal when the synthesis of ANG II is inhibited in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The objective of the study was to determine if bradykinin-induced airway microvascular leakage in rats was altered by pretreatment of animals with enalaprilat, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), or phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.11 (EP 24.11). We found that the intravascular infusion of bradykinin induced microvascular leakage of Evans blue dye in tracheal tissue (0.088 +/- 0.035 micrograms/mg tissue) that was significantly amplified by pretreatment with 3.27 mM enalaprilat (0.458 +/- 0.226 micrograms/mg tissue), but not by pretreatment with 10 mM phosphoramidon (0.082 +/- 0.0453 micrograms/mg tissue). Leakage in carinal tissue was also amplified by pretreatment with 3.27 mM enalaprilat (0.205 +/- 0.050 vs. 0.036 +/- 0.006 micrograms/mg tissue for bradykinin alone), whereas no amplification was observed in parenchymal tissue by pretreatment with either inhibitor. These findings indicate that in the rat, ACE, but not EP 24.11, modulates bradykinin-induced airway microvascular leakage following intravascular infusion of these agents.
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The acute hemodynamic, hormonal, and pharmacokinetic aspects of treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril were assessed in two studies in 24 patients with chronic stable congestive heart failure (CHF). Lisinopril, the lysine analogue of enalaprilat, is biologically active following absorption and is cleared via the urine without any known metabolic transformation. In the hemodynamic study, single doses of lisinopril (1.25-10.0 mg) were administered on days 1 and 3, each followed by 48 h of intensive hemodynamic observation in 12 patients. Arterial and mixed venous blood from the right atrium were sampled frequently and assayed for angiotensin I, angiotensin II, ACE activity, plasma renin activity, renin substrate, plasma aldosterone, and serum drug concentration. Across all doses, reductions in mean arterial pressure (-17.2%), mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (-28.0%), and systemic vascular resistance (-25.6%) were observed compared to baseline values. No significant changes in heart rate or cardiac index were observed. The analysis of the hormonal parameters indicate potent inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for a period exceeding 24 h. In the pharmacokinetic study, 12 hospitalized patients with chronic CHF received lisinopril both orally and intravenously, with each dose followed by a 72-h arterial blood and urine sampling schedule. Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously for 6 h following each dosage using an intraarterial cannula. Mean urinary recovery of lisinopril was found to be 15% following oral administration and 88% following intravenous administration. Maximal serum drug concentration occurred at 6 h after oral drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was normal at rest and pathologically increased at 60+/-13 W only in groups 1 and 2 (27.2+/-3 and 32.2+/-8 mm Hg, respectively), but not in group 3 (12.2+/-4 mm Hg; p<0.001). At the identical load level, the PCWP in patients with microangiopathy (group 1) was significantly (p<0.01) reduced after enalaprilat (-21.7%) and even normalized in 5 of 10 patients. This was accompanied by a significant (p>0.01) decrease in ST segment depression (-73.9%) and in the occurrence of angina pectoris, despite the fact that the rate-pressure product as a measure of myocardial oxygen consumption was significantly (p<0.05) increased. Also in patients with CAD enalaprilat had a significant effect on PCWP (p<0.01), ST segment depression (p<0.01), occurrence of angina pectoris (p<0.001), cardiac index (p<0.05), and stroke index (p<0.05) during exercise. In group 3 there were no significant changes in PCWP, cardiac index, and stroke index after enalaprilat either at rest or during exercise.
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The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is a paramount target for the pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular diseases. As modeling and simulation techniques are becoming increasingly utilized in cardiovascular research, our aim was to develop a physiology-based model that describes the effect of different drugs at different doses on the RAAS and integrates physiology-based description drug pharmacokinetics (PK). First, a basic RAAS model was developed in which equations for drug effects were included and missing parameters estimated. Next, a physiology-based PK model for enalapril and enalaprilat was developed and coupled to the RAAS model. Simulation of the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aliskiren administration on angiotensins I and II did not reveal significant overestimation or underestimation. For all drugs, the error numerics were acceptable. The model also encompassed the PK of intravenous and oral enalapril and its conversion to enalaprilat. In summary, we report a physiology-based model for the interaction of the RAAS biomarkers angiotensin I and II with enalapril, benazepril, aliskiren, and losartan that allows for an adequate description of the RAAS response after single administration of the drugs. Such a comprehensive description may lead to a better understanding of the effects of pharmacological interventions in the RAAS.