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To evaluate the effective diagnostic screening of disease in its early stage by inexpensive method and also to evaluate the effect of indigenous mouthrinse on reversal of pre-cancerous lesions.
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Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. Hepatic lipid peroxidation level increased significantly whereas significant depletion was observed in reduced glutathione level after carbon tetrachloride administration. A minimum elevation was found in protein content on the contrary a significant fall was observed in glycogen content of liver and kidney after toxicant exposure. Activities of adenosine triphosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase inhibited significantly in both the organs after toxicity. Treatment with TB extract (200, 400 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and gallic acid (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent recovery in all these biochemical parameters but the effect was more pronounced with gallic acid. Thus it may be concluded that 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver and kidney damage.
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The present study was aimed at developing colon specific drug delivery system for sennosides and Triphala. These drugs are reputed Ayurvedic medicines for constipation in India. The proposed device explored the application of pectin and ethyl cellulose as a mixed film for colon specific delivery. This mixed film was prepared using non-aqueous solvents like acetone and isopropyl alcohol. A 32 factorial design was adopted to optimize the formulation variables like, ratio of ethyl cellulose to pectin (X1) and coat weight (X2). The rate and extent of drug release were found to be related to the thickness and the ratio of pectin to ethyl cellulose within the film. Statistical treatments to the drug release data revealed that the X1 variable was more important than X2. Under simulated colonic conditions, drug release was more pronounced from coating formulations containing higher proportions of pectin. The surface of the device was coated with Eudragit S100 to ensure that the device was more pH dependent and trigger the drug release only at higher pH. The final product is expected to have the advantage of being biodegradable and pH dependant. This type of a film effectively releases the drug while maintaining its integrity.
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The effect of 0, 5, 6.25, 10, 12.5, 20, 25, 40, 50 and 80 mg/kg b. wt. of aqueous extract of triphala (an Ayurvedic herbal medicine) administrered intraperitoneally was studied on the radiation-induced mortality in mice exposed to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation. Treatment of mice with different doses of triphala consecutively for five days before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated controls. The highest protection against GI (gastrointestinal) death was observed for 12.5 mg/kg triphala, where a highest number of survivors were reported up to 10 days post-irradiation. While 10 mg/kg triphala i.p. provided the best protection as evidenced by the highest number of survivors after 30 days post-irradiation in this group when compared with the other doses of triphala. Toxicity study showed that triphala was non-toxic up to a dose of 240 mg/kg, where no drug-induced mortality was observed. The LD50 dose i.p. of triphala was found to be 280 mg/kg b. wt. Our study demonstrates the ability of triphala as a good radioprotective agent and the optimum protective dose of triphala was 1/28 of its LD50 dose.
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Herbal combination of Itrifal Saghir (triphala) has been widely used in traditional medicine. And brings health benefits such as antioxidant effect and scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide radicals activity and substantiated in traditional medicine a anti-obesity.
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Study population consisted of sixty dentures wearers from those attending the Outpatient Department of Prosthodontics of the School of Dentistry, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of triphala and chlorhexidine. The swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total Candida counts were determined.
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This study sought to explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of triphala in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, triphala (100-300 μg/ml) significantly suppressed production of inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VEGF, NO, PGE2), intracellular free radicals and release of lysosomal enzymes (e.g. acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl glucosamindase and cathepsin D) in a dose-related manner. With triphala, mRNA levels of genes for pro-inflammatory TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 enzymes and NF-κBp65 were down-regulated in the stimulated cells; in contrast, there was up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Western blot analyses revealed that triphala suppressed the protein expression of NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 in the stimulated cells, which subsequently reduced over-expression of TNFα, IL-17, iNOS and COX-2 in a manner similar to that observed with BAY 11-7082, an IκB kinase inhibitor. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed inhibition of p-NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and COX-2 protein expression caused by triphala. Consistent with these findings, the animal studies presented confirmed that triphala exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model by reducing of inflammatory mediator (e.g. IL-17, COX-2 and RANKL) expression via inhibition of NF-κB activation. Taken together, the results here demonstrated that triphala has potential anti-inflammatory applications that could be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis.
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To use Atomic Force Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of 5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and triphala on ProTaper and iRaCe rotary Ni-Ti instruments.
Significant (P<0.01) reduction in the cataleptic scores was observed in all NR-ANX-C treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in the NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD activity was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in NR-ANX-C (25mg/kg) treated group.
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Triphala comme un anti fongique est démontré pour avoir plus d'efficacité que le lavage de la bouche classique chlorhexidine.
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TRP mouthwash was found to decrease inflammatory parameters from baseline to follow-up intervals. Because improvement in gingivitis was comparable with that of CHX mouthwash, TRP mouthwash can be considered a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of gingivitis.
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This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.
India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further.
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Triphala churna (THL) is a combination of three fruits that has been used for many years in India for the treatment of various diseases. There are now reports which indicate that THL can inhibit growth of malignant tumors in animals. However, the mechanisms by which THL mediates its anti-tumor actions are still being explored. Because vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) induced angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cancer, we therefore investigated whether tumor inhibitory effects of THL or its active constituents are through suppression of VEGF actions. We herein report that THL and chebulinic (CI) present in THL can significantly and specifically inhibit VEGF induced angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) phosphorylation. These results are of clinical significance as these inexpensive and non-toxic natural products can be used for the prevention and treatment of diseases where VEGF induced angiogenesis has an important role.
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Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.
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The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of triphala and its underlying mechanism on adjuvant-induced rat model. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the right hind paw of the Wistar albino rats. Triphala (100 mg/kg body weight [bwt]) was administered intraperitoneally (from 11th to 20th day) after the arthritis induction. Arthritis induction increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (LPO and NO), elastase, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-β, IL-17, IL-6 and MCP-1), inflammatory marker enzymes (iNOS and COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and transcription factors (NF-kB p65 and AP-1) in the paw tissues of rats. The levels of bone collagen were found to decrease with increased urinary constituents (hydroxyproline and total glycosaminoglycans) in arthritic rats. In addition, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased expression of NF-kBp65 and COX-2 in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. However, administration of triphala significantly inhibited the biochemical and molecular alterations in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats compared to indomethacin (3 mg/kg bwt) as evidenced by the radiological and histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that triphala administration ameliorate bone and cartilage degradation during rheumatoid arthritis.
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Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used irrigant in endodontic practice, but it has various disadvantages. Literature has shown that herbal products such as Propolis, Azadirachta indica (AI), Triphala, Curcuma longa, and Morinda citrifolia (MC) possess good antimicrobial properties and thus can be used as potential endodontic irrigants.
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Chebulic ellagitannins (ChET) are plant-derived polyphenols containing chebulic acid subunits, possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. The herbal formulation Padma Hepaten containing ChETs as the main phenolics, is used as a hepatoprotective remedy. In the present study, an in vitro dynamic model simulating gastrointestinal digestion, including dialysability, was applied to estimate the bioaccessibility of the main phenolics of Padma Hepaten. Results indicated that phenolic release was mainly achieved during the gastric phase (recovery 59.38%-97.04%), with a slight further release during intestinal digestion. Dialysis experiments showed that dialysable phenolics were 64.11% and 22.93%-26.05% of their native concentrations, respectively, for gallic acid/simple gallate esters and ellagitanins/ellagic acid, in contrast to 20.67% and 28.37%-55.35% for the same groups in the non-dialyzed part of the intestinal media. Investigation of human gut microbiota metabolites of Padma Hepaten and pure ChETs (chebulinic, chebulagic acids) established the formation of bioactive urolithins (A, B, C, D, M5). The fact of urolithin formation during microbial transformation from ChETs and ChET-containing plant material was revealed for the first time. Evaluation of the protective effect of ChETs colonic metabolites and urolithins on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury in cultured rat primary hepatocytes demonstrated their significant reversion of the t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity, malonic dialdehyde production and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The most potent compound was urolithin C with close values of hepatoprotection to gallic acid. The data obtained indicate that in the case of Padma Hepaten, we speculate that urolithins have the potential to play a role in the hepatic prevention against oxidative damage.
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Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety.