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This study tests the hypothesis that the activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) regulate human semaphorin 6B (Sema6B) gene expression. The human MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line was chosen because it expresses Sema6B at a high level. The Sema6B mRNA level was analyzed by RT-PCR and the semaphorin 6B protein content was determined using a polyclonal antibody that we have produced and characterized. Treatments with fenofibrate (a PPARalpha activator) and troglitazone (a PPARgamma ligand) strongly decreased the Sema6B mRNA. The drop in Sema6B mRNA level and in protein content was more important when the treatment combined the action of fenofibrate or troglitazone and 9-cis-retinoic acid. On the other hand, no significant change was observed in the Sema6B mRNA and protein levels when the cells were exposed to the combined action of GW610742 (a PPARbeta activator) and 9-cis-retinoic acid. These data suggest that PPARalpha/RXR and PPARgamma/RXR heterodimers are involved in the regulation of Sema6B gene expression and open new perspectives concerning the participation of these nuclear receptors in cell recognition and migration.
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For the last 30 years fibrates have been widely prescribed to treat human dyslipidemia. However, the primary mechanism by which they lower plasma lipid levels is still unknown. Studies with transgenic mice have suggested that changes in apoC-III expression levels have a dramatic influence on plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggested that fibrates could reduce lipid levels by lowering apoC-III gene expression. In the current studies, we sought to determine whether the selected fibrates, bezafibrate, clofibrate, fenofibrate, and gemfibrozil, could reduce hepatic apoC-III mRNA and plasma apoC-III levels. Chow-fed rats were orally gavaged daily with a dosing vehicle alone or with 100 mg/kg of each of the fibrates for 1 week and in addition with gemfibrozil for 2 weeks. Bezafibrate and fenofibrate lowered plasma triglyceride by approximately half and dramatically reduced hepatic apoC-III mRNA and plasma apoC-III levels. In contrast, clofibrate did not reduce plasma triglyceride levels and only partially reduced apoC-III mRNA and plasma protein levels. Gemfibrozil strongly reduced plasma triglyceride levels and had an intermediate but significant effect on apoC-III mRNA and plasma apoC-III levels. Some of the fibrates, especially gemfibrozil also reduced plasma apoC-II levels, an effect that could contribute to the observed triglyceride-lowering effect. In addition, the ratio of plasma apoE to plasma apoC-II plus apoC-III was strongly and inversely correlated with plasma triglyceride levels. As plasma apoE levels were not reduced in gemfibrozil-treated animals, this could also have contributed to the triglyceride-lowering effect of this fibrate. Fibrate-mediated triglyceride lowering was not the result of a decreased apoB or VLDL production and, therefore, suggested an enhanced VLDL remnant catabolism. Our results suggest that the mechanism by which fibrates lower plasma triglycerides is by reducing the level of hepatic apoC-III expression.
Our study demonstrated that fenofibrate may exert beneficial effects in patients with systolic HF through regulation of HO-1 expression and amelioration of endothelial activation.
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Bexarotene is an oral retinoid approved for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in patients resistant to first-line systemic treatment. Hypertriglyceridaemia is an unavoidable adverse effect of bexarotene therapy, and requires monitoring because of the risk of developing pancreatitis. Therefore, prophylactic hypolipidaemic therapy, usually with a fibrate alone, is required for preventing bexarotene-induced hypertriglyceridaemia. Despite these measures, a large number of patients develop very severe hypertriglyceridaemia.
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There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat diabetic retinopathy, there is need to reliably identify and triage people with diabetes. Biomarkers may facilitate a better understanding of diabetic retinopathy, and contribute to the development of novel treatments and new clinical strategies to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes. This article reviews key aspects related to biomarker research, and focuses on some specific biomarkers relevant to diabetic retinopathy.
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After 8 weeks of fenofibrate therapy, there was no change in HDL cholesterol, 1.13 ± 0.06 v 1.16 ± 0.06 mmol/l (P = 0.47) or apoA-I, 1.19 ± 0.05 v 1.20 ± 0.05 g/l (P = 0.23). LpA-I fell significantly 0.35 ± 0.03 v 0.29 ± 0.02 (P = 0.02) but there was a rise in apoA-II, 0.35 ± 0.01 v 0.39 ± 0.01 g/l (P = 0.01). There was a significant fall in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoB.
CRP levels decreased in both the fenofibrate (p=0.003) and comparison (p=0.048) groups. Changes in CRP levels were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.27) and were negatively associated with baseline CRP levels (r=-0.47, p<0.001). In patients with a baseline CRP level ≥1 mg/L, CRP levels also decreased in both groups (p=0.000 and p=0.001 respectively), however, more in the fenofibrate group than in the comparison group (p=0.025). The reduction of CRP was associated with higher baseline CRP levels (r=-0.29, p=0.001), lower body mass index (BMI, r=0.23, p=0.007), and fenofibrate therapy (r=0.19, p=0.025). CRP levels decreased more in the fenofibrate group than in the comparison group in patients with a BMI ≤26 kg/m(2) with borderline significance (-1.21±1.82 mg/L vs. -0.89±1.92 mg/L, p=0.097). In patients with a high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level <40 mg/dL, CRP levels were reduced only in the fenofibrate group (p=0.006).
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Both atorvastatin and fenofibrate are known to lower postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants. However, until now it has not been investigated which of the two drugs is more effective in one and the same patient and, secondly, whether these drugs exert different effects on chylomicron remnants of different sizes. To this end 12 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were treated in a crossover study with 40 mg atorvastatin or with 200 mg micronized fenofibrate once daily for 6 weeks. Oral fat loading was given before and after each treatment. Chylomicron remnants of various sizes were determined by fluorometric determinations of retinyl palmitate after lipoprotein separation by size-exclusion chromatography. As expected, atorvastatin was more effective than fenofibrate on total and LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05). Fenofibrate, in contrast, was more effective on all triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in both the fasting and the postprandial state. The stronger effect of fenofibrate affected not only chylomicrons and VLDL but also chylomicron remnants. It reduced large chylomicron remnants by 66% at 6h and by 74% at 8 h. The action of atorvastatin was less pronounced, with corresponding reductions of 42 and 65% (P < 0.05 only after 8 h). Fenofibrate was even more effective on small chylomicron remnants, yielding reductions of 47, 74, and 66% at 4, 6, and 8 h. Atorvastatin, in contrast, gave reductions of 30 and 26% after 6 and 8 h, the effect reaching statistical significance only after 6h. Fenofibrate is therefore more effective than atorvastatin in lowering all triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including large and small chylomicron remnants.
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When aiming to change HDL-C or triglycerides, dual therapy is to be preferred to doubling the statin dose; conversely, doubling the statin dose is to be preferred when aiming to reduce LDL-C. If the aim is both to change HDL-C or triglycerides and to reduce LDL-C, the importance of the three outcomes may need to be weighed depending on the intensity of the statin. Combining high intensity statin therapy with fenofibrate improves the effect on HDL-C and triglycerides, but lowers the effect on LDL-C. Combining a moderate intensity statin with fenofibrate improves the effect on HDL-C and triglycerides without reducing the effect on LDL-C. There is a need for long-term randomized clinical trials to compare dual therapy versus doubling the statin dose to assess the importance of improvement in HDL-C and triglycerides versus improvement in LDL-C in terms of cardiovascular outcomes. Further, the addition of ezetimibe to statin/fenofibrate therapy may be of interest.
To assess the efficacy of fenofibrate and statin dual therapy versus a double or equivalent dose of statin monotherapy.
The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway was significantly inhibited in AF patients and in the rabbit/HL-1 cell models, resulting in a reduction of key downstream metabolic factors; this effect was significantly restored by fenofibrate. Fenofibrate prevented the alterations in circulating biochemical metabolites, reduced the level of adenine nucleotides and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets, reversed the shortened atrial effective refractory period and increased risk of AF.
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Ten patients with HLPIIb were treated with micronized fenofibrate for 1 month. Before and after treatment, the cytokine levels were measured by the ELISA method. To accurately evaluate cytokine levels, we excluded atherosclerotic patients and control subjects with any inflammatory disease.
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In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial, eligible patients were 18 to 79 years of age, with mixed hyperlipidemia (LDL-C 130-220 mg/dL, TG 150-500 mg/dL). Patients with type 2 diabetes were limited to those with LDL-C of 100 to 180 mg/dL. Patients (N = 611) were randomized in a 3:3:3:1 ratio to one of 4 treatment arms for 12 weeks: ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20 mg (EZE/SIMVA) + fenofibrate 160 mg (FENO), EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg, FENO 160 mg, or placebo. The primary objective was to evaluate the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of EZE/SIMVA + FENO versus FENO monotherapy.
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Fenofibric acid was examined for the effect of increase of ABCA1 activity. It enhanced ABCA1 gene transcription and its protein level in macrophage cell line cells and fibroblasts and increased apolipoprotein A-I-mediated cellular lipid release, all in a dose-dependent manner. Enhancement of the gene transcription was examined by using a reporter assay system for liver X receptor responsive element (LXRE) and its inactive mutant. The results demonstrated that the effect of fenofibric acid is dependent on active LXRE.
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CoQ10 supplementation did not improve any monitored parameter in the control group except for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine and Lp(a) plasma levels, both during fenofibrate and/or PUFA treatment. In MHTG group, CoQ10 supplementation significantly improved TG, TC, Lp(a), uric acid and blood pressure during fenofibrate treatment, but only Lp(a) and blood pressure during PUFA treatment. Fenofibrate appeared to have better effect on hsCRP and gamma-GT plasma levels than PUFA. No significant change was observed in any group and under any treatment in regards to homocysteinemia, PAI-1, or t-PA.
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Nuclear hormone receptors (NR) are important transcriptional regulators of numerous genes involved in diverse pathophysiological and therapeutic functions. Following ligand activation, class II NR share the ability to heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). It is established that RXR activators, rexinoids, transactivate several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) target genes in a PPARalpha-dependent manner. We hypothesized that, once activated, RXR might signal through quiescent NR other than PPARalpha, in an organ-specific manner. To study this putative phenomenon in vivo, we developed an array of 120 genes relevant to the class II NR field. The genes were selected using both published data and high-density screenings performed on RXR or PPARalpha agonist-treated mice. Wild-type C57BL/6J and PPARalpha-deficient mice were treated with fenofibrate (PPARalpha activator) or LGD1069 (RXR activator). Using our customized array, we studied the hepatic, cardiac, and renal expression of this panel of 120 genes and compared them in both murine genotypes. The results obtained from this study confirmed the ability of an RXR agonist to modulate PPARalpha-restricted target genes in the liver and the kidney. Furthermore, we show that various organ-specific regulations occurring in both genotypes (PPARalpha +/+ or -/-) are highly indicative of the ability of RXR to recruit other class II NR pathways. Further development of this molecular tool may lead to a better understanding of the permissiveness of class II nuclear receptor dimers in vivo.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) regulate lipid and glucose metabolism but their anticancer properties have been recently studied as well. We previously reported the antimetastatic activity of the PPARalpha ligand, fenofibrate, against melanoma tumors in vivo. Here we investigated possible molecular mechanisms of fenofibrate anti metastatic action.
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This review describes the effectiveness and safety of statins in the treatment of HIV-dyslipidemia. Medline was searched for different statins as treatment for HIV-dyslipidemia.
Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of pravastatin 40 mg and fenofibrate 160 mg. The rationale for the use of Pravafenix is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed for high-risk patients with either increased triglycerides or low HDL cholesterol levels despite statin monotherapy. This article reviews the current available information on the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety of Pravafenix. Pravafenix is recommended to be taken with food in the evening. In clinical trials, Pravafenix consistently produces complementary benefits on the overall atherogenic lipid profile of high-risk patients with mixed hyperlipidemia not controlled by either pravastatin 40 mg or simvastatin 20 mg. Within the limitations of the database, Pravafenix seems to be well tolerated up to 64 weeks, with an overall tolerability and safety profile consistent with findings generally observed with fenofibrate treatment. In particular, no myopathy or rhabdomyolysis has been reported. The actual European indication is restricted to high-risk patients with mixed hyperlipidemia whose LDL cholesterol levels are adequately controlled on pravastatin 40 mg monotherapy. Whether Pravafenix confers additional cardiovascular benefits in high-risk patients treated with a statin remains to be determined.
Fenofibrate is a synthetic ligand for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and has been widely used in the treatment of metabolic disorders, especially hyperlipemia, due to its lipid-lowering effect. The molecular mechanism of lipid-lowering is relatively well defined: an activated PPARalpha forms a PPAR-RXR heterodimer and this regulates the transcription of genes involved in energy metabolism by binding to PPAR response elements in their promoter regions, so-called "trans-activation". In addition, fenofibrate also has anti-inflammatory and anti-athrogenic effects in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. We have limited information about the anti-inflammatory mechanism of fenofibrate; however, "trans-repression" which suppresses production of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules probably contributes to this mechanism. Furthermore, there are reports that fenofibrate affects endothelial cells in a PPARalpha-independent manner. In order to identify PPARalpha-dependently and PPARalpha-independently regulated transcripts, we generated microarray data from human endothelial cells treated with fenofibrate, and with and without siRNA-mediated knock-down of PPARalpha. We also constructed dynamic Bayesian transcriptome networks to reveal PPARalpha-dependent and -independent pathways. Our transcriptome network analysis identified growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) as a hub gene having PPARalpha-independently regulated transcripts as its direct downstream children. This result suggests that GDF15 may be PPARalpha-independent master-regulator of fenofibrate action in human endothelial cells.
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Numerous studies have shown a strong association between CRP levels and future vascular events (i.e., coronary, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular disease), with minimal correlation to low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Clinical guidelines have recently been published indicating that CRP levels of <1, 1-3, and >3 mg/L correspond to low, moderate, and high risk, respectively, for future vascular events. Drugs including statins, fibrates, niacin, thiazolidinediones, and antiplatelet agents, as well as weight loss and exercise, have demonstrated efficacy in lowering CRP levels.