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Complications are low in infants<3 months of age with UTI, especially in those ≥ 29 days of age. The identification of patients at very low risk for complications would allow a less aggressive management. Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility remains stable, but continuing careful surveillance is essential to optimize empirical antibiotic treatment.
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We examined gonococci isolated in 2004, in East Java and Papua, Indonesia, to review the suitability of ciprofloxacin-based and other treatment regimens. Gonococci from the two provinces were tested in Sydney for susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin and rifampicin. Of 163 gonococcal isolates from East Java (91) and Papua (72), 120 (74%) of gonococci, 62 (68%) and 58 (80%) from East Java and Papua, respectively, were penicillinase-producing gonococci and 162 displayed high-level tetracycline resistance. Eighty-seven isolates (53%) were ciprofloxacin resistant, 44 (48%) from East Java and 43 (60%) from Papua. All isolates were sensitive to cefixime/ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin were in the range 0.05-8 mg/L. Sixty-nine gonococci (42%) showed combined resistance, to penicillin, tetracycline and quinolones. Quinolone resistance has now reached unacceptable levels, and their use for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Indonesia should be reconsidered.
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To investigate whether multiple peptide transporters mediate absorption of beta-lactams carrying different charges at physiological pH, we used the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cloned rabbit intestinal peptide transporter PepT1. Characteristics of transport of the anionic cefixime and the zwitterionic cefadroxil were assessed by 1) flux studies using radiolabeled compounds, by 2) measuring changes in pHin in cells and oocytes as a consequence of substrate-mediated proton influx and 3) by applying the two-electrode voltage clamp technique to assess the electrophysiological phenomena associated with beta-lactam transport in oocytes expressing PepT1. Both beta-lactams were rapidly taken up into Caco-2 cells and oocytes expressing PepT1 by a pH-dependent and saturable transport pathway. Mutual inhibition suggested that acidic and zwitterionic compounds may share a common transporter. Cefixime and cefadroxil caused a significant decline in intracellular pH as a consequence of proton coupled substrate influx. Uptake of cefixime and cefadroxil via PepT1 expressed in oocytes was electrogenic indicating that transport of both beta-lactams is associated with movement of net positive charge. The more acidic pH required for rheogenic cefixime uptake in both cell systems, when compared to cefadroxil uptake in both cell systems, when compared to cefadroxil uptake, and the concomitant faster intracellular acidification indicates that cefixime most likely is taken up only in its nonionized form with an additional proton being cotransported. This is supported by the observation that cefixime uptake at different pH correlated significantly with the percentage of the nonionized species being present. From our studies we conclude that a single peptide transport system can mediate electrogenic uptake of the neutral form of beta-lactam antibiotics into intestinal epithelial cells.
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The MIC of azithromycin in investigated strains ranged from 0,064 to 4 mg/L, MIC50 = 0.5 mg/L, MIC90 = 2 mg/L. It was shown that only 38.5% of the strains were sensitive to azithromycin according to EUCAST criteria from 2014 year and 89.3% of the strains were sensitive to azithromycin according to CDC criteria from 2014 year.
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Cefixime, a new orally absorbed cephalosporin, was compared by in vitro testing with other oral beta-lactams, including cephalexin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by lower concentrations of cefixime than any of the reference drugs; 90% and 95% were inhibited by less than or equal to 1.0 and less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. Cefixime was the least active among these drugs against staphylococci, with only 31% of 1106 strains inhibited by less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml and less than 1% by less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml. Enterococci and pseudomonads were not susceptible to any of the drugs tested. Penicillin-resistant pneumococci were relatively resistant to cefixime, but penicillin-susceptible pneumococci were very susceptible to cefixime. Other streptococci were generally susceptible to all compounds tested, with relative activities of amoxicillin greater than cefaclor and cefuroxime greater than cefixime greater than cephalexin. Cefixime was inactive against Bacteroides species. A slight inoculum effect occurred with cefixime with inocolum concentrations varying from 10(5) to 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter, but this was more marked at 10(7) colony forming units per milliliter. Cefixime was resistant to hydrolysis by seven common beta-lactamases. It inhibited the hydrolysis of nitrocefin only by type 1 cephalosporinases. The disk diffusion zone diameter breakpoints for the 30-micrograms cefixime disk were determined by regression analysis to be greater than or equal to 27 mm (susceptible) and less than or equal to 23 mm (resistant), respectively corresponding to minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 1.0 and greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml. Because of the high interpretive error rate (13.8%) and the occurrence of these breakpoints on the parabolic portion of the regression curve, we recommend further evaluation of cefixime disks with lower potencies.
This study evaluated the effects of exposure to serum, tonsils and breakpoint drug concentrations of clarithromycin, azithromycin, cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate on Streptococcus pyogenes susceptibility. Frequency of mutation and development of resistance after ten passages on antibiotic gradient plates, followed by ten passages without antibiotic, were determined. Phenotypes of macrolide-resistant strains grown at the end of multi-step selection were also determined. Azithromycin induced a surge of resistant strains more rapidly and frequently than clarithromycin, particularly at tonsils concentrations. With amoxicillin/clavulanate no strains showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) higher than the susceptibility breakpoint. Mutational frequencies were higher for azithromycin, at serum and breakpoint drug concentrations, than for the other drugs. Most of the macrolide resistant strains showed an MLS(B) phenotype. In conclusion, the ability to prevent the occurrence of resistance in clinical isolates of S. pyogenes was similar for amoxicillin/clavulanate and clarithromycin followed by cefixime > azithromycin when tonsil drug concentrations were considered, and greater for amoxicillin/clavulanate followed by clarithromycin > cefixime> azithromycin, at breakpoint and serum concentrations.
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In this study, the in-vitro activity of levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae was compared with the activities of a range of other antibiotics. In total, 320 penicillin-susceptible and 30 penicillin-intermediate clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were collected in Germany between 1992 and 1994 from patients with bacteraemic pneumonia. MICs were determined using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the NCCLS and the results with levofloxacin compared with those with ofloxacin, D-ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin, cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefuroxime, faropenem, erythromycin and tetracycline. Levofloxacin (MIC50 1 mg/L) was approximately twice as active against the isolates as ofloxacin (MIC50 2 mg/L). D-ofloxacin (MIC90 32 mg/L) showed no activity, while beta-lactam antibiotics showed elevated MIC90 values against penicillin-intermediate strains (amoxycillin, 1 mg/L; cefpodoxime, 2 mg/L; cefixime, 32 mg/L; cefuroxime, 8 mg/L) in comparison with the MIC90 obtained with penicillin-susceptible strains (amoxycillin, 0.015 mg/L; cefpodoxime, 0.03 mg/L; cefixime, 0.5 mg/L; cefuroxime, 0.03 mg/L). Faropenem showed good activity against pneumococcal isolates (penicillin-susceptible strains, MIC90 0.016 mg/L; penicillin-intermediate strains, MIC90 0.25 mg/L). Erythromycin (MIC90 8 mg/L) and tetracycline (MIC90 64 mg/L) were also less active against penicillin-intermediate pneumococcal isolates. In conclusion, levofloxacin and faropenem may be useful in the treatment of pneumococcal infections caused by organisms with decreased susceptibility to penicillin.
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For ciprofloxacin, 123 (83.1%) gonococcal isolates were resistant, 2 (1.4%) had intermediate susceptibility, and 23 (15.6%) were fully susceptible. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin, whereas 1 isolate (0.7%) was resistant to cefixime. For azithromycin, 124 isolates (83.8%) were susceptible, 20 (13.5%) had decreased susceptibility, and 4 (2.7%) were resistant. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin (101; 68.2%) and tetracycline (144; 97.3%). The minimum inhibitory concentration ranges for each antibiotic were as follows: ciprofloxacin (0.002-32 mg/L), ceftriaxone (≤0.002-0.064 mg/L), cefixime (≤0.016-0.38 mg/L), spectinomycin (2-24 mg/L), azithromycin (0.023-1 mg/L), penicillin (0.094-32 mg/L), and tetracycline (0.019-256 mg/L).
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The monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and characterization of N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (NG-MAST, ST) provide important surveillance data as resistance rates continue to rise. A total of 2970 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected by Canadian provincial public health laboratories in 2010, and 1233 were submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory for testing. The NG-MAST and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution were determined for each isolate. Of the 2970 isolates, 25.1% were resistant to penicillin, 34.6% resistant to tetracycline, 31.5% resistant to erythromycin, 35.9% resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 1.2% resistant to azithromycin. Decreased susceptibility to cefixime (MIC ≥ 0.25 mg/L) and ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 0.125 mg/L) was identified in 3.2% and 7.3% of the isolates, respectively. The most common STs found in Canada were ST1407 (13.3%), ST3150 (11.3%), and ST3158 (9.0%), with 249 different STs identified among the isolates. Within the ST1407 group, 19.5% and 43.3% isolates have decreased susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone, respectively. ST1407, the most prevalent NG-MAST in Canada in 2010, has been associated with high-level ceftriaxone MICs and with cefixime treatment failure cases worldwide. Identification and monitoring of STs and corresponding antimicrobial resistance profiles may be useful in surveillance programs and be used to inform public health actions.
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Ciprofloxacin was the most active antibacterial agent (78% susceptible), followed by gentamicin. High rates of resistance were observed for cefixime (57.9%) and cotrimoxazole. The results for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid were insignificant with P-value= 0.302, P-value= 0.550, P-value= 0.334, P-value= 0.084, P-value= 0.948, P-value= 0.686, P-value= 0.120 and P-value= 0.162, respectively. The results were significant for cefixime with P-value= 0.013.
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The standard recommendation for treatment of young, febrile children with urinary tract infection has been hospitalization for intravenous antimicrobials. The availability of potent, oral, third-generation cephalosporins as well as interest in cost containment and avoidance of nosocomial risks prompted evaluation of the safety and efficacy of outpatient therapy.
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To investigate the natural susceptibility to 71 antimicrobial agents of 103 Listeria strains belonging to all known Listeria species (L. monocytogenes (N = 21), L. innocua (N = 21), L. seeligeri (N = 21), L. ivanovii (N = 19), L. welshimeri (N = 11), and L. grayi (N = 10)).
Only published comparative clinical trial reports are included in the review of clinical efficacy. Noncomparative clinical data pertaining to uses of cefprozil not approved by the Food and Drug Administration are not included.
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A sensitive, accurate and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method for the determination of cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefaclor, cefixime, ceftizoxime, and cephalexin is proposed. Aliquots of each cephalosporin were hydrolyzed for 15 min with 0.1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C and then oxidized with Fe3+ in sulfuric acid medium to produce Fe2+. The produced Fe2+ is then complexed by o-phenanthroline (o-phen) in citrate buffer at pH 4.2 to form the red complex, Fe(o-phen)3(2+), which exhibits an absorption maximum at 510 nm. Variables such as acidity, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagents and other FI parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. The results have been compared with those obtained using the official methods. Excellent agreement between the results of the proposed method and the official methods was obtained.
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We searched without language restriction MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register, reference lists of review articles and contacted content experts. Date of most recent search: January 2006
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Cefixime (CFIX), a new oral cephalosporin, was administered clinically at a daily dose of 3.4 mg/kg to 10.4 mg/kg to each of 12 children, aged from 2 months to 14 years old. An additional separate study was done to compare the serum and urinary levels of CFIX in 3 children when each was administered with 100 mg of the drug in capsule with the serum and urinary levels of the drug in the same children when each was given the same amount of drug in the form of 5% granules. The results of these trials are summarized below. Peak serum levels of CFIX administered in capsules and 5% granules averaged 1.4 micrograms/ml and 1.9 micrograms/ml, respectively. The half-life of the former was 5.13 hours, while that of the latter was 4.17 hours. The difference in the peak levels was statistically insignificant. The urinary excretion of CFIX in either form of the drug (capsules and granules) was about 14-18% in 12 hours. In 9 cases of respiratory infections, therapeutic results were excellent in 3 cases, good in 6 cases, and the effective rate was 100%. In 2 cases of urinary tract infection, results were excellent in 1 case and good in 1 case. The drug efficacy was poor in 1 case of purulent cervical lymphadenitis, probably caused by Staphylococcus aureus. No adverse reactions attributable to the drug were observed. CFIX may be expected to be a highly effective and safe agent in moderate respiratory and urinary tract infections of children.
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A transversal trial was carried on in ten emergency services of our country. We included patients older than fourteen years an analyzed the following variables: type of respiratory infection, antibiotic prescription, comorbidity, physician's status and hospital admission. The antibiotics were classified in three levels according to the expert panel criteria: first election, alternative use and inappropriate use. We compared the antibiotic treatments to these three levels.
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A study on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was conducted on 30 dairy farms in east Tennessee between May 2000 and April 2001. This pathogen was isolated from 8 of 30 (26.7%) dairy farms at various sampling times. A total of 415 fecal samples from cull dairy cows and 268 bulk tank milk samples were analyzed. Overall, 10 of 683 (1.46%) samples (2 of 268 [0.75%] milk samples and 8 of 415 [1.93%] fecal samples) tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual protocols were used for the conventional isolation and confirmation of E. coli O157:H7. Samples were shake cultured (150 rpm) at 42 degrees C for 24 h in tryptic soy broth containing 2 mg of novobiocin per liter. White colonies isolated on cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar plates were evaluated for fluorescence on sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with 0.025 g of methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide per liter. Nonfluorescing white colonies were biochemically typed and serologically confirmed. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction profiles of E. coli O157:H7 isolates indicated the presence of common virulence factors (Shiga toxin, enterohemolysin, and intimin) of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, suggesting the potential human pathogenicity of bacterial isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of SpeI and XbaI restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA were used to establish relatedness among bacterial isolates. Data from this study indicate that both cull dairy cows and bulk tank milk pose a potential hazard with regard to human foodborne illness. It is therefore imperative to develop on-farm and preharvest pathogen reduction programs to control the carriage of E. coli O157:H7 pathogens.
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Cefixime (CFM) is a new hemi-synthetic orally active cephalosporin which exhibits a particular affinity for PBPs 3, 1a, 1bs. Its penetration through the Gram negative bacilli outer membrane is similar to that of third generation cephalosporins. The MICs were assessed by the agar dilution method against 2,489 bacterial strains collected in 10 hospitals. Against Enterobacteriaceae, MICs50 and 90 are respectively (mg/l): naturally non beta-lactamase-producing species: E. coli and Shigella: 0.25-0.5, Salmonella: 0.06 - 0.25, P. mirabilis: 0.008 - 0.0.32; chromosomal penicillinase producing species: Klebsiella: 0.06 - 2; chromosomal cephalosporinase producing species: E. cloacae and C. freundii: 1 - greater than 128, S. marcescens: 0.25 - 16, Proteus indole: + 0.06 - 4, P. stuartii: 0.032 - 0.5. CFM activity is not altered in strains producing an acquired penicillinase. On the other hand, CFM appears to be inactive against cephalosporinase hyperproducing mutants and its activity is variably decreased against expanded spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains. CFM is inactive against P. aeruginosa (MIC50 and 90: 64 - 128) and against A. baumannii (16 - 128). Haemophilus and gonococci, beta-lactamase producing or not, as well as meningococci, are highly susceptible to CFM (MIC 0.008 - 0.12). B. catarrhalis is usually inhibited by 0.03 to 0.5. CFM is moderately active against meticillin-sensitive staphylococci (MIC50 and 90: 1-64), and inactive against meticillin-resistant strains. Enterococci are usually resistant, whereas streptococci and pneumococci are inhibited by low concentrations: 0.08 to 1. CFM is a bactericidal antibiotic, as shown by MBC and killing curves determination. These antibacterial properties relate CFM to the third generation cephalosporins and position the compound in an excellent place among the orally active cephalosporins.
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Infectious diarrhea is one of common cause of children diarrhea causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was performed to identify the common bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility in children with diarrhea.