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Singulair (Montelukast)
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Singulair

Singulair is a high-quality medication which is used to treat symptoms of asthma. It can also be used to treat symptoms of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Sometimes Singulair is taken to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients who take this medicine only for this condition.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Montelukast.

Description

Target of Singulair is to treat symptoms of asthma, perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Sometimes Singulair is taken to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients who take this medicine only for this condition.This remedy works by obstructing the activity of substances which cause symptoms of allergy and asthma. It is LTRA (leukotriene receptor antagonist).

Singulair is also known as Montelukast sodium, Montair, Montus, Romilast.

Dosage

Take Singulair chewable tablets (4 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg), granules, film-coated tablets orally with water.

Usually Singulair is taken as a single dose at least two hours before you exercise. Do not take another dose of Singulair for at least 24 hours.

Usually Singulair is taken once a day in the evening with or without food.

Do not take Singulair for asthma attack treatment that has already begun.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Singulair suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Singulair and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Singulair overdosage: stomach pain, agitation, insomnia, thirst, migraine, vomiting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Singulair are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Singulair if you are allergic to its components or to aspirin.

Do not take Singulair if you use Singulair while you are pregnant or have nurseling.

You should not use Singulair for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction if you already take Singulair to prevent symptoms of allergy or asthma.

Try to be careful using Singulair if you take phenobarbital (such as Solfoton, Luminal), rifampin (such as Rifamate, Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater).

It can be dangerous to use Singulair if you suffer from or have a history of phenylketonuria, liver disease.

Avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery while taking Singulair.

It can be dangerous to stop Singulair taking suddenly.

singulair recommended dosage

The present study aimed to investigate whether a fixed combination of salmeterol and fluticasone (SFC) from a single inhaler provides sufficient asthma control comparable to that achieved with standard treatment (inhaled steroid in a dose of 1,000 mcg BDP- (beclomethasone dipropionate) equivalent plus a LABA and/or theophylline and/or montelukast).

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Monitoring noninvasive biomarkers of inflammation is an important adjunct in asthma therapy.

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Leukotrienes are key mediators in asthma. Over the last 5 years, several antileukotrienes, including three receptor antagonists (montelukast, pranlukast and zafirlukast) and one 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (zileuton), have been marketed and, to date, this class of drugs is being used widely. Still, their definite place in the asthma treatment algorithm is not yet established. These novel drugs have not yet all been evaluated in the same depth, but they have all been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties and to be effective in chronic asthma treatment. Zafirlukast and montelukast are particularly efficacious in exercise-induced asthma and zileuton appears valuable for treating aspirin-intolerant asthmatics. Clinical comparisons to other anti-asthma drugs are still sparse. The corticosteroid-sparing effect of antileukotrienes is fairly well established except for zileuton, even though this drug has been evaluated most thoroughly in terms of its anti-inflammatory effects. Montelukast is the antileukotriene most extensively evaluated in children and zafirlukast has recently been approved for use in children in the USA, although not yet in Europe. Therapeutic regimes are quite variable depending on the drug, but all of the antileukotrienes marketed to date are taken orally; hence, compliance is usually greater than that with inhaled medication. Response to antileukotrienes appears to depend on the individual patients' characteristics, in particular on genetic polymorphisms related to leukotriene metabolism. All drugs of this class are well tolerated and only in the case of zileuton is there potential for hepatic adverse effects. The diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome made among patients taking antileukotrienes seems to be more related to the withdrawal of corticosteroids than to the antileukotrienes themselves.

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A 24-month, retrospective, pre-post cohort study using a pharmacy claims database of children (age < 16 years) with 2 or more consecutive asthma controller prescriptions and 1 or more allergy prescription (within 12 months before initial controller prescription). Children taking inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and montelukast were matched one to one based on age, days of prior allergic rhinitis therapy supply, duration of controller therapy, and propensity score. Differences in costs of rescue or acute asthma medications, prescription allergy medications, other respiratory medications, and the number of days of rescue or acute asthma medication use and allergy medication use were calculated.

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The study aims to assess medication adherence and asthma management behaviors and their modifiable predictors in low-income children with persistent asthma.

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The mean total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of zafirlukast during the gemfibrozil phase was 102% (geometric mean ratio; 95% confidence interval 89-116%) of that during the placebo phase. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences in the peak plasma concentration, time of peak concentration, or elimination half-life of zafirlukast between the phases.

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The 4 studies had a total of 1,910 patients 15 years or older with symptomatic asthma previously treated with inhaled short-acting beta2-agonists alone. At the end point, there were significantly greater increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second with fluticasone propionate-salmeterol (0.57 L; P < or = .004) vs fluticasone propionate (0.48 L) and montelukast (0.31 L) and significantly greater increases in morning peak expiratory flow rate (84.9 L/min; P < .001) vs fluticasone propionate (56.0 L/min) and montelukast (36.1 L/min). Fluticasone propionate-salmeterol significantly increased the percentage of symptom- and rescue-free days and significantly reduced albuterol use vs fluticasone propionate and montelukast (P < or = .04 for both). Patients treated with fluticasone propionate and montelukast had 2.6 and 3.6 greater risk, respectively, of having an asthma-related exacerbation vs fluticasone propionate-salmeterol users. In addition, mean daily exacerbation costs per treated patient were dollars 0.41 for fluticasone propionate-salmeterol, dollars 4.60 for fluticasone propionate, and dollars 7.57 for montelukast, whereas mean daily costs per patient exacerbation for fluticasone propionate-salmeterol, fluticasone propionate, and montelukast were dollars 29, dollars 128, and dollars 154, respectively.

singulair kids dose

Human ILC2s expressed the LT receptor CysLT1, levels of which were increased in atopic subjects. CysLTs, particularly LTE4, induced migration, reduced apoptosis, and promoted cytokine production in human ILC2s in vitro. LTE4 enhanced the effect of PGD2, IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, resulting in increased production of type 2 and other proinflammatory cytokines. The effect of LTE4 was inhibited by montelukast, a CysLT1 antagonist. Interestingly, addition of IL-2 to LTE4 and epithelial cytokines significantly amplified ILC2 activation and upregulated expression of the receptors for IL-33 and IL-25.

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Of 50 possible candidates, we recruited 46 children with polysomnographically diagnosed OSA. In this prospective, double-blind, randomized trial, children received daily oral montelukast at 4 or 5 mg (<6 or >6 years of age, respectively) or placebo for 12 weeks. Polysomnographic assessments, parent questionnaires, and radiographs to assess adenoid size were performed before and after therapy.

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The addition of montelukast as postoperative therapy may be beneficial for patients with eCRSwNP and AFS.

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Allergic diseases include a variety of different illnesses (rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, and dermatitis) in which the physiological and pathological basis is the release of chemical mediators such as histamine; platelet-activating factor; metabolites of arachidonic acid; and chemotactic factors from mastocytes, basophils, and eosinophils. The numerous drugs used for allergy treatment now include the new pharmacologic category of cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) antagonists. LTs are released from eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, interacting functionally in allergic reactions against a background of an imbalance between T-cell clones and resulting in preferential cytokine production following the T-helper 2 profile. Anti-LTs also have been used successfully by some authors to control rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. although additional controlled testing will be required, these applications broaden the possible range of treatments for allergic disease in all its many aspects.

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Relevant and appropriately controlled clinical studies on the efficacy of anti-LTs were used. Only literature in the English language was reviewed.

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The most common clinical adverse experiences were upper respiratory tract infection, asthma, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting occurring with similar frequencies between treatment groups. There were no clinically meaningful differences between the two treatment groups in clinical or laboratory adverse experiences and no significant differences in frequency of patients with elevated serum transaminases. Differences between the montelukast and placebo treatment groups in the exploratory efficacy endpoints of days without beta-agonist use, oral corticosteroid rescues, emergency care, asthma attacks, and discontinuations due to worsening asthma were not significant.

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Allergic rhinitis requires active intervention for symptom relief. A combination of antileukotriene and antihistamine drugs has been suggested to provide additive treatment benefits for patients with allergic rhinitis.

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Thirty patients were identified, mean age 33 years, 90% men. Solid food dysphagia was present in all. Twenty-seven patients (90%) were diagnosed with EoE during the index dilation; 17% underwent dilation for known, but symptomatic EoE. The median initial bougie size was 11. The median final bougie size was 15 mm; 24 patients (80%) had resultant mucosal tears. One patient complained of postprocedure chest pain requiring opioids. There were no perforations or hospitalizations. After dilation, patients were placed on swallowed fluticasone for 6 weeks (87%), maintenance montelukast (90%), or a prednisone taper (7%). Six patients (20%) underwent repeat dilation for recurrent dysphagia. All except one of these patients were on medical therapy for EoE.

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Sixteen children fulfilled criteria of EGIDs. Mucosal type was the most common finding type (12 out of 16 cases) (75%). Muscular and serosal type was found in equal numbers (2 of each in 16 cases) (12.5% each). Ages ranged from 6 months to 13 years. The male: female ratio was 1: 1.2. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom followed by diarrhea. Allergic history was detected in 68.75% of all patients. Peripheral eosinophilia was found in only 37.5% of all cases. Radiographic findings showed non-specific findings. Endoscopy was performed in 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%). Lymphoid hyperplasia was the most common endoscopic finding especially in mucosal type. Eosinophil (more than 20 per high power field) was found from biopsied tissues obtained from the esophagus, stomach, colon or from ascitic fluid. Prednisolone was used in 13 out of 16 cases with satisfactory results in 11 cases. The two resisted cases responded to ketotifen in one and the other in combination with montelukast. One out of 16 cases subsided with only proton pump inhibitor The last two cases improved by allergic food elimination.

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28 Wistar-Albino rats were enrolled into 4 groups with 7 rats per group. The healthy control group was exposed to fresh air while all rats in the 3 experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 weeks for 2 hours per day. After histopathological verification of smoke induced lung injury, montelukast (0.1 mg/kg) dissolved in Na2CO3 was given in one group (MON), Na2CO3 only was given in another group (MON control) and placebo was injected in the third group (COPD control) intraperitoneally for 21 days. At the end of this period blood samples were obtained for serum TNF-α assessment and light and electron microscopy analyses were performed on the lung tissues of sacrificed rats.

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This study demonstrated a decrease in P-ET levels in children with mild asthma receiving montelukast. This indicates a reduction in the severity of the inflammatory response and, hence, provides evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of montelukast. Monitoring both ET-1 and ECP levels at regular follow-up may be useful in assessing these two facets of activity of chronic inflammation in bronchial asthma.

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Arachidonic acid metabolism via 5-lipoxygenase gives rise to a group of biologically active lipids known as leukotrienes: leukotriene B(4), which is a potent activator of leukocyte chemotaxis, and cysteinyl leukotrienes (leukotriene C(4), D(4)and E(4)) which account for the spasmogenic activity previously described as slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis. The biological actions of leukotrienes and the observations that leukotrienes are synthesised in the lung following antigen provocation and are elevated in asthma, stimulated considerable activity in the pharmaceutical industry to find drugs that modulate the synthesis or actions of leukotrienes. Three cysteinyl leukotriene antagonists (zafirlukast [Accolate], montelukast [Singulair] and pranlukast) and one 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (zileuton) have received regulatory approval for the treatment of asthma. The clinical data obtained from using these drugs are generally consistent and complimentary. As a class the leukotriene modulators produce a rapid improvement in lung function after the first oral dose. Lung function improvements are maintained on chronic administration and are associated with reductions in a variety of asthma symptom scores. All of the available data are consistent with the hypothesis that all the leukotriene modulators exert their clinical benefit primarily through interference with cysteinyl leukotrienes. There are no compelling clinical data for an additional contribution by leukotriene B(4)in human asthma. In other respiratory conditions such as COPD, which are characterised by pronounced neutrophil infiltration, it may be that the chemotactic properties of leukotriene B(4)are more important and therefore evaluation of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors in this condition is warranted. The introduction of the leukotriene modulators into clinical practice is the culmination of over 60 years of research since the initial discovery of the slow-reacting substances. The leukotriene modulators, and in particular the cysteinyl leukotriene antagonists, provide respiratory physicians with an oral therapeutic option and have set an efficacy standard which new oral anti-inflammatory approaches will have to beat.

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To review recent advances in preventive headache treatment.

singulair medication

Montelukast (Singulair, MSD) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the clinical symptoms of asthma. We aimed to investigate the effect of montelukast treatment on the production of eosinophil survival-enhancing cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC).

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After switching treatment from a low-dose ICS, montelukast maintained control of asthma symptoms in 75% of patients. High sEos before the treatment change was the strongest exacerbation risk factor. In patients with asthma controlled by low-dose ICS and low inflammatory markers, treatment could be safely switched to montelukast.

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Previous studies suggested that leukotrienes (LT) were involved in the pathogenesis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). This study investigated the efficacy of an add-on therapy with montelukast in the treatment of HSP.

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Leukotrienes (LTs) are arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diverse inflammatory disorders. The cysteinyl-leukotrienes LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4) are important mediators of asthma, and LTB(4) has recently been implicated in atherosclerosis. Here we report that mRNA levels for the three key enzymes/proteins in the biosynthesis of cysteinyl-leukotrienes, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP), and LTC(4) synthase (LTC(4)S), are significantly increased in the wall of human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). In contrast, mRNA levels of LTA(4) hydrolase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of LTB(4), are not increased. Immunohistochemical staining of AAA wall revealed focal expression of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTC(4)S proteins in the media and adventitia, localized in areas rich in inflammatory cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells. Human AAA wall tissue converts arachidonic acid and the unstable epoxide LTA(4) into significant amounts of cysteinyl-leukotrienes and to a lesser extent LTB(4). Furthermore, challenge of AAA wall tissue with exogenous LTD(4) increases the release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9, and selective inhibition of the CysLT1 receptor by montelukast blocks this effect. The increased expression of LTC(4)S, together with the predominant formation of cysteinyl-leukotrienes and effects on MMPs production, suggests a mechanism by which LTs may promote matrix degradation in the AAA wall and identify the components of the cysteinyl-leukotriene pathway as potential targets for prevention and treatment of AAA.

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A novel chemiluminescence method using β - cyclodextrins coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of montelukast in plasma. The effect of coated β - cyclodexterinon CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in the chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system was investigated. It was found that β - cyclodexterin coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence of the luminol-H2O2 system. Doehlert design was applied in order to optimize the number of experiments to be carried out to ascertain the possible interactions between the parameters and their effects on the chemiluminescence emission intensity. This design was selected because the levels of each variable may vary in a very efficient way with few experiments. Doehlert design and response surface methodology have been employed for optimization pH and concentrations of the components. Results showed under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative CL intensity (ΔI) is increased linearly in the concentration range of 0.003-0.586 μgml(-1) of montelukast with limit of detection (LOD) 1.09 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) at S/N ratio of 3, limit of quantitative (LOQ) 3.59 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) and the relative standard deviation 2.63 %. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of montelukast in plasma of human body. Results specified that relative chemiluminescence intensity (ΔI) has good proportional with the montelukast concentration with R(2) = 0.99979. The test of the recovery efficiency for known amounts of montelukast was also performed, the recoveries range obtained from 98.2 to 103.3 %, with RSDs of <4 % indicated that the proposed method was reliable.

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Montelukast, a potent leukotriene receptor antagonist, is approved for treatment of both asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). No studies to date have examined whether montelukast can improve asthma control over a long period of time in patients with seasonal AR and asthma.

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singulair 7426 pill 2017-06-16

Three months after the randomization of the last subject, the Data and Safety Monitoring Board determined that the primary research question had buy singulair online been answered and terminated the trial. The combination of montelukast and salmeterol was inferior to the combination of beclomethasone and salmeterol as judged by protection against asthma treatment failures (p = 0.0008), lung function (26 L/min difference in a.m. peak expiratory flow rate, p = 0.011), asthma control score (0.22 difference in Asthma Control Questionnaire score, p = 0.038), and markers of inflammation and airway reactivity.

singulair 4mg dosage 2016-08-24

Adenosine produces bronchoconstriction in allergic rabbits, primates, and humans by activating adenosine A(1) receptors. Previously, it is reported that a high dose of L-97-1, a water-soluble, small molecule adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, blocks early and late allergic responses, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in a hyper-responsive rabbit model of allergic asthma. Effects of a lower dose of L-97-1 are compared to montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist on early allergic response, late allergic response, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and inflammatory cells in buy singulair online bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid following house dust mite administration. Rabbits received intraperitoneal injections of house dust mite extract within 24 h of birth followed by booster house dust mite injections. Hyper-responsive rabbits received aerosolized house dust mite (2500 allergen units), 1 h after intragastric administration of L-97-1 (1 mg/kg) or montelukast (0.15 mg/kg) and lung dynamic compliance was measured for 6 h. Lung dynamic compliance was significantly higher following L-97-1 at all time points and with montelukast at 60-300 min following house dust mite (P<0.05). L-97-1 blocks both early and late allergic responses. Montelukast blocks only the late allergic response. Both L-97-1 and montelukast significantly blocked bronchial hyper-responsiveness at 24 h (P<0.05). Both L-97-1 and montelukast significantly reduced BAL eosinophils at 6 h and neutrophils at 6 and 24 h (P<0.05). L-97-1 significantly reduced BAL lymphocytes at 6 and 24 h (P<0.05). Montelukast significantly reduced BAL macrophages at 6 and 24 h (P<0.05). By blocking both bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation, L-97-1 may be an effective oral anti-asthma treatment.

singulair 10 mg 2015-09-30

Limited clinical data are buy singulair online available on the long-term effects of asthma controller therapy on the utilization of health care resources in pediatric patients with asthma.

singulair 5 mg 2016-12-15

Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease mediated by T-helper (Th)2 cells. Montelukast (trade name Singulair) is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist used for asthma treatment. Mirroring Th1-Th2 polarization, two distinct states of macrophages have been recognized: the classically activated (M1) macrophages and the alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M2 polarization is known to be a response to the Th2 cytokines; however, the effects of montelukast on buy singulair online M2 macrophages have not been well characterized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of montelukast on the expression of cytokines and chemokines in M2-like macrophages, and to explore possible intracellular signaling pathways.

singulair generic cost 2015-09-08

Although many countries monitor mortality and hospitalizations related to asthma, there is less surveillance of medication use for asthma. Since the late 1990s, and in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom, there has been a change in the medications used to prevent asthma in childhood, with an increase in inhaled corticosteroids, and a decrease in mast cell stabilizers. Prescriptions for montelukast have increased four-fold in the United Kingdom for children since 2000, with similar increases in the United States and in Australia. There has been buy singulair online a trend in some countries to increased use of fixed dose combined long-acting beta-agonist/inhaled corticosteroid products; in Australia and the United Kingdom, fixed dose combinations now account for the majority of preparations containing inhaled steroids prescribed to children with asthma.

singulair 8 mg 2015-03-10

Response to fluticasone and montelukast vary considerably. Children with low pulmonary function or high buy singulair online levels of markers associated with allergic inflammation should receive ICS therapy. Other children could receive either ICSs or LTRAs.

singulair 5mg tablet 2017-02-13

An adverse experience database was constructed to include all double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of montelukast meeting prespecified criteria. BRAEs (described using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities controlled vocabulary dictionary) were buy singulair online prespecified to include any term in the Psychiatric Disorders System Organ Class, selected terms related to general disorders, and terms related to akathisia. Frequencies of BRAEs (overall, leading to study discontinuation, and/or serious) were summarized. Analyses estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for montelukast versus placebo based on the frequency of patients with BRAEs in each study.

singulair tablet 5mg 2015-05-23

Our previous study showed that the number of mast cells was increased in the inflamed paws of collagen-induced arthritis in mice, and treatment with a mast cell-stabilizing compound effectively suppressed the development of collagen-induced buy singulair online arthritis. A recent in vitro study showed that mast cells express cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor, and that a cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist inhibits the production of TNF-alpha by mast cells. To further investigate the role of mast cells in vivo, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of a cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist, montelukast, on the development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Montelukast (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was orally administered to mice for 12 weeks, starting 6 weeks after immunization with bovine type II collagen. Treatment with montelukast significantly reduced clinical scores and X-ray scores of collagen-induced arthritis, and decreased the number of mast cells in the inflamed paws of collagen-induced arthritic mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that mast cells in the inflamed synovium were one of the major cells producing TNF-alpha and that the number of TNF-alpha positive mast cells was significantly reduced by treatment with montelukast. Furthermore, TNF-alpha and SCF mRNA levels in the paws of collagen-induced arthritic mice were markedly decreased by montelukast treatment. Montelukast may lead to a beneficial therapeutic effect by inhibiting TNF-alpha production by mast cells.

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To observe the clinical efficacy and the change of airway responsiveness to Chinese medicine (CM) in treating cough variant asthma (CVA buy singulair online ).

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A total of 98 physicians provided data for 696 asthmatic patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (Italy: n = 158; Poland: n = 334; and Spain: n = 204). The mean age of patients was 32.7 years, 57.5% were female and patients had asthma that was considered either mild-persistent (54.5%) or moderate-persistent (45.5%) according to the Global Initiative for Asthma classifications. The introduction of montelukast (10 mg/day daily cost range euro0.8-1.68) was associated with increases in the total annual mean healthcare cost per patient of 11.9%, 60.4% and 5.5% for Italy, Poland and Spain, respectively. However, mean annual costs for asthma-related outpatient care, ED visits and hospitalisations dropped significantly in all three countries (Italy: from euro805.00 to euro281.60 [p < 0 buy singulair online .01]; Poland: from euro127.10 to euro99.00 [p < 0.01]; and Spain: from euro463.40 to euro119.70 [p < 0.01]).

singulair pediatric dose 2015-11-25

A total of 60 children, aged 5 to 15 years, American Society of Anesthesiologist class I-II, scheduled for elective tonsillectomy were enrolled in this clinical trial study. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: the montelukast group (group M, n = 30) and control group (group C, n buy singulair online = 30). Group M recieved an oral montelukast tablet and group C recieved placebo at 2400pm on the morning before surgery. Post-tonsillectomy pain was evaluated with the Wong-Baker FACES Scale during the 24 hours after surgery. Patients' intraoperative hemodynamic parameters and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded.

singulair retail cost 2015-06-02

Of 607 patients screened, 548 were randomized to treatment. The SFC group contained 281 patients and the MON group included 267. Demographic characteristics and baseline data were similar for both groups (mean age, 9.3 years for both groups; mean [SD] FEV(1), 1.49 [0.43] L in the SFC group and 1.48 [0.43] L in the MON group). There were more males in the MON group (179 [67%]) than in the SFC group (156 [56%]). The adjusted mean (SE) buy singulair online changes from baseline in morning PEF were 45.88 (2.82) L/min with SFC and 28.7 (2.86) L/min with MON (treatment difference, 17.16 L/min; 95% CI, 9.23-25.08; P < 0.001). Compared with MON, the SFC group had significantly more asthma symptom-free days (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% CI, 1.07-2.82; P = 0.025), more rescue-free days (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.09-5.02; P < 0.001), and more asthma-controlled weeks (difference in treatment medians over weeks 1-12, 16.77%; 95% CI, 8.3-16.77; P < 0.001). Both treatments were well tolerated, with a similar number of patients reporting AEs (SFC group, 155/281 [55%]; MON group, 153/267 [57%]); the most common AE in both groups was headache (SFC group, 66 [23%]; MON group, 72 [27%]). The mean exacerbation rates over 12 weeks (post hoc analysis) were 0.12 in the SFC group and 0.30 in the MON group (SFC/MON ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29-0.57; P < 0.001).

singulair alcohol 2017-03-15

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with high mortality. We hypothesized that inhaled fluticasone, azithromycin, and montelukast (FAM) with a brief steroid pulse could avert progression of new-onset BOS. We tested this in a phase II, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01307462). Thirty-six patients were enrolled within 6 months of BOS diagnosis. The primary endpoint was treatment failure, defined as 10% or greater forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline at 3 months. At 3 months, 6% (2 of 36, 95% confidence interval, 1% to 19%) had treatment failure (versus 40% in historical controls, P < .001). FAM was well tolerated. Steroid dose was reduced by 50% or more at 3 months in 48% of patients who could be evaluated (n = 27). Patient-reported outcomes at 3 months were statistically significantly improved for Short-Form 36 social functioning score and mental component score, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapies emotional well-being, and Lee symptom scores in lung, skin, mouth, and the overall summary score compared to enrollment (n = 24). At 6 months, 36% had treatment failure (95% confidence interval, 21% to 54%, n = 13 of 36, with 6 documented failures, 7 missing pulmonary function tests). Overall survival was 97% (95% confidence interval, 84% to 100%) at 6 months. These data suggest that FAM was well tolerated and that treatment with FAM buy singulair online and steroid pulse may halt pulmonary decline in new-onset BOS in the majority of patients and permit reductions in systemic steroid exposure, which collectively may improve quality of life. However, additional treatments are needed for progressive BOS despite FAM.

singulair 50 mg 2015-09-27

We recently found buy singulair online that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is activated to produce cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), and CysLTs may cause neuronal injury and astrocytosis through activation of CysLT(1) and CysLT(2) receptors in the brain after focal cerebral ischemia. However, the property of astrocyte responses to in vitro ischemic injury is not clear; whether 5-LOX, CysLTs, and their receptors are also involved in the responses of ischemic astrocytes remains unknown. In the present study, we performed oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by recovery to induce ischemic-like injury in the cultured rat astrocytes. We found that 1-h OGD did not injure astrocytes (sub-lethal OGD) but induced astrocyte proliferation 48 and 72 h after recovery; whereas 4-h OGD moderately injured the cells (moderate OGD) and led to death 24-72 h after recovery. Inhibition of phospholipase A(2) and 5-LOX attenuated both the proliferation and death. Sub-lethal and moderate OGD enhanced the production of CysLTs that was inhibited by 5-LOX inhibitors. Sub-lethal OGD increased the expressions of CysLT(1) receptor mRNA and protein, while moderate OGD induced the expression of CysLT(2) receptor mRNA. Exogenously applied leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) induced astrocyte proliferation at 1-10 nM and astrocyte death at 100-1,000 nM. The CysLT(1) receptor antagonist montelukast attenuated astrocyte proliferation, the CysLT(2) receptor antagonist BAY cysLT2 reversed astrocyte death, and the dual CysLT receptor antagonist BAY u9773 exhibited both effects. In addition, LTD(4) (100 nM) increased the expression of CysLT(2) receptor mRNA. Thus, in vitro ischemia activates astrocyte 5-LOX to produce CysLTs, and CysLTs result in CysLT(1) receptor-mediated proliferation and CysLT(2) receptor-mediated death.

singulair coupon online 2015-07-31

We did not identify characteristics that predicted response to montelukast in Diovan 500 Mg either preschool or 6- to 14-year-old children. These findings were consistent across all symptom and FEV(1) outcomes. There was also no differential response to montelukast in either age group when asthma attack was the outcome.

singulair medication reviews 2017-12-24

Nitric oxide (NO) imbalance appears to be important in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. NO is synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthase (NOS). Competing with NOS for l-arginine is arginase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis Singulair User Reviews of arginine to urea and ornithine. Therefore, increased serum arginase activity could potentially limit NO production catalyzed by inducible NOS, thus contributing to allergic rhinitis. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor antagonist, montelukast sodium on serum arginase levels in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

singulair tablet 2016-12-19

Outpatient and hospital practices of pulmonologists in the Coreg Missed Dose United States and Belgium.

singulair 05 mg 2016-09-29

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from mite antigen-positive asthmatic patients (immunoglobulin E RAST score > 3) were incubated Luvox Dosage Depression for 72 h in the presence of mite antigen (10 microg/mL). The supernatant of the culture was subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify interleukin (IL) -4, IL-3, IL-5, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Other peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the same patients were incubated for 72 h in the presence of both mite antigen (10 microg/mL) and ONO-1078 (0.5, 1, or 10 microg/mL), followed by ELISA of the supernatant to quantify the cytokines.

singulair medicine generic 2015-07-07

Montelukast (6 mg/kg, once per day for 20 d) significantly suppressed the increased eosinophils in BAL fluid and lung tissue, and increased IL-5 level in BAL fluid in OVA challenged mice. OVA challenge increased CysLT1 but decreased CysLT2 receptor mRNA expression. Montelukast inhibited the increased CysLT1 but Naprosyn Drug Interactions not the reduced CysLT2 expression after OVA challenge.

singulair medicine uses 2017-02-21

IL-13 is a pivotal cytokine in allergic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and is known to influence leukotriene Dosage Imodium levels.

singulair recommended dosage 2017-01-19

This study was designed to expand on these earlier findings by comparing asthma-related health care resource utilization and costs, as well as adherence to ICSs, in children and adults with asthma receiving ICS monotherapy who either were switched to fluticasone propionate plus SAL from a single inhaler (FSC) or initiated add-on therapy with SAL from Benicar Equivalent Drug a separate inhaler or MON.

singulair online 2015-09-22

We present here three HIV-1 female patients aged 12, 55 and 65 years who developed iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome with Geodon 60mg Medication adrenal suppression following the coadministration of Ritonavir and inhaled Fluticasone, both at the standard recommended doses.

singulair generic dosage 2015-09-23

The wealth of information that has emerged in recent years detailing the substrate specificity of hepatic transporters necessitates an investigation into their potential role in drug elimination. Therefore, an assay in which the loss of parent compound from the incubation medium into hepatocytes ("media loss" assay) was developed to assess the impact of hepatic uptake on unbound drug intrinsic clearance in vivo (CL(int ub in vivo)). Studies using conventional hepatocyte incubations for a subset of 36 AstraZeneca new chemical entities (NCEs) resulted in a poor projection of CL(int ub in vivo) (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.002, average fold error = 57). This significant underestimation of CL(int ub in vivo) suggested that metabolism was not the dominant clearance mechanism for the majority of compounds examined. However, CL(int ub in vivo) was described well for this dataset using an initial compound "disappearance" CL(int) obtained from media loss assays (r2 = 0.72, p = 6.3 x 10(-11), average fold error = 3). Subsequent studies, using this method for the same 36 NCEs, suggested that the active uptake into human hepatocytes was generally slower (3-fold on average) than that observed with rat hepatocytes. The accurate prediction of human CL(int ub in vivo) (within 4-fold) for the marketed drug transporter substrates montelukast, bosentan, atorvastatin, and pravastatin confirmed further the utility of this assay. This work has described a simple method, amenable for use within a drug discovery setting, for predicting the in vivo clearance of drugs with significant Plavix 300 Mg hepatic uptake.

singulair 1 mg 2015-04-05

Asthma is a common childhood atopic disease associated with chronicity and impaired quality of life. As there is no cure for this disease, treatment relies on avoidance of triggers such as food and aeroallergens, the use of inhaled bronchodilators/corticosteroids and antiallergic or immunomodulating therapies. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and bronchodilators have been the mainstay. However, in Asia, myths and fallacies regarding Western medicine and corticosteroids are prevalent and lead to nonadherence to treatment. Also, use of traditional and proprietary herbal medicines is popular. In the past decades, a novel class of nonsteroidal immunomodulating montelukasts has become available. This article reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and clinical efficacy of these medications. A number of randomized and controlled trials have been performed over the years. The majority of studies confirm the usefulness of montelukast as monotherapy and add-on therapy to ICS in mild to moderate childhood asthma across all age groups. ICSs are generally superior to montelukasts for asthma management. However, montelukast has a place in the treatment of young children with viral-triggered wheezing diseases, exercise-induced asthma, and in children whose parents are steroid-phobic and find ICS unacceptable.

singulair medication price 2016-06-11

Although the question of whether early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis (AR) improve disease control is important, a more crucial question is whether we can evaluate the effect of treatment on disease control using an impairment-risk model.

singulair off brand 2017-04-02

Asthma is a chronic disorder that affects about 8% of pregnant women and may complicate pregnancy. Adequate asthma therapy in pregnancy is crucial but challenging because of safety concerns for the fetus.

singulair generic uses 2016-08-27

A total of 239 wheezing children under 5 years of age were divided into API-positive (n=126) and API-negative groups (n=113). Each group was randomly assigned to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) subgroup and montelukast sodium (leukotriene receptor antagonist, LTRA) subgroup. The ICS and LTRA subgroups received the same drug therapy at the same dosage within the first four weeks of treatment. In the stable period of disease, the ICS subgroup only received aerosol inhalation of budesonide suspension, while the LTRA group was orally given montelukast sodium only. Asthma symptom scores were assessed and recorded at different time points.

singulair medication cost 2016-09-25

Submesothelial thickness and the severity of the degree of hyaline vasculapathy were more prominent in group III when compared to group I. There were no significant differences between group II and other groups in terms of submesothelial thickness and the severity of the degree of hyaline vasculapathy. Increased expressions of TGF-β and VEGF in parietal peritoneal membrane were found in group II and group III when compared to group I. The amount of TGF-β and VEGF expression were similar in group II and group III.