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MEDLINE was searched for English-language papers published from 1953 to 2003, using the key words "tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)," "amitriptyline," "amoxapine," "clomipramine," "desipramine," "doxepin," "imipramine," "lofepramine," "maprotiline," "nortriptyline," "protriptyline," and "trimipramine." The search was restricted to human studies. To estimate potential exposure to TCAs during pregnancy, data from the outpatient prescription drug database of Saskatchewan, Canada, were analyzed.
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Psychogenic excoriation (also called neurotic excoriation, acne excoriée, pathological or compulsive skin picking, and dermatotillomania) is characterised by excessive scratching or picking of normal skin or skin with minor surface irregularities. It is estimated to occur in 2% of dermatology clinic patients and is associated with functional impairment, medical complications (e.g. infection) or substantial distress. Psychogenic excoriation is not yet recognised in the DSM. We propose preliminary operational criteria for its diagnosis that take into account the heterogeneity of behaviour associated with psychogenic excoriation and allow for subtyping along a compulsivity-impulsivity spectrum. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with psychogenic excoriation, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, is common. Patients with psychogenic excoriation frequently have comorbid disorders in the compulsivity-impulsivity spectrum, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, substance use disorders, eating disorders, trichotillomania, kleptomania, compulsive buying, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. There are few studies of the pharmacological treatment of patients with psychogenic excoriation. Case studies, open trials and small double-blind studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors in psychogenic excoriation. Other pharmacological treatments that have been successful in case reports include doxepin, clomipramine, naltrexone, pimozide and olanzapine. There are no controlled trials of behavioural or psychotherapeutic treatment for psychogenic excoriation. Treatments found to be effective in case reports include a behavioural technique called 'habit reversal'; a multicomponent programme consisting of self-monitoring, recording of episodes of scratching, and procedures that produce alternative responses to scratching; and an 'eclectic' psychotherapy programme with insight-oriented and behavioural components.
Light scattering, conductivity and pH methods have been used to examine the aggregation in aqueous solution of a series of antidepressant drugs. The drugs investigated included the hydrochlorides of amitriptyline, butriptyline, protriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, dothiepin, dibenzepin, opipramol, iprindole, doxepin, mianserin and maprotiline. No significant association of dibenzepin, mianserin or maprotiline hydrochlorides could be detected up to their respective solubility limits. A micellar pattern of association was established for all other compounds. Critical micelle concentrations and micellar properties are reported.
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Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant that is widely prescribed for the treatment of mild depression. In this study, hair samples collected from a patient receiving 25 mg of doxepin daily were analyzed. Doxepin was administered to the patient for 4 months (June 15 to October 15, 1996). Five hair samples were collected: 1 and 3 months after doxepin therapy began and 1, 3, and 5 months after drug therapy ended. Solid-phase extraction was employed to isolate doxepin and its major metabolite desmethyldoxepin from the hair matrix, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for quantitation of both drugs. Six-point standard curves (0.25-20 ng/mg) were prepared for both compounds with an internal standard (doxepin-d3). The standard curves for doxepin and desmethyldoxepin were linear over the range reported and had correlation coefficients of 0.984 and 0.985, respectively. The limit of quantitation for both analytes was 0.25 ng/mg of hair. In addition, the replicate analysis of control hair preparations was performed at two levels (2 ng/mg and 15 ng/mg) to determine intra- and interday variability. Doxepin and desmethyldoxepin were not detected in the patient's sample collected 1 month after doxepin therapy began. The samples collected 3 months after doxepin therapy began and 5 months after drug therapy was terminated had detectable amounts of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin. The highest concentrations of doxepin (mean, 0.59 ng/mg) and desmethyldoxepin (mean, 0.40 ng/mg) were found 5 months after doxepin therapy began, which was also 1 month after the patient had stopped using the drug. Five months after doxepin therapy was terminated, the drug and its metabolite were still present in the patient's hair. The concentration of doxepin in hair was always significantly higher than the concentration of desmethyldoxepin.
In recent years, there has been no evidence that the problem of chronic insomnia has faded in the least in US adults; on the contrary, a recent estimate of annual lost productivity due to insomnia was $63.2 billion dollars. However, the proportion of insomniacs who are treated continues to be low, indicating the need for continued development and dissemination of effective therapies. Hypnotic drug development has arguably become more focused in recent years, particularly upon the highly anticipated novel target, the orexin (hypocretin) system. Merck's suvorexant (MK-4305) is the first compound of the so-called dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) class expected to be submitted for FDA approval, with a new drug application anticipated in 2012. While there has also been some new activity in the modulation of well-characterized targets with well-characterized agents, such as CNS histamine receptors with low-dose doxepin, a decades-old antidepressant and GABA(A) with sublingual zolpidem, experience with melatonin and serotonin modulators suggests that other targets also exist. Diversifying insomnia drug targets may expand possibilities for customizing hypnotic administration to individualized patient presentation and mechanistic underpinnings. In addition, it may offer improved avenues for combining medications with non-drug treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I).
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All comparisons used 2 x 2 chi 2 contingency table. Significance level was set at p < 0.05.
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The effect of three anti-depressive psychotropes (Clorimipramine, Doxepine and Dibenzepine) was studied in 107 depressed patients. In each patient the mean value of twelve symptoms was evaluated and compared weekly (for 4 weeks), by statistical methods. In addition, the effect of each drug was analysed in personality stratus. A thymeretic and thymoanaleptic rapid action on 'corporality' and 'endotimic-vital' layer was found with Clorimipramine. Doxepine acts rapidly with sedative and anxiolitic actions on reactive symptoms related with personality super-structures having long term anti-depressive effects. Dibenzepine has a thymeretic rapid and intensive action and a slow thymoanaleptic effect on the same personality stratus of Clorimipramine.
We extracted data in duplicate on the type of study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model.
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In eight healthy young volunteers, 15 g of activated charcoal administered orally 30 min after 50 mg of doxepin, reduced the achieved peak concentration of the drug in serum by 70% and total availability by 49%. Charcoal, 3 hours after the drug, did not significantly reduce absorption. When charcoal was administered 30 min after doxepin, the apparent elimination half-lives of doxepin and its main metabolite, desmethyldoxepin, were prolonged by 350 and 140%, respectively, suggesting gradual disaggregation of the charcoal-drug complex. Repeated doses of charcoal between 3 and 24 hours after doxepin increased significantly the apparent clearance of desmethyldoxepin. Repeated doses of charcoal may be beneficial in the treatment of overdosage with doxepin by preventing disaggregation of the drug from an initial dose of charcoal with subsequent absorption and reabsorption of parent drug and metabolites secreted into the gastrointestinal tract.
We present a method for measuring seven commonly used tricyclic antidepressants in plasma. This method is suitable for monitoring therapeutic concentrations and for screening drug overdoses in cases where the identity of the abused tricyclic antidepressant may not be known. Drugs from alkalinized plasma are extracted into hexane in one step; two injections into the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer follow. The tertiary amines (amitriptyline, doxepin, and imipramine) are analyzed by direct injection; the secondary amines (nortriptyline, desmethyldoxepin, desipramine, and protriptyline) are analyzed after derivitization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Clomipramine and desmethyltrimipramine are suitable internal standards. Chemical ionization mass fragmentography, with methane as the reactant gas, is used. While maintaining specificity for these drugs, concentrations in human plasma ranging from 5 to 500 microng/liter can be measured. The coefficients of variation are about 4 to 11%.
The tricyclic antidepressant doxepin, representing a 5:1 mixture of trans- and cis-isomers, owns tranquilizing properties. This compound has been associated with illicit medication of racing horses, and therefore should be considered in doping control. Because analysis of doxepin in equine body fluids has not been documented in the literature, a highly sensitive analytical method was developed to individually monitor the doxepin isomers in blood and urine of horses by the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Following a dose of 1 mg doxepin-HCl/kg intravenously (i.v.), both the isomers were quantified for up to 24 h in serum of horses (n=4). The beta-half-lives of the trans- and cis-isomers were 3.5 and 3.1 h, respectively. The ratio of the trans/cis-isomers was found to be constant (4.7:1) during drug elimination and thus corresponded to the original composition of the antidepressant. Up to 12 h following administration low trans-isomer concentrations in an average range of 2-6 ng/mL were detected in urine of each of the horses, while the cis-isomer was only present in two of four horses for up to 8 and 12 h, respectively. In serum, mean trans-isomer concentrations exceeded urine levels maximally 120-fold after 3 h and at least sixfold after 12 h. As serum exhibits considerably higher concentrations of the doxepin isomers as compared with urine, blood of horses is the recommended body fluid when screening for the antidepressant.
The method is effective, simple, reliable and has been used in real cases.
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Despite some evidence that neuroleptic medication is overused or misused in long-term care facilities for the elderly, there has been virtually no attention paid to the pattern of use of antidepressants in these facilities. All patients in long-term care in a geriatric hospital and a home for the aged who were receiving antidepressants were identified; 10.5% of the patients in the hospital and 12.7% in the home for the aged were receiving an antidepressant. The rate of use of antidepressants on the different units ranged from 0% to 26.8%. The most commonly prescribed antidepressant was doxepin followed by nortriptyline. The mean dose of antidepressant was 34.8 mg. Although depression was the most common reason for the prescription of an antidepressant (69% of patients receiving one), other reasons included pain, agitation, aggression, and insomnia. Patients had been receiving antidepressants for up to 10 years, with a mean duration of 32 months. The majority of patients (60%) had a history of depression predating their institutional admission. Patients receiving antidepressants were compared to a group not receiving antidepressants, who were matched for age, sex, unit, and attending physician. Patients receiving antidepressants were more likely to have a history of stroke (33.8% versus 16.9%). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the prevalence of dementia, Parkinson's disease, thyroid disease, malignant tumor, congestive heart failure, or diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies are required to determine the efficacy of antidepressants in this population and to identify factors that can predict a positive response to treatment.
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To analyze the clinical characteristics of children with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), summarize the experience for twelve years, and improve awareness, diagnosis and treatment level of CVS.
Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are commonly prescribed for sleep disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns of CHPs and Western medicine for patients with these disorders in Taiwan, and analyze the frequency of using single herbs (SHs) and herbal formulas (HFs).
We introduce a novel experimental method to determine both the extent of ex vivo receptor occupancy of administered compound and its dissociation rate constant (k4). [Here, we reference k4 as the rate of offset of unlabeled ligand in convention with Motulsky and Mahan (1)]. We derived a kinetic rate equation based on the dissociation rate constant for an unlabeled compound competing for the same site as a labeled compound and describe a model to simulate fractional occupancy. To validate our model, we performed in vitro kinetics and ex vivo occupancy experiments in rat cortex with varying concentrations of (R)-dimethindene, a sedating antihistamine. Brain tissue was removed at various times post oral administration, and histamine H1 receptor ligand [3H]-doxepin binding to homogenates from drug-treated or vehicle-treated rats was measured at multiple time points at room temperature. Fractional occupancy and k4 for (R)-dimethindene binding to H1 receptors were calculated by using our proposed model. Rats dosed with 30 and 60 mg/kg (R)-dimethindene showed 42% and 67% occupancy of central H1 receptors, respectively. These results were comparable to occupancy data determined by equilibrium radioligand binding. In addition, drug k4 rate determined by using our ex vivo method was equivalent to k4 determined by in vitro competition kinetics (dissociation half-life t(1/2) approximately 30 min). The outlined method can be used to assess, by simulation and experiment, occupancy for compounds based on dissociation rate constants and contributes to current efforts in drug optimization to profile antagonist efficacy in terms of its kinetic drug-target binding parameters. Data described by the method may be analyzed with commercially available software. Suggested fitting procedures are given in the appendix.
This study provides a glimpse into the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of senior dermatologists.
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Intoxication with antidepressants should not be excluded a priori in a hypothermic patient who displays other clinical signs of the said intoxication.
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Most primary headaches in the elderly are similar to those in younger patients (tension, migraine, and cluster), but there are some differences, such as late-life migraine accompaniments and hypnic headaches. Although migraine in younger persons usually presents with headache, migraine in older persons may initially appear with visual or sensory phenomena, instead of headache ("migraine accompaniments"). Hypnic headaches awaken patients from sleep, are short-lived, and occur only in the elderly. The probability of secondary headache increases steadily with age. Secondary headaches include those associated with temporal arteritis, trigeminal neuralgia, sleep apnea, post- herpetic neuralgia, cervical spondylosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, intracranial neoplasm, and post-concussive syndrome. Certain rescue treatments for migraine headache in younger individuals (triptans or dihydroergotamine, for example) should not be used in elderly patients because of the risk of coronary artery disease. Naproxen and hydroxyzine are commonly used oral rescue therapies for older adults who have migraine or tension headaches. Intravenous magnesium, valproic acid, and metoclopramide are all effective rescue therapies for severe headaches in the emergency room setting. Some effective prophylactic agents for migraine in younger patients (amitriptyline and doxepin) are not usually recommended for older individuals because of the risks of cognitive impairment, urinary retention, and cardiac arrhythmia. For these reasons, the recommended oral preventive agents for migraine in older adults include divalproex sodium, topiramate, metoprolol, and propranolol. Oral agents that can prevent hypnic headaches include caffeine and lithium. Cough headaches respond to indomethacin or acetazolamide.
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Six tricyclic antidepressants were tested for their ability to antagonize histamine actions at histamine H1 receptors in a bioassay for these receptors (histamine-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum). All compounds were competitive antagonists with equilibrium dissociation constants in the range of 5.6 x 10(-11) M to 1.5 x 10(-7) M. Doxepin hydrochloride and amitriptyline hydrochloride were the most potent compounds of the series and may be the most potent antihistamines known. Antagonism at histamine H1 receptors by these compounds may explain their sedative effects.
It is reasonable to consider oral treatment with DOXCAM in those patients who have failed first-line therapies.
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Nonsedating anti-H1 antihistamines taken regularly were the most common drugs prescribed, followed by nonsedating anti-H1 antihistamines taken as needed, corticosteroids, sedating antihistamines taken regularly, sedating antihistamines taken as needed, anti-H2 antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists, ciclosporin and doxepin. Nonsedating antihistamines plus corticosteroids was the most frequent drug combination prescribed. When comparing between allergists and dermatologists we found a positive and significant correlation only between prescription of cetirizine, dexchlorfeniramine, leukotriene antagonists and anti-H2 antihistamines and being treated by an allergist. A positive correlation was found with desloratadine and being seen by a dermatologist. We did not find any difference in CU management in the rest of the treatments studied.
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Major improvements in the quality of recent pharmacologic studies of rhinitis are evident. In many of the studies, the criteria for patient selection are being more carefully described and patients with allergic rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, and vasomotor rhinitis are no longer grouped together. In most studies, efficacy is still being ascertained by subjective symptom scores, although in some of the challenge studies, investigators are making noble attempts to quantitate symptoms objectively, eg, amount of secretions, sneezing, and even itching of the nares. Although nasal congestion is only one symptom of chronic rhinitis, the various methods of measuring nasal resistance by rhinometry are increasingly well described and standardized. General concepts that are emerging from the vast literature on pharmacologic treatment of rhinitis are as follows: 1) The much-maligned H1 receptor antagonists may actually be more useful than previously thought, once further information about how to use them optimally is available. Interesting new antihistamines are being developed. Further investigations of allied drugs such as the tricyclic antidepressants (doxepin) are definitely in order. 2) alpha-adrenergic agonists definitely have short-term usefulness but side effects from this class of drugs have, if anything, been underestimated. Exploration of the use of beta-adrenergic agonists and anti-cholinergics in the treatment of chronic rhinitis has begun. 3) Disodium cromoglycate is not universally effective in chronic rhinitis, perhaps in part because compliance with a prophylactic drug requiring insufflation four or six times daily may not be high. The degree of response and the percentage of patients having an excellent response to the drug is lower than for the new corticosteroids. 4) Topical corticosteroids administered intranasally are clearly the most effective medications for treatment of chronic rhinitis. Further study of the benefit versus the long-term risk of these drugs is mandatory, but their remarkable efficacy and safety in the treatment of chronic rhinitis is undisputed. Some comparisons between the four major groups of drugs are now being made, and further attempts to define the relative roles and the interactions of drugs used in the pharmacologic treatment of rhinitis are definitely needed.
The pharmacokinetics of orally administered doxepin (50 mg) was studied in 8 healthy volunteers. Doxepin (DOX) and desmethyldoxepin (DDOX) concentrations in serum (or plasma) and red blood cells (RBCs) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Peak serum concentrations of DOX were observed at 1-2 hours and they ranged between 59.1-107.4 nmol/1. DOX disappearance was biphasic with a mean distribution half-life of 2.0 hrs and elimination half-life of 17.9 hrs. The mean total apparent volume of distribution was 22.7 l/kg and plasma clearance 0.93 l/hr/kg. The estimated mean first-pass metabolism of DOX was 71% assuming complete absorption. Peak DDOX concentrations were observed at 1-6 hours and they ranged between 35.0-117.8 nmol/l. DDOX elimination was monophasic with a mean apparent half-life of 28.5 hours. Equilibrium dialysis gave a mean protein binding of 75.5% for DOX and 76.0% for DDOX. A highly time dependent and interindividually variable RBC/plasma concentration ratio was observed for both substances. Initially the plasma concentrations were 3-4 times higher than the respective RBC concentrations, but at later time points more DOX and DDOX could be found from the RBCs than from plasma. The major reason for this seemed to be a slower elimination of both drugs from the erythrocytes than from plasma.
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The kinetics of doxepin (DOX) hydrochloride were studied in 7 volunteers after the oral administration of 75 mg. Peak plasma concentrations of DOX ranged from 8.8 to 45.8 ng/ml and were reached within 4 hr. The disappearance of DOX was biphasic and followed first-order kinetics. The mean DOX half life (t1/2) was 16.8 hr and in individuals ranged from 8.2 to 24.5 hr. The mean apparent volume of distribution was 20.2 L/kg and ranged from 9.1 to 33.3 L/kg. The estimated first-pass metabolism of DOX ranged from 55% to 87% of the oral dose assuming complete absorption. Significant quantities of the metabolite desmethyldoxepin (DMD) were produced. Peak levels of DMD ranged from 4.8 to 14.5 ng/ml and were reached between 2 and 10 hr after administration. The mean t1/2 of DMD was 51.3 hr and in individuals ranged from 33.2 to 80.7 hr. There was no correlation between the DOX and DMD t1/2s. The amount of DMD produced correlated with the plasma concentration of DOX and appears to explain the correlation between the steady-state concentrations of DOX and DMD in patients given DOX.