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To determine the attitudes of patients with psychoses/schizophrenia towards generic substitution of oral atypical antipsychotics in a pharmacy setting.
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The classical clinical picture of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by venous and arterial thrombosis, fetal losses and thrombocytopenia in the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant. APS can occur either as a primary disorder or secondary to a connective tissue disease, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations of APS, and includes thrombotic events, psychiatric features and a variety of other non-thrombotic neurological syndromes. We present a 9-year-old Saudi girl who developed psychotic illness without thrombotic manifestations. Autoantibodies against cardiolipin were persistent and strongly positive while antinuclear antibodies and antibodies against double-stranded DNA was absent. Her brain computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance arteriography and magnetic resonance venography all were normal. There was no evidence of infection, drug intake or connective tissue disorders, So a diagnosis of primary APS was likely. Starting on antipsychotics only was unsatisfactory and marked improvement occurred after combined treatment with antidepressants (imipramine 10 mg and risperdal 0.2 mg, both once daily), small-dose aspirin (100 mg) and hydroycloroquine (100 mg) both once daily. Unfortunately aspirin was stopped by the family and 5 months later she developed right axillary vein thrombosis. This case presented psychotic illness. Investigations revealed the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies without a thromboembolic picture, mimicking Hughes syndrome but not fulfilling the criteria needed for the diagnosis. Thus, psychosis should be appreciated as a presenting symptom for primary APS and combined treatment with antipsychotics, aspirin and antimalarials is recommended.
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The pharmacological choices for the treatment of schizophrenia have been greatly expanded with the availability of the atypical compounds clozapine (Clozaril, Novartis), risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag), olanzapine (Zyprexa, Eli Lilly & Co.), quetiapine (Seroquel, AstraZeneca), ziprasidone (Geodon, Pfizer Inc.) and aripiprazole (Abilify, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd). In this article, the effects of the newer antipsychotics and their side effects are reviewed. Key issues in acute and maintenance treatment, often lifelong, will be reviewed. Side-effect management to ensure adherence to an optimal treatment regimen will be discussed. Coexisting syndromes must be treated in concordance with the patient's clinical presentation. For treatment-resistant patients, atypical compounds are generally more effective than their typical counterparts but medication augmentation strategies are frequently recommended. Finally, the results of recent meta-analyses comparing the effects of atypical versus typical compounds will be critically reviewed and remaining gaps in the current pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia will be explored.
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One-hundred sixty-four patients were enrolled at nine geographically diverse sites. The switch to Risperdal Consta was associated with a significant reduction in mean annual days in hospital from 39 to 21 days per year (45%), which was linked to a significant reduction in the number of hospitalizations from 0.86 to 0.63 per year (27%). The alternative "modelling-inspired" estimate of the reduction in mean annual days in hospital was also 27%.
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The number and quality of clinical trials is low and this downgrades the strength of the evidence and conclusions.
The objective was to investigate the relationship between in vitro and in vivo release of commercial Risperdal(®) Consta(®) microspheres. A modified USP apparatus 4 method was used for accelerated and real-time in vitro release testing. The in vivo plasma profile (clinical data) reported for the product was deconvoluted for comparison with the in vitro release profiles. The in vivo profile differed from the real-time in vitro profile and was faster initially and then slower after approximately 30 days. This effect is considered to be due to differences in the in vivo conditions such as small interstitial volume, low pH and immune response. Accelerated in vitro release profiles obtained at temperatures (50°C and 54.5°C) above the microsphere glass transition temperature (Tg∼48°C) overlapped with the in vivo profile after time scaling. A linear in vitro-in vivo relationship was observed with correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.99 at 50°C and 54.5°C, respectively. The accelerated test performed below the Tg had a similar release profile to that of the real-time in vitro test. The accelerated tests performed above the Tg of the microspheres showed the potential to be used for in vivo performance prediction as well as for quality control purposes.
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The study was carried out in 32 healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations in plasma were determined using HPLC/MS/MS.
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Since schizophrenia is not a rare occurrence and is often chronic, the general practitioner and internist providing primary care should also be informed on new developments in treatment with neuroleptics. A major new form of treatment is provided by the so-called atypical neuroleptics which, however, in terms of their receptor specificity are not a uniform group, and have only a few properties in common. A prototype of this group is clozapine (Leponex), which has a good antipsychotic effect and virtually no action on the extrapyramidal motor system (EPS). Whether clozapine is also capable of improving the primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g. flattering of affect, reduction of drive, cognitive disorders, etc.) has not yet been ascertained. On account of the rare but possibly fatal agranulocytosis it may induce, it may be prescribed only when certain safety precautions are taken. Risperidone (Risperdal) has similar efficacy against the classical positive symptoms, with no action on the EPS (up to a medium dosage), and has no hematological effects. Other atypical neuroleptics have recently become available: quetiapine, olanzapine and sertindole. They have at least some of the advantages of clozapine but a very low risk of producing hematological effects. However, before they are widely used in the doctor's practice, further clinical experience is needed.
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Risperidone (Risperdal®) is a recently developed antipsychotic drug with the combination of serotonin-5HT2A-and dopamine-D2-antagonism (SDA). In patients with schizophrenia, risperidone reduces positive symptoms at least equally effective as haloperidol, however, risperidone has a reduced propensity for the induction of extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, available evidence indicates that risperidone may be an effective treatment for negative symptoms. The optimum daily dose range is between 4 and 8 mgfor most patients. In this review article, risperidone is compared with some other (classical and atypical) neuroleptics. In addition, the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of risperidone are reviewed.
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Two reviewers extracted data from included trials. Data were pooled where possible, and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. Odds ratios of average differences were calculated. Only 'intention to treat' data were included. Analysis included haloperidol treated patients, compared with placebo.
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The data from this study in healthy adult male Chinese subjects suggest that the test formulation met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence to the reference formulation, on the basis of the rate and extent of absorption. Both formulations were well tolerated.
Generic atypical antipsychotics in tablet form differ in name, appearance and packaging from the innovator brand antipsychotics. These differences might cause anxiety, confusion and misperceptions in some ambulant patients with psychoses/schizophrenia, especially if the brand atypical antipsychotic is substituted in the pharmacy without the acknowledgement of the patient and treating psychiatrist. Furthermore, generic substitution of branded oral atypical antipsychotics in the pharmacy might cause nonadherence and potentially lead to suboptimal treatment outcomes if patients perceive the medicines to be clinically different.
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This open-label, multi-centre study enrolled 82 adults from four diagnostic groups (major depressive disorder (MDD), n = 25; bipolar disorder (BP), n = 21; dementia (DE), n = 20; schizophrenia (SZ), n = 16). Patients were switched from their previous dosage of compressed tablets (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0 mg/day) to an equivalent dosage of orally disintegrating risperidone and followed for 4 weeks. The primary effectiveness parameter evaluated was the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale.
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To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and risks of pharmacological, behavioural and physical interventions for tics in children and young people with TS (part 1) and to explore the experience of treatment and services from the perspective of young people with TS and their parents (part 2).
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Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug with potent serotonin and moderate dopamine antagonistic properties. It possesses good bioavailability following oral administration. Risperidone is primarily converted by the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, its active metabolite with equivalent potency to the parent compound.
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The area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time, from 0 to infinite (ABC0-infinity) and from 0 to 24 h (ABC0-24), early exposure (ABC from 0 to maximal time) and maximal plasma concentrations were significantly lower for Spiron. Half life time and time to achieve the maximal concentration were similar for the two formulations.
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A single-dose, randomized, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in 23 healthy Thai male volunteers. Blood samples were collected predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h following an oral administration of 2 mg risperidone. The plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Test and Reference were obtained by noncompartmental analysis.
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A naturalistic mirror-image study found that switching to long-acting injectable risperidone led to sizeable reductions in inpatient resource use. These results coincide with the findings of other international studies.
For part 1, randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies of pharmacological, behavioural or physical interventions in children or young people (aged < 18 years) with TS or chronic tic disorder were included. Mixed studies and studies in adults were considered as supporting evidence. Risk of bias associated with each study was evaluated using the Cochrane tool. When there was sufficient data, random-effects meta-analysis was used to synthesize the evidence and the quality of evidence for each outcome was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. For part 2, qualitative studies and survey literature conducted in populations of children/young people with TS or their carers or in health professionals with experience of treating TS were included in the qualitative review. Results were synthesized narratively. In addition, a national parent/carer survey was conducted via the Tourettes Action website. Participants included parents of children and young people with TS aged under 18 years. Participants (young people with TS aged 10-17 years) for the in-depth interviews were recruited via a national survey and specialist Tourettes clinics in the UK.
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Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin (5-HT [5-hydroxytryptamine])(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioral symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence, and hyperglycemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.
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Risperidone, a serotonin-dopamine antagonist, is effective in preventing delusions and hallucinations by D2 receptor antagonism and treating negative symptoms by 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. It is less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms than conventional antipsychotics, enabling safe drug therapy for schizophrenia. Paliperidone, based on 9OH-risperidone(major metabolite of risperidone), was developed to make the best use of the high therapeutic efficacy of Risperdal and enable continued treatment with lower prevalence of adverse events. Its mechanism of action as an extended-release tablet ensures slow release of the active ingredient, contributing to the lower prevalence of adverse events. With these pharmacological characteristics in mind, the two drugs can serve as safe and effective drug therapy.
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Risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is the first long-acting formulation of an atypical antipsychotic introduced into clinical practice. RLAI combines the benefits of atypical antipsychotic agents with an extended duration of activity and is intended for long-term management of schizophrenia. This study evaluated the use of RLAI as part of a long-term management strategy in patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia.
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A total of 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (mean age 22.9 years [standard deviation (SD) 2.7, range 19.2-27.1]; weight 63.2 kg [SD 7.0, range 52.0-78.0]; and height 171.3 cm [SD 6.1, range 162.0-187.0]) were enrolled, and all completed the study. For the parent drug, risperidone, the 90% CIs of the relative values (test vs. reference) of the Cmax, AUC from time zero to time t (AUCt), and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) were 97.0-124.0%, 92.7-115.1%, and 92.8-114.2%, respectively. For the active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, the values were 104.4-117.7%, 101.0-113.7%, and 100.4-113.4%, respectively. The two formulations met the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence. A total of 73 AEs were observed in 24 subjects during the study. The most common AE was sedation (48 events), followed by nasal reactions (14 events), postural hypotension (3 events), hypertriglyceridemia (2 events), dizziness (4 events), nausea (1 event), and anorexia (1 event). Their severity was as follows: 16 were mild, 57 were moderate, and none were severe. The majority of the AEs were considered to be related (48 events) or probably related (23 events) to the study medication. No clinically significant abnormalities on physical examination, vital sign measurements, or electrocardiographic recordings were reported. No serious AEs were reported.
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To evaluate safety and maintenance of effect in symptomatically stable patients transitioned from compressed risperidone tablets to orally disintegrating risperidone tablets.
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Suicide accounts for approximately 10% of patient deaths in schizophrenia. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (Clozaril), successful in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia, may have an additional antisuicidal effect. Numerous published reports, including the collaborative International Suicide Prevention Trial, have compared mortality rates between clozapine recipients and patients receiving other forms of antipsychotic treatment and observed a significant reduction in patient risk for suicide with clozapine therapy. Preliminary reports indicate improvements in suicidality in schizophrenia patients treated with other modern atypical antipsychotics, for example olanzapine [Zyprexa], risperidone [Risperdal] and sertindole [Serdolect], but further investigation is required to clarify their role as antisuicidal drugs. It has been estimated that 53 suicides in treatment-resistant patients could have been prevented by clozapine, but the number of lives saved may be significantly higher if clozapine therapy was extended to treatment responders at a high risk for suicide.
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Poor adherence to pharmacotherapy during maintenance-phase treatment of bipolar disorder is a common occurrence, exposing patients to a high risk of illness relapses, rehospitalization and other negative outcomes. In view of this, there has been a reawakening of interest in the potential of long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications to improve treatment outcome during bipolar maintenance therapy. Indeed, long-acting injectable medications have practical advantages of assuring delivery of medication at a prescribed dose, and perhaps also making it easier to monitor adherence, at least to the long-acting drug. However, there are important limitations to the long-term use of depot typical neuroleptics in patients with bipolar disorder, including risk of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia, which may exceed that of patients with schizophrenia, and the potential for treatment-emergent exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI) has recently been approved for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. Evidence supporting the use of RLAI for this indication consists of several nonrandomized, open-label studies; one randomized, open-label trial; and two adequately powered randomized, double-blind trials. In general, these studies have shown RLAI to be effective for the prevention of relapse or hospitalization during bipolar maintenance treatment. In the double-blind studies, RLAI was associated with reduced relapse rates, increased time to relapse and greater control of clinical symptoms during maintenance treatment following initial stabilization, compared with oral medication treatment or placebo injection. RLAI appeared to be more effective for preventing manic/mixed episodes than depressive episodes. RLAI showed good tolerability across studies; however, dose-related extrapyramidal effects, sedation, weight gain and prolactin elevation may occur during long-term treatment. Responder-enriched designs and exclusion of important clinical subgroups in the double-blind trials may limit translation of these results to routine care settings.
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The mean effect size for the database was 1.047 and the sample weighted mean effect size was 1.108, with a variance of 0.18.