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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

acarbose precose medication

The bioactive flavonoid fisetin (FS) is a diet-derived antioxidant that is being increasingly investigated for its health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, the poor physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties affect and limit the clinical application. In this study, novel polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), based on Poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PLGA-PEG-COOH, encapsulating FS were formulated as suitable oral controlled release systems. Results showed NPs having a mean diameter of 140-200nm, and a percent loading of FS ranging from 70 to 82%. In vitro release studies revealed that NPs are able to protect and preserve the release of FS in gastric simulated conditions, also controlling the release in the intestinal medium. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS scavenging capacity of FS, as well as α-glucosidase inhibition activity, that resulted about 20-fold higher than commercial Acarbose, were retained during nanoencapsulation process. In summary, our developed NPs can be proposed as an attractive delivery system to control the release of antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic FS for nutraceutical and/or therapeutic application.

precose patient review

The first genome of a virus infecting a representative of the eubacterial genus Actinoplanes is presented. Phage phiAsp2 has a circularly permutated chromosome that consists of 58,638 bp; its G/C-bias of 70.39% resembles the hosts G + C-content (71-73% within the genus). A total of 76 open reading frames (orfs) were identified, the majority of which (63) displaying equal transcriptional orientations. Functional gene clustering is obvious as orfs coding for head and tail proteins are located close to the center in the first half of the genome and putative DNA-modifying enzymes are encoded by centrally located genes; DNA repair and recombination functions are situated in the remaining part of the genome, adjacent to a small gene cluster, the predicted proteins of which are involved in DNA packaging. Close to the left terminus there are two small regions (approximately 4.5 kb each, separated by 2.8 kb) which are homologous to the recently sequenced mycobacteriophage rosebush, however, the unique overall structure of the phiAsp2-genome does not bear resemblance to any other known viral genome. The nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank with the accession no. AY576796.

precose user reviews

There is evidence that acarbose reduces the risk for development of diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The mechanism underlying the vasculoprotective effect is however not known. We hypothesized that vasculoprotection observed by acarbose may be the consequence of a diminished generation of oxidative stress.

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"High dose" metformin therapy (2,550 mg/day) is reported to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or = 30). Some have reported that metformin therapy, even in low doses (500-750 mg/day), improves glycemic control in non-obese type 2 diabetic patients (BMI approximately 25). However, it is unclear whether "low dose" metformin improves glycemic control better than acarbose in non-obese type 2 diabetic patients, which has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes with obesity.

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To determine whether a forced titration of acarbose (from 50 to 300 mg three times daily) administered over a 24-week period, in conjunction with diet and insulin therapy, improves glycemic control and reduces daily insulin requirements in insulin-requiring type II diabetes.

precose 100 mg

Multi-substrate specificity of neopullulanase towards cyclodextrin, acarbose and maltose was investigated using a clone originating from Bacillus stearothermophilus IMA6503. The enzyme purified from Escherichia coli harbouring the corresponding nplA gene hydrolysed beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) to maltose and glucose. It exhibited substrate preference for beta-CD, starch and pullulan in the proportions of 10.4:1.2:1. The enzyme not only hydrolysed acarbose, an alpha-amylase inhibitor, to a pseudotrisaccharide (PTS) and glucose, but also transferred PTS to glucose, forming isoacarbose. Moreover, it hydrolysed maltose to glucose and transferred the glucose to another maltose molecule to form panose when maltose was present at a low concentration (0.5%) in the reaction solution. The enzyme catalysed condensation between two maltose molecules and subsequent hydrolysis of the resulting 6(2)-O-alpha-maltosyl-maltose to glucose and panose, when maltose concentration was increased to 20%. Neopullulanase was likely to be present in monomer-dimer equilibrium with a molar ratio of 1:9 in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.0). The association-dissociation equilibrium of neopullulanase was shifted to monomerization by KCl. When the content of monomer increased in the reaction mixture, the specific activity towards soluble starch increased to 150%, while that towards beta-CD decreased to 80%. Therefore, multi-substrate specificity of neopullulanase was likely to be modulated by the shift of monomer-dimer association equilibrium.

precose dosing

The efficacy and safety of acarbose (100 mg three times a day for 12 weeks) was investigated in an open study in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus who could not achieve satisfactory glycaemic control by diet alone. Acarbose significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose from 165.9 +/- 16.0 mg/dl to 159.5 +/- 16.9 mg/dl (P value < 0.01). The reduction of postprandial plasma glucose was 11.2 per cent and 9.8 per cent for 1 hour and 2 hours respectively. HbAic also significantly decreased from the baseline. The most common side effects were mild to moderate flatulence and abdominal distension. There were no significant changes in body weight, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. These results indicate that treatment with acarbose is safe and effective in adjunct to dietary therapy for the treatment of NIDDM.

precose tablets

Ten new xanthone glycosides, kouitchensides A-J (1-10), and 11 known analogues were isolated from an n-butanol fraction of Swertia kouitchensis. The structures of these glycosides were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data interpretation and comparison with data reported in the literature. In an in vitro test, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, and 13 (IC50 values in the range 126 to 451 μM) displayed more potent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 627 μM).

precose drug class

In the present work, we aimed at developing a chemoenzymatic procedure for the synthesis of beta-maltooligosaccharide glycosides. The primer in the enzymatic reaction was 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-maltoheptaoside (G(7)-CNP), synthesised from beta-cyclodextrin using a convenient chemical method. CNP-maltooligosaccharides of longer chain length, in the range of DP 8-11, were obtained by a transglycosylation reaction using alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-phosphate (G-1-P) as a donor. Detailed enzymological studies revealed that the conversion of G(7)-CNP catalysed by rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (EC 2.4.1.1) could be controlled by acarbose and was highly dependent on the conditions of transglycosylation. More than 90% conversion of G(7)-CNP was achieved through a 10:1 donor-acceptor ratio. Tranglycosylation at 37 degrees C for 30 min with 10 U enzyme resulted in G(8-->12)-CNP oligomers in the ratio of 22.8, 26.6, 23.2, 16.5, and 6.8%, respectively. The reaction pattern was investigated using an HPLC system. The preparative scale isolation of G(8-->11)-CNP glycosides was achieved on a semipreparative HPLC column. The productivity of the synthesis was improved by yields up to 70-75%. The structures of the oligomers were confirmed by their chromatographic behaviours and MALDI-TOF MS data.

precose medication

Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge. In the present paper, we report the evaluation of biological activities of different extracts of bacteria Vibrio sp. and Bacillus sp. associated with marine sponges Dysidea avara and Ircinia variabilis, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the biological activities of some diketopiperazines (DKPs), previously isolated, and able to activate QS mechanism. The results showed that all extracts, fractions, and DKPs showed low scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion, low cytotoxic and anti-tyrosinase activities, but no antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. One DKP [cyclo-(trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-L-leucine)] has the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity even than the standard acarbose.

precose dose

In the screening of biologically active constituents from medicinal plants, the 75% EtOH extract of the testas of Castanea mollissima Blume showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. By means of various chromatographic methods, the extract gave a new dammarane-type triterpene 1 along with 17 known compounds. The structure of 1 was determined to be 3beta-acetoxy-20-oxo-21-nordammaran-23-oic acid by HRMS and NMR studies including 2D NMR experiments. The new compound and some known compounds showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with acarbose as a positive control.

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Baseline measurements revealed biochemical evidence of enhanced lipid peroxidation and platelet activation. As compared with the placebo group, patients treated with acarbose had statistically significant reductions in urinary 11-dehydro-TXB(2) and 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) excretion rate as early as after 8 weeks and at each subsequent time point (between-group P < 0.0001 at 12, 16 and 20 weeks), following earlier decreases in PPG and MAGE. Multiple regression analyses in the acarbose group revealed that PPG was the only significant predictor of 11-dehydro-TXB(2) urinary excretion rate (beta = 0.39, P = 0.002) and MAGE the only predictor of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) urinary excretion rate (beta = 0.42, P = 0.001).

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To study the effect of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

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The effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on retinal capillary basement membrane thickening was examined in the spontaneously diabetic BB/W-rat. Four months of diabetes resulted in significant thickening of the basement membranes of both the superficial and deep capillary nets of the retina. This characteristic change of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes was completely prevented by acarbose treatment that substantially reduced postprandial hyperglycemia. A similar but less pronounced effect was seen on the age-related increase in basement membrane thickening in acarbose-treated non-diabetic control rats who demonstrated decreased glycated hemoglobin levels compared to non-treated control rats. Significant positive correlations between basement membrane thickness and glycated hemoglobin area suggest that diabetic retinal microangiopathy may be prevented by lowering the cumulative glucose exposure to the microvasculature, and that age-related basement membrane thickening is mediated by long-term exposure to normal glucose levels.

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Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 produces the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its cellular metabolism, a genome-scale metabolic model of strain SE50/110, iYLW1028, was reconstructed on the bases of the genome annotation, biochemical databases, and extensive literature mining. Model iYLW1028 comprises 1028 genes, 1128 metabolites, and 1219 reactions. One hundred and twenty-two and eighty one genes were essential for cell growth on acarbose synthesis and sucrose media, respectively, and the acarbose biosynthetic pathway in SE50/110 was expounded completely. Based on model predictions, the addition of arginine and histidine to the media increased acarbose production by 78 and 59%, respectively. Additionally, dissolved oxygen has a great effect on acarbose production based on model predictions. Furthermore, genes to be overexpressed for the overproduction of acarbose were identified, and the deletion of treY eliminated the formation of by-product component C. Model iYLW1028 is a useful platform for optimizing and systems metabolic engineering for acarbose production in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110.

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The biological activity of the synthesized glycomimetics has been evaluated towards 24 commercially available glycosidases. The weak observed activities can probably be related to the spatial disposition of the hydroxy and amino groups which depart too much from that realized in glycomimetics such as valiolamine, voglibose and valienamine. Nevertheless, the synthetic strategy described here is efficient and general, and could be extended to increase the diversity of the glycosidase inhibitors obtained since this diversity is introduced in an ultimate step of the synthesis.

precose 25 mg

Combined exenatide/metformin reduced intra-abdominal fat content, and enhanced insulin resistance and inflammatory status in patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes, representing a novel treatment regimen.

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2,7″-Phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol might be used as an inhibitor of α-glucosidase and α-amylase as well as to delay absorption of dietary carbohydrates.

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To compare, from a managed care perspective, the 3-year costs of 3 first-line monotherapy strategies in type 2 diabetes patients: glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS), metformin, and acarbose.

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Recent evidence shows promising findings in the safety and efficacy of some oral hypoglycaemic agents in treating pregnant diabetics. However, larger clinical studies will be needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these drugs in pregnancy.

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precose tabs 2017-12-21

We maintain that acarbose may be a useful therapeutic tool in addition to the diet in order to reduce triglyceride serum buy precose online levels in non-diabetic patients.

precose dosing 2015-06-13

Acarbose was safe and well tolerated by the majority of diabetic patients over a 1 buy precose online -year treatment period.

precose dosage 2017-03-21

We studied 1,946 patients (63% men) who were previously enrolled in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study ( buy precose online UKPDS). The patients were randomized to acarbose (n = 973), titrating to a maximum dose of 100 mg three times per day, or to matching placebo (n = 973). Mean +/- SD age was 59 +/- 9 years, body weight 84 +/- 17 kg, diabetes duration 7.6 +/- 2.9 years, median (interquartile range) HbA1c 7.9% (6.7-9.5), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 8.7 mmol/l (6.8-11.1). Fourteen percent of patients were treated with diet alone, 52% with monotherapy, and 34% with combined therapy. Patients were monitored in UKPDS clinics every 4 months for 3 years. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, FPG, body weight, compliance with study medication, incidence of side effects, and frequency of major clinical events.

precose medication 2016-06-29

This article reviews evidence of the benefits and buy precose online risk of antidiabetic agents in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, with a focus on medications approved by the FDA since 2008.

acarbose precose medication 2016-07-08

DPP4is as a buy precose online second- or third-line add-on treatment provided cardiovascular benefits and posed no increased risks for heart failure, hypoglycaemia or death.

precose tablets 2016-06-13

Therapy for idiopathic reactive hypoglycemia is ineffective and impractical. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, decreases buy precose online the absorbed glucose load. This study was done to determine the efficacy of acarbose in this syndrome.

precose 50 mg 2015-08-24

Long-term treatment with acarbose was buy precose online safe and efficacious in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was insufficiently controlled by other oral antidiabetics.

precose 25 mg 2017-05-01

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and inflammatory changes. Ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes. The molecular target of ezetimibe is the sterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1). Human NPC1L1 is abundantly expressed in the liver and may facilitate the hepatic accumulation of cholesterol. Ezetimibe exerts beneficial effects on several metabolic variables. Ezetimibe treatment attenuates hepatic steatosis and is beneficial in terms of NAFLD biochemical markers. The combination of ezetimibe with other interventions may also be beneficial in NAFLD patients. Our group investigated the ezetimibe-orlistat combination treatment in overweight and obese patients with hypercholesterolemia, with beneficial effects on NAFLD biochemical markers. These results are promising for patients with NAFLD, who usually have increased cardiovascular disease risk and buy precose online need a multifactorial treatment. However, it should be mentioned that most results are from animal studies and, although modest elevation of liver function tests may raise the suspicion of NAFLD, none of these tests are sensitive to establish the diagnosis of NAFLD with great accuracy.

precose patient review 2017-01-26

Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces lactation performance in dairy cattle and most often occurs in animals fed a high concentrate:forage ration with large amounts of readily fermentable starch, which results in increased production of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid and a reduction in ruminal pH. Acarbose is commercially available (Glucobay, Bayer, Wuppertal, Germany) and indicated for the control of blood buy precose online glucose in diabetic patients. In cattle, acarbose acts as an alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitor that slows the rate of degradation of starch to glucose, thereby reducing the rate of volatile fatty acid production and maintaining rumen pH at higher levels. The ability of acarbose to reverse the reduced feed intake and milk fat percentage and yield associated with a high concentrate:forage ration with a high risk of inducing subacute ruminal acidosis was evaluated in 2 experiments with lactating dairy cattle. In 2 preliminary experiments, the effects of a 70:30 concentrate:forage ration on ruminal pH and lactation were evaluated. Ruminal pH was monitored in 5 Holstein steers with ruminal cannulas every 10 min for 5 d. Ruminal pH was <5.5 for at least 4 h in 79% of the animal days. In dairy cows, the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration decreased feed intake 5%, milk fat percentage 7%, and milk fat yield 8% compared with a 50:50 concentrate:forage ration but did not affect milk yield. Early lactating dairy cattle were offered the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration with 0 or 0.75 g/d of acarbose added in a crossover design in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, acarbose increased dry matter feed intake (23.1 vs. 21.6 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (33.7 vs. 31.7 kg/d) because of an increase in percentage milk fat (3.33 vs. 3.04%) compared with control cows. In the second experiment, cows were fasted for 3 h before the morning feeding to induce consumption of a large meal to mimic conditions that might be associated with unplanned delayed feeding. In this experiment, acarbose also increased feed intake (22.5 vs. 21.8 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (36.9 vs. 33.9 kg/d) due to increased percentage milk fat (3.14 vs. 2.66%) compared with controls. Thus, acarbose reversed the decreased feed intake and low milk fat percentage and yield associated with feeding a high concentrate:forage ration shown to induce subacute ruminal acidosis in Holstein steers.

precose drugs 2017-07-24

The nutritional effects of butyrate on the colonic mucosa and studies of transformed cells suggest that butyrate has anti-colon cancer effects. If butyrate has antineoplastic effects, mucosal growth contrasts between normal subjects and those with a history of colonic neoplasia would parallel changes in growth characteristics caused by butyrate in a colon neoplasia population. To test this hypothesis, rectal buy precose online biopsies from a survey of colonoscopy patients (n = 50) with and without a history of colonic neoplasia (controls) were compared. Similarly, rectal biopsies were compared from subjects (n = 44) with a colon neoplasia history in an acarbose-placebo crossover trial. Control subjects in the colonoscopy survey had higher bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake than subjects with a history of neoplasia (P = 0.05). The control subjects also had a higher correlation of BrdU and Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.003). Both findings were paralleled by acarbose use. Acarbose augmented BrdU uptake (P = 0.0001) and improved the correlation of BrdU and Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.013). Acarbose also augmented fecal butyrate (P = 0.0001), which was positively correlated with Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.003). p52 antigen had an earlier pattern of crypt distribution in subjects with a history of colon neoplasia but was not affected by acarbose use. Lewis-Y antigen was expressed earlier in the crypt with acarbose but had similar expression in the colonoscopy survey groups. The use of acarbose to enhance fecal butyrate concentration produced mucosal changes paralleling the findings in control subjects as opposed to those with neoplasia, supporting the concept of an antineoplastic role for butyrate.

precose online 2016-10-07

Numerous medications can trigger diarrhea. In some cases it is a common side effect, and the relationship is evident (e.g. acarbose, somatostatin analogs and antibiotics). When diarrhea does occur, the therapeutic benefit of the drug should be weighed against the negative results of the side effect. If pseudomembranous colitis is suspected, prompt action is required, since a fatal outcome cannot be excluded. A particular challenge is a suspected drug association in a multimorbid patient taking several drugs, each associated with buy precose online an only low diarrhea risk. In such a case, it may be necessary to discontinue drugs consecutively, or to replace a drug by another, until the diarrhea ceases, without lessening the effectiveness of the treatment.

precose medicine 2017-11-26

Human alpha-amylase was purified from aspirated duodenal juice to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single step by affinity chromatography with the competitive inhibitor acarbose (IC50 = 1.22 mumol/l) as ligand. buy precose online Duodenal juice was applied to an agarose resin to which acarbose had been coupled covalently via a 1.9 nm spacer group. Pure alpha-amylase, eluted with free acarbose, had a molecular mass of 55,000, and isoelectrofocusing revealed the presence of six isozymes with pI values of 7.3, 6.8, 6.7, 6.5, 6.4 and 6.3, all of which possessed amylase activity based on positive starch/iodine staining. The potential usefulness of this one-step purification procedure in the measurement of pancreatic alpha-amylase synthesis rates was evaluated in two control patients with non-pancreatic disease. Aspirated duodenal juice was obtained during a pulse/continuous intravenous 4 h infusion of [14C]leucine together with secretin and pancreozymin, and alpha-amylase purified using our protocol. Pancreatic alpha-amylase synthesis rates were determined from the rate of incorporation of [14C]leucine into alpha-amylase; values of 4.4 and 5.1 h were obtained for the two control patients.

precose drug interactions 2016-07-23

Eleven Japanese patients with T2DM underwent four meal buy precose online tolerance tests with single administration of acarbose, miglitol, sitagliptin, or nothing. Fasting and postprandial plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, and des-acyl ghrelin were measured.

precose drug 2015-03-12

Constipation is common in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM); its prevalence is estimated as buy precose online up to 60% among patients with diabetic neuropathy. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, has a beneficial role in controlling DM, although one of its side effects is diarrhea. This study evaluates the efficacy of acarbose in improving constipation using transit time (TT) studies in elderly long-term care (LTC) patients.

precose acarbose tablets 2016-04-01

There is increasing evidence that pathogens do not only elicit direct defense responses, but also cause pronounced changes in primary carbohydrate metabolism. Cell-wall-bound invertases belong to the key regulators of carbohydrate partitioning and source-sink relations. Whereas studies have focused so far only on the transcriptional induction of invertase genes in response to pathogen infection, the role of post-translational regulation of invertase activity has been neglected and was the focus of the present study. Expression analyses revealed that the high mRNA level of one out of three proteinaceous invertase inhibitors in source leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is strongly repressed upon infection by a virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Zithromax 100 Mg DC3000. This repression is paralleled by a decrease in invertase inhibitor activity. The physiological role of this regulatory mechanism is revealed by the finding that in situ invertase activity was detectable only upon infection by P. syringae. In contrast, a high invertase activity could be measured in vitro in crude and cell wall extracts prepared from both infected and non-infected leaves. The discrepancy between the in situ and in vitro invertase activity of control leaves and the high in situ invertase activity in infected leaves can be explained by the pathogen-dependent repression of invertase inhibitor expression and a concomitant reduction in invertase inhibitor activity. The functional importance of the release of invertase from post-translational inhibition for the defense response was substantiated by the application of the competitive chemical invertase inhibitor acarbose. Post-translational inhibition of extracellular invertase activity by infiltration of acarbose in leaves was shown to increase the susceptibility to P. syringae. The impact of invertase inhibition on spatial and temporal dynamics of the repression of photosynthesis and promotion of bacterial growth during pathogen infection supports a role for extracellular invertase in plant defense. The acarbose-mediated increase in susceptibility was also detectable in sid2 and cpr6 mutants and resulted in slightly elevated levels of salicylic acid, demonstrating that the effect is independent of the salicylic acid-regulated defense pathway. These findings provide an explanation for high extractable invertase activity found in source leaves that is kept inhibited in situ by post-translational interaction between invertase and the invertase inhibitor proteins. Upon pathogen infection, the invertase activity is released by repression of invertase inhibitor expression, thus linking the local induction of sink strength to the plant defense response.

precose reviews 2017-02-21

Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol(®)) in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated Avodart Generic Drug hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.

precose generic 2016-01-05

Iris species are well recognized as wealthy sources of isoflavonoids. In the present study, phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Iris germanica (Iridaceae) procure the isolation of two new isoflavonoids Seroquel Reviews Depression namely, 8-hydroxyirilone 5-methyl ether (2) and 8-hydroxyirilone (3), along with eight known isoflavonoids: irilone 4'-methyl ether (1), irilone (4), irisolidone (5), irigenin S (6), irigenin (7), irilone 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), iridin S (9), and iridin (10). The isolated flavonoids were structurally characterized with the assist of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS) and comparing with the published data. They were estimated for their antioxidant and antidaibetic capacities using DPPH and α-amylase inhibition assays, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 exhibited prominent antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 12.92, 9.23, and 10.46μM, respectively compared to propyl gallate (IC50 7.11μM). Moreover, 2-5 possessed highest α-amylase inhibitory activity with % inhibition 66.1, 78.3, 67.3, and 70.1, respectively in comparison to acarbose (reference α-amylase inhibitor). Additionally, their structure-activity relationship has been discussed.

precose cost 2016-01-21

The functionality of the sequence Arg183-Gly184-Tyr185 of the substrate binding fourth beta-alpha loop in the (beta/alpha)8-barrel of barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) was studied by random mutagenesis. A motif of polar Gly184 hydrophobic residues was present Coumadin Tab Colors in active mutants, selected by starch plate screening of yeast transformants. Gly184 was important, probably due to the carbonyl group binding to Ca2+ and the spatial proximity of Phe181. Mutation of both flanking residues as in Ser183-Gly184-Met185 (SGM-) and TGL-AMY1 decreased the Ca2+ affinity. SGM-AMY1 has 2-fold increased activity for amylose but reduced activity on maltooligosaccharides, whereas KGY-AMY1 has up to 3-fold elevated activity toward the oligosaccharides. TGL-AMY1 has modest activity on all substrates. Shifted action pattern on maltooligosaccharides for NGY-, SGM-, and TGL-AMY1 support that Arg183 in wild type is located at subsites +1 and +2, accommodating two sugar rings toward the reducing end from the site of cleavage. In the crystal structure of barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2), Lys182 (equivalent to AMY1 Arg183) is hydrogen-bonded with sugar OH-3 in subsite +2. Higher Ki app for acarbose inhibition of KGY-AMY1 and parent AMY1 compared with the other mutants suggests favorable substrate interactions for Arg/Lys183. KGY-AMY1 was not inhibited by the AMY2-specific proteinaceous barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, although Lys182 of AMY2 is salt-linked to the inhibitor.

precose generic name 2017-06-10

To study the effects of lobster sauce and polysaccharide extracts on alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity by Bactroban Dosage establishing on enzyme-inhibitor model.

precose drug class 2015-01-31

Compared with nateglinide, acarbose has superior Luvox Drug Information therapeutic efficacy for reducing fasting and postprandial TG levels in patients with T2DM.

precose tablet 2015-09-03

Addition of acarbose to existing treatment was associated with improvements in life expectancy Viagra Pill Costume and quality-adjusted life expectancy, and provides excellent value for money over patient lifetimes in the German setting.

precose 100 mg 2016-05-17

1-Deoxynojirimycin, a pseudo-monosaccharide, is a strong inhibitor of glucoamylase but a relatively weak inhibitor of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). To elucidate this difference, the crystal structure of the CGTase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. 1011 complexed with 1-deoxynojirimycin was determined at Glucophage Containing Drugs 2.0 A resolution with the crystallographic R value of 0.154 (R(free) = 0.214). The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two CGTase molecules and each molecule binds two 1-deoxynojirimycins. One 1-deoxynojirimycin molecule is bound to the active center by hydrogen bonds with catalytic residues and water molecules, but its binding mode differs from that expected in the substrate binding. Another 1-deoxynojirimycin found at the maltose-binding site 1 is bound to Asn-667 with a hydrogen bond and by stacking interaction with the indole moiety of Trp-662 of molecule 1 or Trp-616 of molecule 2. Comparison of this structure with that of the acarbose-CGTase complex suggested that the lack of stacking interaction with the aromatic side chain of Tyr-100 is responsible for the weak inhibition by 1-deoxynojirimycin of the enzymatic action of CGTase.

precose dose 2015-02-08

The prescribing rates of OADs are shifting from the older OADs (i.e. SUs Lanoxin Tablets Dose ) to newer OADs [i.e. alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI), MGs, and TZDs]. The prescribing patterns of OADs are moving toward combination therapy, especially triple oral therapy.

precose buy 2016-12-29

There is substantial evidence that intensive lifestyle programs and medications delay T2DM in impaired glucose tolerance though Topamax Drug Class it remains unclear which is more effective.

precose user reviews 2015-09-17

This was a retrospective study of 195 type 2 diabetic patients (109 female, 86 male; mean age 50.4+/-10.1 years, diabetes duration 5.4+/-1.4 years, mean BMI 28.6+/-6.5 kg/m2 at baseline). The inclusion criterion was at least one-year treatment with metformin alone or metformin and one other antidiabetic drug in unchanged doses. The analysis included duration of metformin treatment, mode of therapy, changes in metabolic parameters (fasting blood glucose, HbA1c), body weight, and insulin dosage.

buy precose online 2015-06-13

The role of postprandial hyperglycemia in the etiology of diabetes-related complications and outcomes, although still being elucidated, is greater than previously thought. Acute glucose elevations after meal ingestion are associated with a variety of glucose-mediated tissue defects-oxidative stress, glycation, and advanced glycation end product formation-which have far-reaching structural and functional consequences for virtually every human organ system. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin to levels that prevent or delay these complications can be achieved only by reducing both postprandial and fasting plasma glucose levels. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, voglibose, miglitol) have been effective in delaying the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, thus diminishing the postprandial surge in blood glucose levels without loss of calories. However, greater emphasis needs to be placed on the measurement of postprandial glycemia, so that readings can be used to guide treatment.

precose tabs 2015-07-30

Gynecology and infertility clinic of a tertiary care medical center.