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Prandin (Repaglinide)
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Prandin

Prandin is an efficacious medical preparation in fight against type 2 diabetes. Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Glucotrol, Avandia, Starlix, Metformin, Insulin aspart, Glipizide, Glimepiride, Januvia, Victoza, Pioglitazone, Glyburide, Tradjenta, Amaryl, Welchol, Lantus, Levemir, Onglyza, Sitagliptin, Farxiga, Humalog, Novolog, Bydureon, Glucotrol, Toujeo

 

Also known as:  Repaglinide.

Description

Prandin is created with extremely active ingredients with aim to make Prandin ideal remedy against type 2 diabetes. Target of Prandin is to control sugar level in blood.

Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood). You can use it in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin is also known as Repaglinide, Eurepa, GlucoNorm, NovoNorm, Rapilin.

Prandin is an oral anti-diabetic drug. It can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Dosage

It is better to take Prandin orally every day at the same time.

Usual Prandin dosage is 0.5mg - 4mg, which is taken 2-4 times a day before meal.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Prandin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Prandin overdosage: troublesome, retching, flushing, migraine, short breath, weakness, sweating, coma, fainting, muscle pain, hunger, pain of stomach, tremors, extreme fatigue, dizziness, seizure, slow heartbeat, dyspepsia, feeling cold, lack of appetite, fast heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Prandin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Prandin if you are allergic to Prandin components.

Be careful with Prandin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Do not use Prandin in case of having type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, liver disease, poor adrenal, pituitary function.

Try to be careful with Prandin in case of using such medication as sulfa drugs (Gantanol); isoniazid; niacin (Nicobid); water pills (thiazide diuretics HydroDIURIL, Dyazide); beta blockers (blood pressure medications as Tenormin, Inderal); barbiturates (sedatives as Nembutal, Seconal); calcium channel blockers (blood pressure medications as Procardia, Cardizem); Rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); oral contraceptives; ketoconazole (Nizoral); chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Voltaren, Motrin, Advil, Naprosyn); blood thinners (Miradon, Dicumarol); steroids as prednisone; furosemide as Lasix; clarithromycin as Biaxin; thyroid medications as Synthroid; phenytoin as Dilantin; Probenecid (ColBENEMID, Benemid); estrogens (Premarin); aspirin; erythromycin (PCE, Eryc, Ery-Tab); MAO inhibitors (antidepressants Parnate, Marplan, Nardil); glucose lowering agents (Micronase, Glucotrol); carbamazepine (Tegretol); major tranquilizers (Stelazine, Mellaril).

You can use Prandin in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Try to avoid unhealthy food.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

prandin 1mg tablet

The more rapid onset of action and the shorter half-life of repaglinide may reduce the post-load glucose excursion and limit sustained insulin secretion compared to sulphonylurea (SU) derivatives.

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Current treatments for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) remain far from ideal. The universal finding of islet dysfunction characterised by the absence of first phase insulin secretion, even prior to the level of hyperglycaemia diagnostic of NIDDM, challenges the rationale for treatments that only enhance insulin action. To date, however, the sulfonylureas are the only insulin secretagogues available and even the most rapid acting of these fail to restore early insulin release in response to meals. Four novel non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues are in advanced clinical development: A-4166, KAD-1229, BTS 67 582 and repaglinide. These promising new agents control prandial hyperglycaemia by augmenting the early insulin response to meals. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that their potencies vary considerably, as do their pharmacokinetics and, importantly, their pharmacodynamics. The two shortest-acting compounds, A-4166 and KAD-1229, will be developed to be taken prior to each main meal, while the slower, longer duration agents, repaglinide and BTS 67 582, may be developed to be taken twice daily. With a sufficiently rapid onset and short duration of action, the new non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues may improve or even restore the impairment of early insulin secretion without inducing the prolonged hyperinsulinaemia characteristic of sulfonylureas. Treatment with these new agents will immediately improve prandial glucose control and with continued treatment these agents are expected to improve the overall metabolic state. Furthermore, a short-acting secretagogue will have minimal propensity to elicit prolonged or delayed hypoglycaemia and it is expected that by minimising chronic hyperinsulinaemia the weight gain that accompanies sulfonylurea treatment will be avoided. In summary, the new non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues will make an important contribution to the limited and inadequate armamentarium currently available for the treatment of NIDDM, and their use in combination with insulin sensitising agents may provide, for the first time, an approximation to ideal metabolic control in NIDDM.

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Current antihyperglycemic treatments were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Albuminuria was measured using immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. Prevalence of major acute cardiovascular events was calculated according to age quartiles, treatments, and categories of eGFR (1 = ≥90; 2 = 60-89; 3 = 30-59; and 4 = <30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ).

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Repaglinide administration, through good control of postprandial glucose levels, improves brachial reactivity and declines oxidative stress indexes.

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A combination therapy of metformin hydrochloride (MH) and repaglinide (RG) achieves a perfect glycemic control; however, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, compromising the therapeutic benefits and causing inconveniences to the patients. Herein, a bilayer matrix tablet that aimed at continuously releasing both MH and RG over time was developed, in which the two drugs were formulated into two separated layers. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method, and the optimized formulation was obtained by evaluating the factors that affected the drug release. The bilayer tablets simultaneously released the two drugs over 12 h; and a better in vivo performance with a steady plasma concentration, markedly lower Cmax, prolonged Tmax, and perfect absorption was obtained. Summarily, the bilayer matrix tablets sustained both MH and RG release over time, thereby prolonging the actions for diabetic therapy and producing better health outcomes.

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Tropical starches from Dioscorea dumetorum (bitter) and Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese) yams were acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine medium and utilized as polymers for the delivery of repaglinide in microsphere formulations in comparison to ethyl cellulose. Acetylated starches of bitter and Chinese yams with degrees of substitution of 2.56 and 2.70 respectively were obtained. Acetylation was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A 3(2) factorial experimental design was performed using polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as independent variables. Particle size, swelling, entrapment and time for 50% drug release (t50) were dependent variables. Contour plots showed the relationship between the independent factors and the response variables. All variables except swelling increased with drug: polymer ratio. Entrapment efficiency was generally in the rank of Bitter yam>Ethyl cellulose>Chinese yam. Repaglinide microspheres had size 50±4.00 to 350±18.10μm, entrapment efficiency 75.30±3.03 to 93.10±2.75% and t50 3.20±0.42 to 7.20±0.55h. Bitter yam starch gave longer dissolution times than Chinese yam starch at all drug-polymer ratios. Drug release fitted Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg models. Acetylated bitter and Chinese yam starches were found suitable as polymers to prolong release of repaglinide in microsphere formulations.

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A large interindividual variability exists in the plasma concentrations of repaglinide. Our aim was to investigate possible associations between the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding for the drug transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) (SLCO1B1 ) and P-glycoprotein ( MDR1 , ABCB1 ) and the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and CYP3A5.

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The allelic frequency of NeuroD1/BETA2 T45 was higher in T2DM patients than in the control subjects [13.45 vs. 6.82%, P < 0.01, odds ratios = 2.342 (1.365, 4.019), P= 0.002]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with the mutated allele of NeuroD1/BETA2 A45T polymorphism showed higher FINS (13.46 ± 12.57 vs. 10.04 ± 7.09 mU l(-1) , P < 0.05) (11.67, 14.83 vs. 8.38, 11.37) and PINS (52.11 ± 40.93 vs. 68.66 ± 43.87 mU l(-1), P < 0.05) (44.89, 58.35 vs. 55.35, 88.87) than individuals with the T allele. The PAX4 R121W R allele carriers had higher PINS (52.11 ± 40.93 vs. 68.66 ± 43.87 mU l(-1), P < 0.05) (44.89, 58.35 vs. 55.35, 88.87) than subjects with the W allele. After repaglinide treatment, patients with the T allele of NeuroD1/BETA2 A45T polymorphisms had attenuated efficacy on fasting plasma glucose (-2.79 ± 2.14 vs.-0.99 ± 1.80 mmol l(-1), P < 0.01) (-3.53, -1.84 vs.-1.99, -0.13) and postprandial plasma glucose (-6.71 ± 5.90 vs.-2.54 ± 3.39 mmol l(-1), P < 0.01) (-9.28, -4.62 vs.-4.34, -0.84). Patients with the RR genotype of PAX4 R121W showed better efficacy with respect to the level of postprandial plasma glucose than R/W genotypes (-6.53 ± 6.52 vs.-2.95 ± 1.17 mmol l(-1), P < 0.05) (-8.20, -4.89 vs.-3.92, -1.20).

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Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 256) who had inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c > or =7.0%) during previous monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive repaglinide (0.5-4.0 mg at meals), troglitazone (200-600 mg once daily), or a combination of repaglinide (1-4 mg at meals) and troglitazone (200-600 mg once daily). After a 4-6 week washout period, the trial assessed 22 weeks of treatment: 3 weeks (weeks 0-2) of forced titration, 11 weeks of fixed-dose treatment (weeks 3-13), and 8 weeks (weeks 14-21) of titration to maximum dose. Changes in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values were measured.

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In order to improve the dissolution and absorption of the water insoluble drug repaglinide, a solid dispersion was developed by solvent method using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) as the hydrophilic carrier for the first time. Studies indicated that both solubility and the dissolution rate of repaglinide were significantly increased in the solid dispersion system compared with that of repaglinide raw material or physical mixtures. The repaglinide solid dispersions with PVP K30 solid state was characterized by polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). DSC and XRD studies indicated that repaglinide existed in an amorphous form in the solid dispersion. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between repaglinide and PVP K30 in the solid dispersion. In the in situ gastrointestinal perfusion experiment, solid dispersion was shown to remarkably enhance the absorption of repaglinide in stomach and all segments of intestine. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that immediate and complete release of repaglinide from the solid dispersion resulted in rapid absorption that significantly increased the bioavailability and the maximum plasma concentration over repaglinide raw material. These results demonstrated PVP K30 was an appropriate carrier for solid dispersion of repaglinide, with increased dissolution and oral absorption.

prandin drug class

To assess the efficacy of repaglinide and its proclivity for hypoglycemia in a post-marketing study.

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Numerous drugs with different mechanisms of action and different pharmacologic profiles are being used with the aim of improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic options for patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited because a reduced glomerular filtration rate results in the accumulation of certain drugs and/or their metabolites. Conventional oral hypoglycemic agents, such as sulfonylurea (SU), are not suitable due to the risk of prolonged hypoglycemia; furthermore, metformin is contraindicated for moderate to advanced CKD. Therefore, in order to achieve good glycemic control, insulin injection therapy remains the mainstay of treatment in diabetic patients with moderate to advanced CKD, particularly in those receiving dialysis therapy. However, some agents have been used even in patients with CKD. Repaglinide and mitiglinide are rapid- and short-acting insulinotropic SU receptor ligands. They are rarely accompanied by hypoglycemia, and are attractive therapeutic options even in the dialysis population. In addition, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are rarely accompanied by hypoglycemia and are administered without dose adjustments in dialysis patients. However, the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines recommended that alpha-glucosidase inhibitors should be avoided in patients with advanced stage CKD and on dialysis. Furthermore, mitiglinide is not currently used in the US. Thus, recommended oral antidiabetic agents differ between countries. Moreover, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and incretin mimetics are new antihyperglycemic agents, which may be used more frequently in the future in patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. Here, we describe the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical efficacy, and safety of oral Antidiabetic agents for patients with CKD, including those receiving dialysis.

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We aimed to determine whether differences in this hypoglycemic effect existed between individuals consuming Eastern and Western diets with significantly different starch contents, a systematic meta-analysis of studies comparing acarbose with placebo or other hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed.

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The global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the various pharmacological agents available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, including novel agents were discussed.

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This set of data suggests novel anti-inflammatory effects of repaglinide in nondiabetic animals. However, the high dose required for an efficacious effect would make this application impractical in the clinic.

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In type 2 diabetic patients mealtime glucose fluctuations are important determinants of overall glucose control and overall risk of diabetes cardiovascular complications. In fact, acute elevation of plasma glucose concentrations trigger an array of tissue response that may contribute to development of such vascular complications since it may result in a thrombophilic condition, causes endothelial dysfunction (possibly through a reduction of nitric oxide availability) and is responsible for non-enzymatic glycation and production of free- radicals with ensuing oxidative stress. To keep post-prandial glucose with narrow range, metiglinide analogues drugs have been developed. In particular, repaglinide and nateglinide seem the most useful ones. In fact, both drugs improve 1(st) phase insulin release but they do not affect the total daily amount of insulin released by the pancreas. Due to the mechanism of action and to pharmacokinetic properties, repaglinide and nateglinide allow diabetic patients to get a more tight metabolic glucose control with a contemporary reduction in the cases of severe hypoglycaemia. In conclusions, repaglinide and nateglinide are new and powerful pharmacological tools not only for achieving a better metabolic glucose control but also for preventing the development of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications.

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These data support the strategy of mealtime dosing with repaglinide. The improvements in glycemic control observed in these patients are encouraging. In addition to classic parameters of glycemic control, improvements in postprandial glucose excursions may prove to be important because postprandial hyperglycemia has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes.

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This interaction between TMP/SMX and repaglinide was predictable according to available pharmacokinetic data in healthy subjects. Trimethoprim induced CYP2C8 inhibition, thus increasing the plasma concentration of repaglinide. This interaction is mentioned in the repaglinide product information. To our knowledge, however, no case of symptomatic hypoglycemia associated with a combination of repaglinide and trimethoprim has been described before. This discrepancy may be explained by the subtherapeutic dosage used in the pharmacokinetic study. Moreover, our patient had impaired renal function, which may have led to trimethoprim accumulation and potentiated its interaction with repaglinide. A direct lowering of blood glucose levels due to sulfamethoxazole, also potentiated by renal failure, could also be involved in triggering hypoglycemia.

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Repaglinide has a good safety and efficacy profile in type 2 diabetic patients complicated by renal impairment and is an appropriate treatment choice, even for individuals with more severe degrees of renal impairment.

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The combination therapy showed a significant reduction in mean HbA1c values (-1.7%) that was greater than with either type of monotherapy Repaglinide monotherapy resulted in a reduction of HbA1c values that was significantly greater than troglitazone (-0.8 vs. -0.4%) (P < 0.05). Combination therapy was more effective in reducing FPG values (-80 mg/dl) than either repaglinide (-43 mg/dl) or troglitazone (-46 mg/dl) monotherapies. Adverse events were similar in all groups.

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Repaglinide and glipizide but not glibenclamide significantly enhanced the early insulin secretion in both nondiabetic and diabetic subjects with preserved beta-cell function after a single standard meal.

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  In type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet and exercise, repaglinide monotherapy gives greater glycemic improvement than nateglinide monotherapy in reducing HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values after 16 weeks. This trial was registered with JapicCTI (no. JapicCTI-080521). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00188.x, 2011).

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All patients achieved 1.0-mm ST-segment depression during the four exercise tests (T1, T2, T3, and T4). In phase 2, seven patients improved in time to onset of 1.0-mm ST-segment depression. The worsening of the time to onset of 1.0-mm ST-segment depression in phase 2 demonstrated ischemic preconditioning block in 83.3% of patients (P=0.0001). Even the postexercise electrocardiographic parameters (ST-segment depression morphology and magnitude and arrhythmias) were significantly different between the groups with and without pharmacologic ischemic preconditioning block (P=0.031).

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The effects of a combination of repaglinide and metformin on the insulin secretion pattern and insulin sensitivity were studied in a fixed-dose, open-label, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Eleven patients with T2 DM were allocated in random order to treatment with placebo or repaglinide (1 mg pre-meal 3 x/day) in combination with metformin (2550 mg/day) for one-week periods of each. At the end of each period a hyperglycaemic (HC) and a euglycaemic clamp (EC) were performed. Both early (0 - 10 min) and late (25 - 180 min) phases of insulin secretion were significantly increased during HC with repaglinide compared to placebo (263.3 +/- 133.1 vs. 443.6 +/- 138.5 pmol/l/10 min, p = 0.008 and 18 750.9 +/- 5936.4 vs. 34 508.65 +/- 9234.0 pmol/l/25 - 180 min; p = 0.008). The C-peptide concentrations under steady-state conditions were lower in EC with placebo than with repaglinide (p = 0.014). When euglycaemia was achieved in EC, the C-peptide concentrations decreased from hyperglycaemic to normoglycaemic values in the presence of repaglinide but remained higher than after placebo. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was increased by 35 % after 1 week of combination therapy with repaglinide plus metformin (1.11 +/- 0.03 x 10 (2) vs. 0.83 +/- 0.21 x 10 (2) mg x kg (-1) body weight x min (-1) x pmol (-1) x l, respectively; p = 0.033). Repaglinide increased early and late phases of insulin responses in HC, without markedly enhancing insulin secretion in euglycaemia. Repaglinide in combination with metformin produced a significant enhancement of ISI, suggesting a synergistic effect on insulin sensitivity.

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The results confirm an important role for both CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 in the human in vitro biotransformation of repaglinide. This dual CYP biotransformation may have consequences for the clinical pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions involving repaglinide if one CYP pathway has sufficient capacity to compensate if the other is inhibited.

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prandin similar drugs 2017-04-22

Nateglinide is a novel insulinotropic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is a D-phenylalanine derivative, chemically distinct from repaglinide and sulphonylureas (glyburide or glimepiride). Although each agent is known to stimulate insulin release via the signaling cascade initiated by closure of ATP-dependent K+ (K(ATP)) channels in pancreatic beta-cells, the pharmacological effect of nateglinide is reportedly fast-acting, short-lasting, sensitive to ambient glucose and more resistant to metabolic inhibition. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the distinct properties of the insulinotropic action of nateglinide. By using the patch-clamp methods, we comparatively characterized the potency and kinetics of the effect of these agents on K(ATP) channels in rat beta-cells at normal vs. elevated glucose and under physiological condition vs. experimentally induced metabolic inhibition. Our results demonstrated that the mode buy prandin online of the action of nateglinide on K(ATP) current was unique in (a) glucose dependency; (b) increased potency and efficacy under ATP depletion and uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation than physiological condition; (c) substantially more rapid onset and offset kinetics. The data provide mechanistic rationale for the unique in vivo and ex vivo activity profile of nateglinide and may contribute to reduced hypoglycemic potential associated with excessive insulin secretion.

buy prandin online 2015-09-26

PubMed and buy prandin online EMBASE (1977-2010) were searched using the terms geriatric, elderly patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metformin, secretagogues, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Articles were included if they were clinical trials, reviews, or meta-analyses.

prandin and alcohol 2016-06-09

Repaglinide has the half life of 1 hour, and bioavailability in the body is 56% due to buy prandin online first-pass metabolism. The total daily dose of Repaglinide is 16 mg (e.g., 4 mg four times daily depending on meal patterns); hence, it required frequent dosing. Transdermal patch of Repaglinide was prepared to sustain the release and improve bioavailability of drug and patient compliance. Different formulations were prepared by varying the grades of HPMC and concentration of PVP K30 by solvent casting method. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various parameters like thickness, tensile strength, folding endurance, % elongation, % moisture content, % moisture uptake, % drug content, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation, and drug excipient compatibility. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to check the effect of varying the grades of HPMC (X(1)) and PVP concentration (X(2)) on the responses, that is, tensile strength, percentage drug released in 1 hr (Q(1)), 9 hr (Q(9)), and diffusion coefficient as a dependent variables. In vitro release data were fitted to various models to ascertain kinetic of drug release. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were performed for dependent variables. The results of the F2 statistics between factorial design batches and theoretical profile were used to select optimized batch. Batch F6 was considered optimum batch which contained HPMC K100 and PVP (1.5%), showed release 92.343% up to 12 hr, and was more similar to the theoretical predicted dissolution profile (f(2) = 69.187).

prandin diabetes medication 2017-06-13

Two nanoparticle formulations were prepared by combining RPG with poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid alone or as a copolymer with methoxypolyethylene glycol (RPGNP1 and RPGNP2, respectively); both formulations were subjected to in vitro and in vivo characterization. In vivo characterization was performed in a streptozotocin ( buy prandin online STZ)-induced diabetic male albino rats.

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The findings in pertinent reported studies are reviewed, and the efficacy of various interventions for management of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in slowing the progression of IMT is analyzed. buy prandin online

is prandin generic 2015-01-06

The loss of early-phase insulin secretion is an important and early event in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. Because a normal pattern of insulin secretion is essential for the effective control of postprandial metabolism, a rational basis for the development of agents that target early-phase insulin release exists. Conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents do not target, or adequately control, postprandial glycaemia. The emergence of new classes of oral agent with a more specific mode of action provides, for the first time, an opportunity to restore early-phase insulin release. One such drug class is the meglitinide analogues (repaglinide, nateglinide, and mitiglinide). These drugs are ideally suited for combination use with metformin. They could also prove effective in combination with a thiazolidinedione, a drug class that targets insulin resistance. Exogenous insulin is frequently required in the late management of type 2 diabetes. However, one hope for newer combinations of diabetic drugs is that the functional life of the beta cell can be extended, thereby delaying the buy prandin online need for insulin injections.

prandin drug interactions 2016-05-05

Persistence on treatment affects the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment. We prospectively investigated the persistence on therapy and the extent of blood pressure (BP) control in 347 hypertensive patients (age 59.4 +/- 6 years) randomly allocated to a first-line treatment with: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers (CCBs), beta-blockers, angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs), or diuretics and followed-up for 24-months. Persistence on treatment was higher in patients treated with ARBs (68.5%) and ACE inhibitors (64.5%) vs CCBs (51.6%; p < 0.05), beta-blockers (44.8%, p < 0.05), and diuretics (34.4%, p < 0.01). No ARB, ACE inhibitor, beta-blocker, or diuretic was associated with a higher persistence in therapy compared with the other molecules used in each therapeutic class. The rate of persistence was significantly higher in patients treated with lercanidipine vs others CCBs (59.3% vs 46.6%, p < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic buy prandin online BP was decreased more successfully in patients treated with ARBs (-11.2/-5.8 mmHg), ACE inhibitors (-10.5/-5.1 mmHg), and CCBs (-8.5/-4.6 mmHg) compared with beta-blockers (-4.0/-2.3 mmHg p < 0.05) and diuretics (-2.3/-2.1 mmHg, p < 0.05). No ARB, ACE inhibitor, beta-blocker, or diuretic was associated with a higher BP control compared with the other molecules used in each therapeutic class. A trend toward a better BP control was observed in response to lercanidipine vs other CCBs (p = 0.059). The present results confirm the importance of persistence on treatment for the management of hypertension in clinical practice.

prandin tablets generic 2016-09-06

With repaglinide/metformin, improved glycaemic control led to projected decreases in complication rates, improvement of LE and QALE by 0.15 and 0.14 years respectively, and total cost savings of 3,662 dollars buy prandin online /person over the 30-year period. Repaglinide/metformin had a 96% probability that the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year gained would be 20,000 dollars or less, and a 66% probability that repaglinide/metformin would be cost-saving compared to nateglinide/metformin. Sensitivity analyses supported the validity and reliability of the results.

prandin 5 mg 2017-03-24

The current study involves the development of oral bioadhesive hydrophilic matrices of repaglinide and the optimization of their in vitro drug release and ex vivo bioadhesion. A simplex lattice design buy prandin online was employed to systematically optimize the drug delivery containing two polymers and a filler. The proportions of polyethylene oxide (PEO), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and lactose were varied to be fitted in simplex lattice design. Mucoadhesion (M), drug release at 2 h (Q2) and drug release at 8 h (Q8) were taken as responses. Response surface plots were drawn and the optimum formulation was selected by desirability function. The criteria for optimized formulation were set for mucoadhesion as maximum, Q2 as 20% and Q8 as 80%. The formulations were also checked for their swelling index and showed good swelling characteristic. In vitro drug release study was carried out using simulated gastric fluid (SGF) pH 1.2. The experimental values of M, Q2 and Q8 for check point batch were found to be 0.211N, 21.87% and 80.86% respectively. The release profile indicated anomalous (non-Fickian) transport mechanism. The optimized formulation was further checked for its compatibility with other excipients by studying FTIR and DSC studies and they indicated the absence of any significant chemical interaction within drug and excipients.

prandin missed dose 2017-01-04

With few exceptions, the available oral antidiabetic agents are equally effective at lowering glucose concentrations. Their mechanisms of action are different, however, and as a result they appear to have distinct metabolic effects. These are buy prandin online reflected in their adverse effect profiles and their effect on cardiovascular risk, which may influence drug choice.

dose of prandin 2015-05-12

Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic stable angina pectoris, and two-vessel or three-vessel disease participated in this buy prandin online study. The patients underwent two consecutive treadmill exercise tests (phase 1). On the day after these exercise tests, 2 mg of oral repaglinide was given to the patients. One week later, two exercise tests were repeated consecutively (phase 2).

prandin tab 2015-07-12

In subjects with type 2 diabetes, both defects of insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to the development of buy prandin online hyperglycaemia. The major goals of treatment are to optimise blood glucose control, and normalise the associated lipid disturbances and elevated blood pressure. Pharmacologic treatment is often necessary. This paper discusses new forms of oral treatment for subjects with type 2 diabetes. These include a new sulphonylurea compound glimepiride (Amaryl), which binds to a different protein of the putative sulphonylurea receptor than glibenclamide, and seems to have a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. A new class of drugs with insulin secretory capacity, of which repaglinide (NovoNorm) is the leading compound, is now in phase III clinical trials. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reversibly inhibit alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the small intestine, which delays cleavage of oligo- and disaccharides to monosaccharides. This leads to a delayed and reduced blood glucose rise after a meal. Two compounds are in development or have been marketed, ie, miglitol and acarbose (Glucobay). Another new class of drugs is the thiazolidine-diones, which seem to work by enhancing insulin action. The 'insulin sensitising' effects of the leading compounds, troglitazone and BRL 49653C, do not involve any effect on insulin secretion. These drugs also seem to beneficially influence serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Oral antihyperglycaemic agents can be used only during a limited period of time in most patients, after which the diabetic state 'worsens' and insulin therapy has to be started. In this light, two new forms of treatment which require subcutaneous injections are also discussed: the synthetic human amylin analogue AC137 (pramlintide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide, a strong glucose-dependent stimulator of insulin secretion. It remains to be seen whether these compounds can be developed further for clinical use in patients with diabetes.

prandin dosage diabetes 2017-07-12

Repaglinide, an oral antidiabetic agent, has a rapid onset of action and short half-life of approximately 1 h. Designing a controlled release dosage form of the drug is required to maintain its therapeutic blood level and to eliminate its adverse effects, particularly the hypoglycaemia. Repaglinide sustained release matrix pellets consisting of Avicel, lactose and different polymers were prepared using extrusion-spheronisation method. The effect of different formulation components on in vitro drug release were evaluated using USP apparatus (paddle) for 12 h in phosphate buffer. The optimised formulation was orally administrated to normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. Most pellet formulations had acceptable physical properties with regard to size distribution, flowability and friability. Repaglinide pellets comprising Avicel 50%, lactose 47% and SLS 1% were released 94% of its drug content after 12 h. The optimised formulation was able Depakote Overdose Treatment to decrease blood glucose level in normal rats and those with diabetes throughout 8-12 h.

prandin user reviews 2017-11-03

The lipid and ethanol concentration affected the physicochemical attributes and performance of ethosomes. The flexible ethosomes permeated the Levaquin Missed Dose stratum corneum and improvized the availability of RPG for antidiabetic action. They prolonged the antidiabetic effect of RPG over a significantly longer period of time in comparison with the equivalent oral dose.

prandin brand name 2017-01-06

To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in rat pancreatic alpha-cells and somatotrophs. We found a pharmacological dissociation between the actions on KATP channels and exocytosis and suggest that compounds that, unlike repaglinide, have direct stimulatory effects on exocytosis in somatotrophs and alpha- and beta-cells, such as sulphonylureas and nateglinide, may Suprax Cefixime Dosage have a clinically undesirable general stimulatory effect on cells within the endocrine system.

prandin 1 mg 2016-07-31

A central finding of the UKPDS was that in type 2 diabetic patients, tight glycemic control with HbA1c targets as close to the normal range as possible must be achieved to further reduce diabetes related-complications, -mortality, and -cardiovascular disease, highlighting the need for new, optimized treatment strategies. With a focus on clinical efficacy, this paper discusses the results from the 20 major therapeutical trials published in the years 1997-1999, that evaluated the new insulinsensitizing thiazolidinediones Rosiglitazone and Pioglitazone and the new insulin-releasing potassium channel blockers Repaglinide and Nateglinide. While for Nateglinide, promising, but only preliminary data is available at current, Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone, and Repaglinide have been shown appropriate for both mono- and combination therapy with current standard drug treatment of type 2 diabetes. Similar to the known, older antidiabetic drugs, the new agents discussed have comparable blood glucose lowering potentials with a dose-related capacity of 0.5 to 1.5% HbA1c reduction. These beneficial effects were both seen in drug-naive patients previously treated with diet only and in combination therapies where patients had previous antidiabetic standard drug treatment suggesting effectiveness of glitazones and glinides also in more advanced stages of the disease. Problems with adverse effects appeared minor although long-range implications of weight gain, edema, lowering of hemoglobin, increase of total cholesterol for the glitazones, and hypoglycemia for glinides warrant further consideration. What becomes Avapro Dose clear from the variety of most recent mono- and combination treatment studies with as much as five different classes of antidiabetic drugs is that individually tailored therapies that recognize quality of life parameters and target the predominant features of metabolic pathology (such as early postprandial versus fasting hyperglycemia, degree of insulin resistance, progressive loss of 1-cell function) may become a feasible goal in the future.

prandin tab 2mg 2016-11-13

In non-obese T2DM Antabuse Generic patients, metformin was more effective in reducing selected biomarkers reflecting inflammation and endothelial dysfunction compared with repaglinide despite similar glycaemic levels between treatments.

prandin 1mg tablet 2015-04-16

A total of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c > 7.1%) when receiving the antidiabetic agent metformin were enrolled in this multicenter, double-blind trial Cost Of Prandin . Subjects were randomized to continue with their prestudy dose of metformin (n = 27), to continue with their prestudy dose of metformin with the addition of repaglinide (n = 27), or to receive repaglinide alone (n = 29). For patients receiving repaglinide, the optimal dose was determined during a 4- to 8-week titration and continued for a 3-month maintenance period.

prandin generic 2015-04-23

This study shows that the genetic polymorphisms Cialis 8 Tablet of MDR1 G2677T/A might explain the variability in the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide in the Chinese population.

prandin diabetes medicine 2015-06-20

To examine the effect of short-term improvements in glycaemic control on brachial artery endothelial function as a marker of cardiovascular Paracetamol Recommended Dosage health.