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The more rapid onset of action and the shorter half-life of repaglinide may reduce the post-load glucose excursion and limit sustained insulin secretion compared to sulphonylurea (SU) derivatives.
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Current treatments for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) remain far from ideal. The universal finding of islet dysfunction characterised by the absence of first phase insulin secretion, even prior to the level of hyperglycaemia diagnostic of NIDDM, challenges the rationale for treatments that only enhance insulin action. To date, however, the sulfonylureas are the only insulin secretagogues available and even the most rapid acting of these fail to restore early insulin release in response to meals. Four novel non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues are in advanced clinical development: A-4166, KAD-1229, BTS 67 582 and repaglinide. These promising new agents control prandial hyperglycaemia by augmenting the early insulin response to meals. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that their potencies vary considerably, as do their pharmacokinetics and, importantly, their pharmacodynamics. The two shortest-acting compounds, A-4166 and KAD-1229, will be developed to be taken prior to each main meal, while the slower, longer duration agents, repaglinide and BTS 67 582, may be developed to be taken twice daily. With a sufficiently rapid onset and short duration of action, the new non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues may improve or even restore the impairment of early insulin secretion without inducing the prolonged hyperinsulinaemia characteristic of sulfonylureas. Treatment with these new agents will immediately improve prandial glucose control and with continued treatment these agents are expected to improve the overall metabolic state. Furthermore, a short-acting secretagogue will have minimal propensity to elicit prolonged or delayed hypoglycaemia and it is expected that by minimising chronic hyperinsulinaemia the weight gain that accompanies sulfonylurea treatment will be avoided. In summary, the new non-sulfonylurea insulin secretagogues will make an important contribution to the limited and inadequate armamentarium currently available for the treatment of NIDDM, and their use in combination with insulin sensitising agents may provide, for the first time, an approximation to ideal metabolic control in NIDDM.
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Current antihyperglycemic treatments were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Albuminuria was measured using immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. Prevalence of major acute cardiovascular events was calculated according to age quartiles, treatments, and categories of eGFR (1 = ≥90; 2 = 60-89; 3 = 30-59; and 4 = <30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ).
Repaglinide administration, through good control of postprandial glucose levels, improves brachial reactivity and declines oxidative stress indexes.
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A combination therapy of metformin hydrochloride (MH) and repaglinide (RG) achieves a perfect glycemic control; however, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, compromising the therapeutic benefits and causing inconveniences to the patients. Herein, a bilayer matrix tablet that aimed at continuously releasing both MH and RG over time was developed, in which the two drugs were formulated into two separated layers. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method, and the optimized formulation was obtained by evaluating the factors that affected the drug release. The bilayer tablets simultaneously released the two drugs over 12 h; and a better in vivo performance with a steady plasma concentration, markedly lower Cmax, prolonged Tmax, and perfect absorption was obtained. Summarily, the bilayer matrix tablets sustained both MH and RG release over time, thereby prolonging the actions for diabetic therapy and producing better health outcomes.
Tropical starches from Dioscorea dumetorum (bitter) and Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese) yams were acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine medium and utilized as polymers for the delivery of repaglinide in microsphere formulations in comparison to ethyl cellulose. Acetylated starches of bitter and Chinese yams with degrees of substitution of 2.56 and 2.70 respectively were obtained. Acetylation was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A 3(2) factorial experimental design was performed using polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as independent variables. Particle size, swelling, entrapment and time for 50% drug release (t50) were dependent variables. Contour plots showed the relationship between the independent factors and the response variables. All variables except swelling increased with drug: polymer ratio. Entrapment efficiency was generally in the rank of Bitter yam>Ethyl cellulose>Chinese yam. Repaglinide microspheres had size 50±4.00 to 350±18.10μm, entrapment efficiency 75.30±3.03 to 93.10±2.75% and t50 3.20±0.42 to 7.20±0.55h. Bitter yam starch gave longer dissolution times than Chinese yam starch at all drug-polymer ratios. Drug release fitted Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg models. Acetylated bitter and Chinese yam starches were found suitable as polymers to prolong release of repaglinide in microsphere formulations.
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A large interindividual variability exists in the plasma concentrations of repaglinide. Our aim was to investigate possible associations between the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding for the drug transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) (SLCO1B1 ) and P-glycoprotein ( MDR1 , ABCB1 ) and the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and CYP3A5.
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The allelic frequency of NeuroD1/BETA2 T45 was higher in T2DM patients than in the control subjects [13.45 vs. 6.82%, P < 0.01, odds ratios = 2.342 (1.365, 4.019), P= 0.002]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with the mutated allele of NeuroD1/BETA2 A45T polymorphism showed higher FINS (13.46 ± 12.57 vs. 10.04 ± 7.09 mU l(-1) , P < 0.05) (11.67, 14.83 vs. 8.38, 11.37) and PINS (52.11 ± 40.93 vs. 68.66 ± 43.87 mU l(-1), P < 0.05) (44.89, 58.35 vs. 55.35, 88.87) than individuals with the T allele. The PAX4 R121W R allele carriers had higher PINS (52.11 ± 40.93 vs. 68.66 ± 43.87 mU l(-1), P < 0.05) (44.89, 58.35 vs. 55.35, 88.87) than subjects with the W allele. After repaglinide treatment, patients with the T allele of NeuroD1/BETA2 A45T polymorphisms had attenuated efficacy on fasting plasma glucose (-2.79 ± 2.14 vs.-0.99 ± 1.80 mmol l(-1), P < 0.01) (-3.53, -1.84 vs.-1.99, -0.13) and postprandial plasma glucose (-6.71 ± 5.90 vs.-2.54 ± 3.39 mmol l(-1), P < 0.01) (-9.28, -4.62 vs.-4.34, -0.84). Patients with the RR genotype of PAX4 R121W showed better efficacy with respect to the level of postprandial plasma glucose than R/W genotypes (-6.53 ± 6.52 vs.-2.95 ± 1.17 mmol l(-1), P < 0.05) (-8.20, -4.89 vs.-3.92, -1.20).
Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 256) who had inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c > or =7.0%) during previous monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive repaglinide (0.5-4.0 mg at meals), troglitazone (200-600 mg once daily), or a combination of repaglinide (1-4 mg at meals) and troglitazone (200-600 mg once daily). After a 4-6 week washout period, the trial assessed 22 weeks of treatment: 3 weeks (weeks 0-2) of forced titration, 11 weeks of fixed-dose treatment (weeks 3-13), and 8 weeks (weeks 14-21) of titration to maximum dose. Changes in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values were measured.
In order to improve the dissolution and absorption of the water insoluble drug repaglinide, a solid dispersion was developed by solvent method using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) as the hydrophilic carrier for the first time. Studies indicated that both solubility and the dissolution rate of repaglinide were significantly increased in the solid dispersion system compared with that of repaglinide raw material or physical mixtures. The repaglinide solid dispersions with PVP K30 solid state was characterized by polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). DSC and XRD studies indicated that repaglinide existed in an amorphous form in the solid dispersion. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between repaglinide and PVP K30 in the solid dispersion. In the in situ gastrointestinal perfusion experiment, solid dispersion was shown to remarkably enhance the absorption of repaglinide in stomach and all segments of intestine. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that immediate and complete release of repaglinide from the solid dispersion resulted in rapid absorption that significantly increased the bioavailability and the maximum plasma concentration over repaglinide raw material. These results demonstrated PVP K30 was an appropriate carrier for solid dispersion of repaglinide, with increased dissolution and oral absorption.
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To assess the efficacy of repaglinide and its proclivity for hypoglycemia in a post-marketing study.
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Numerous drugs with different mechanisms of action and different pharmacologic profiles are being used with the aim of improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic options for patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited because a reduced glomerular filtration rate results in the accumulation of certain drugs and/or their metabolites. Conventional oral hypoglycemic agents, such as sulfonylurea (SU), are not suitable due to the risk of prolonged hypoglycemia; furthermore, metformin is contraindicated for moderate to advanced CKD. Therefore, in order to achieve good glycemic control, insulin injection therapy remains the mainstay of treatment in diabetic patients with moderate to advanced CKD, particularly in those receiving dialysis therapy. However, some agents have been used even in patients with CKD. Repaglinide and mitiglinide are rapid- and short-acting insulinotropic SU receptor ligands. They are rarely accompanied by hypoglycemia, and are attractive therapeutic options even in the dialysis population. In addition, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are rarely accompanied by hypoglycemia and are administered without dose adjustments in dialysis patients. However, the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines recommended that alpha-glucosidase inhibitors should be avoided in patients with advanced stage CKD and on dialysis. Furthermore, mitiglinide is not currently used in the US. Thus, recommended oral antidiabetic agents differ between countries. Moreover, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and incretin mimetics are new antihyperglycemic agents, which may be used more frequently in the future in patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. Here, we describe the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical efficacy, and safety of oral Antidiabetic agents for patients with CKD, including those receiving dialysis.
We aimed to determine whether differences in this hypoglycemic effect existed between individuals consuming Eastern and Western diets with significantly different starch contents, a systematic meta-analysis of studies comparing acarbose with placebo or other hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed.
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The global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the various pharmacological agents available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, including novel agents were discussed.
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This set of data suggests novel anti-inflammatory effects of repaglinide in nondiabetic animals. However, the high dose required for an efficacious effect would make this application impractical in the clinic.
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In type 2 diabetic patients mealtime glucose fluctuations are important determinants of overall glucose control and overall risk of diabetes cardiovascular complications. In fact, acute elevation of plasma glucose concentrations trigger an array of tissue response that may contribute to development of such vascular complications since it may result in a thrombophilic condition, causes endothelial dysfunction (possibly through a reduction of nitric oxide availability) and is responsible for non-enzymatic glycation and production of free- radicals with ensuing oxidative stress. To keep post-prandial glucose with narrow range, metiglinide analogues drugs have been developed. In particular, repaglinide and nateglinide seem the most useful ones. In fact, both drugs improve 1(st) phase insulin release but they do not affect the total daily amount of insulin released by the pancreas. Due to the mechanism of action and to pharmacokinetic properties, repaglinide and nateglinide allow diabetic patients to get a more tight metabolic glucose control with a contemporary reduction in the cases of severe hypoglycaemia. In conclusions, repaglinide and nateglinide are new and powerful pharmacological tools not only for achieving a better metabolic glucose control but also for preventing the development of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications.
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These data support the strategy of mealtime dosing with repaglinide. The improvements in glycemic control observed in these patients are encouraging. In addition to classic parameters of glycemic control, improvements in postprandial glucose excursions may prove to be important because postprandial hyperglycemia has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes.
This interaction between TMP/SMX and repaglinide was predictable according to available pharmacokinetic data in healthy subjects. Trimethoprim induced CYP2C8 inhibition, thus increasing the plasma concentration of repaglinide. This interaction is mentioned in the repaglinide product information. To our knowledge, however, no case of symptomatic hypoglycemia associated with a combination of repaglinide and trimethoprim has been described before. This discrepancy may be explained by the subtherapeutic dosage used in the pharmacokinetic study. Moreover, our patient had impaired renal function, which may have led to trimethoprim accumulation and potentiated its interaction with repaglinide. A direct lowering of blood glucose levels due to sulfamethoxazole, also potentiated by renal failure, could also be involved in triggering hypoglycemia.
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Repaglinide has a good safety and efficacy profile in type 2 diabetic patients complicated by renal impairment and is an appropriate treatment choice, even for individuals with more severe degrees of renal impairment.
The combination therapy showed a significant reduction in mean HbA1c values (-1.7%) that was greater than with either type of monotherapy Repaglinide monotherapy resulted in a reduction of HbA1c values that was significantly greater than troglitazone (-0.8 vs. -0.4%) (P < 0.05). Combination therapy was more effective in reducing FPG values (-80 mg/dl) than either repaglinide (-43 mg/dl) or troglitazone (-46 mg/dl) monotherapies. Adverse events were similar in all groups.
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Repaglinide and glipizide but not glibenclamide significantly enhanced the early insulin secretion in both nondiabetic and diabetic subjects with preserved beta-cell function after a single standard meal.
In type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet and exercise, repaglinide monotherapy gives greater glycemic improvement than nateglinide monotherapy in reducing HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values after 16 weeks. This trial was registered with JapicCTI (no. JapicCTI-080521). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00188.x, 2011).
All patients achieved 1.0-mm ST-segment depression during the four exercise tests (T1, T2, T3, and T4). In phase 2, seven patients improved in time to onset of 1.0-mm ST-segment depression. The worsening of the time to onset of 1.0-mm ST-segment depression in phase 2 demonstrated ischemic preconditioning block in 83.3% of patients (P=0.0001). Even the postexercise electrocardiographic parameters (ST-segment depression morphology and magnitude and arrhythmias) were significantly different between the groups with and without pharmacologic ischemic preconditioning block (P=0.031).
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The effects of a combination of repaglinide and metformin on the insulin secretion pattern and insulin sensitivity were studied in a fixed-dose, open-label, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Eleven patients with T2 DM were allocated in random order to treatment with placebo or repaglinide (1 mg pre-meal 3 x/day) in combination with metformin (2550 mg/day) for one-week periods of each. At the end of each period a hyperglycaemic (HC) and a euglycaemic clamp (EC) were performed. Both early (0 - 10 min) and late (25 - 180 min) phases of insulin secretion were significantly increased during HC with repaglinide compared to placebo (263.3 +/- 133.1 vs. 443.6 +/- 138.5 pmol/l/10 min, p = 0.008 and 18 750.9 +/- 5936.4 vs. 34 508.65 +/- 9234.0 pmol/l/25 - 180 min; p = 0.008). The C-peptide concentrations under steady-state conditions were lower in EC with placebo than with repaglinide (p = 0.014). When euglycaemia was achieved in EC, the C-peptide concentrations decreased from hyperglycaemic to normoglycaemic values in the presence of repaglinide but remained higher than after placebo. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was increased by 35 % after 1 week of combination therapy with repaglinide plus metformin (1.11 +/- 0.03 x 10 (2) vs. 0.83 +/- 0.21 x 10 (2) mg x kg (-1) body weight x min (-1) x pmol (-1) x l, respectively; p = 0.033). Repaglinide increased early and late phases of insulin responses in HC, without markedly enhancing insulin secretion in euglycaemia. Repaglinide in combination with metformin produced a significant enhancement of ISI, suggesting a synergistic effect on insulin sensitivity.
The results confirm an important role for both CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 in the human in vitro biotransformation of repaglinide. This dual CYP biotransformation may have consequences for the clinical pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions involving repaglinide if one CYP pathway has sufficient capacity to compensate if the other is inhibited.