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Parlodel (Bromocriptine)
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Parlodel

Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Apokyn, Mirapex, Requip

 

Also known as:  Bromocriptine.

Description

Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.

Dosage

Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Parlodel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Parlodel taking suddenly.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia

Intensity of 3H-dopamine uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes was similar both in intact rats and in the animals which received a single administration of bromocriptine at a dose of 5 mg/kg within 4 hrs. Within 4 days after the drug administration incorporation of the label was increased 1.22-fold and 1.28-fold in intact and adrenalectomized rats, respectively. Alterations in dopamine uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes caused by bromocriptine appear to be one of dopaminergic-dependent effects of the drug in the animal brain structures.

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Prolactin was measured using a 2-site immunofluorometric assay (Abbott Laboratories; reference range < 500 mU/l). Seven of the eight women (age range 24-49 years) were symptomatic (galactorrhoea, oligo- or amenorrhoea).

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Two juvenile patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) who developed pituitary adenomas are reported. The first case, a 14-year-old girl, developed prolactinoma and manifested delayed puberty and growth arrest. The second case, a 16-year-old boy, was asymptomatic and a pituitary adenoma accompanied by mild elevation of PRL and GH was identified through family screening. His growth and pubertal development was not impaired. Medication with bromocriptine was started for both cases with good therapeutic responses. These cases emphasize relevance of early screening of endocrine disorders for members of families with MEN1.

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Low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) at advanced stage are still incurable, and treatment may include chemotherapy with a single drug or a combination of different drugs. With a combination of cyclophosphamide, somatostatin, bromocriptin, retinoids, melatonin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, we already reported 100% of global response (50% complete response and 50% partial response) in 12 patients with low-grade NHL at advanced stage: 4 previously untreated patients and 8 with relapse of disease after single or combined chemotherapy and therapy free time >or=6 months. This provided the rationale to treat a patient affected by low-grade NHL stage 4, with cyclophosphamide, somatostatin, bromocriptin, retinoids, and melatonin (adrenocorticotropic hormone was not administered for high blood pressure). The patient was treated for at least 2 months. After this period, if he had stable or responding disease, he received an additional 3 months of treatment, and if he was stable or responding after 5 months he was treated for 3 months and more. After 2 months the patient had a partial response, and after 5 months he achieved a complete response. Today, 18 months after the beginning of treatment, the patient is in complete remission. Treatment had very good tolerance, and the patient carried on at home doing his normal activities.

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Treatment of the cardiomyocytes with 10 μM bromocriptine significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity, increased superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde content in the culture medium. Bromocriptine significantly inhibited the release of cytochrome c, accumulation of [Ca2+]i, and apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Bromocriptine also down-regulated the expression of caspase-3 and -9, Fas and Fas ligand, and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, haloperidol (10 μM) had no significant effects on the apoptosis of cultured cardiomyocytes under the aforementioned conditions.

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The dopamine agonist, bromocriptine, was studied with respect to its effects on PTH secretion and calcium homeostasis in Sprague-Dawley rats made azotemic by either total or subtotal nephrectomy. The oral or intraperitoneal administration of 0.25 mg of bromocriptine resulted in a significant increase in the serum calcium concentration when compared to animals given placebo. Bromocriptine produced no significant change in the BUN or the serum concentrations of creatinine, inorganic phosphate or PTH. The mechanism of the hypercalcemic effect of bromocriptine in azotemic rats is unknown. The hypercalcemia may, however, be due to stimulation of PTH secretion, since PTH levels in the serum were inappropriately high for the corresponding levels of calcium.

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Between 5 and 10% of all young girls and women suffer of severe primary dysmenorrhoea which interfers monthly with their activities. In this type of primary dysmenorrhoea we found hyperprolactinemia in 13 of 15 women who were examined. All 15 patients had a pituitary tumour ruled out and were treated with Bromo-ergocryptine (parlodel). Eight patients became free of symptoms and five were well improved. The possible correlation of hyperprolactinemia to premenstrual tension and severe primary dysmenorrhoea is discussed.

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Cabergoline and bromocriptine are the most used drugs in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, they are able to normalize the prolactin levels, restore gonadal function and promote tumor reduction in the majority of patients. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare cabergoline versus bromocriptine in the treatment of patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas. The data sources were: Embase, Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Central. The outcome measures were: normalization of prolactin secretion, restoration of gonadal function, reduction of tumoral volume, quality of life and adverse drug effects. Were identified 418 references and after screening by title and abstract, we obtained complete copies of 34 articles potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. From this total, 19 were selected to be included, but fifteen of them were excluded due to the following reasons: one randomized study compared cabergoline versus placebo and other randomized study compared different doses of cabergoline; five references were cases series; four were only controlled studies; three were retrospectives series and; one was a cohort study. Therefore, four publications were included in the review and in the final analysis. The meta-analysis of normalization of serum prolactin levels and menstruation with return of ovulatory cycle showed a significant difference in favor of cabergoline group (RR 0.67 [CI 95% 0.57, 0.80]) e (RR 0.74 [CI 95% 0.67, 0.83]), respectively. The number of adverse effects was significantly higher in the bromocriptine number than in cabergoline group (RR 1.43 [CI 95% 1.03, 1.98]). The meta-analysis showed new evidence favoring the use of cabergoline in comparison with bromocriptine for the treatment of prolactinomas and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.

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1. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 73 out of 445 patients as the underlying cause of primary or secondary amenorrhea, There was only in 65 cases both amenorrhea and galactorrhea. 2. Pituitary tumors were found in 21 cases. The causes of hyperprolactinemia in the other patients remained unclear. 3. Concentration of LH and FSH in serum was normal or lowered. Stimulation of LH and FSH by LHRH was possible only in part. 4. Regardless of the cause of hyperprolactinemia in all patients hPRL-levels were lowered significantly by 2.5 mg CB 154 within 4 hours. 5. Longtime suppression of hPRL by CB 154 normalized LH- and FSH- concentrations in serum and its response to LHRH. 6. Ovulatory cycles were observed in all cases treated by CB 154 (N = 25), 11 patients became pregnant.

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Significant increases of both alpha peak amplitude and power were found in the EEG after delivery as compared to those observed at the 32nd week of pregnancy. Controls failed to display the same gain in the alpha rhythm. The frequency was unaffected. Beside these quantitative changes no particular EEG pattern occurred. Neither the methodology nor habituation were considered responsible for these increases, which are also independent of the prolactin levels, because they were observable after blockage by bromocryptine, a drug which also fails to modify the EEG. Significant reduction of anxiety, tension and irritability was scored in the Hamiltonian test for depression. It is likely that both aspects depend on a common humoral process. The role of the progesterone drop is discussed.

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Hourly release of Prolactin by pituitary constructs 1 whole pituitary (PI), adenohypophysis (P-N) and pituitary-hypothalamus co-incubate (PHC) were compared. Adenohypophysis secreted significantly more prolactin than PI and PHC, while PHC secreted significantly less than PI. Co-incubation of (P-N) with posterior pituitary reduced the elevated secretion of prolactin. Addition of dopamine (10(-7) M), bromocriptine (10(-7) M) and apomorphine (5 x 10(-8) M) to these constructs did not affect the release of prolactin from PI but inhibited the same from (P-N) and PHC. Treatment with reserpine increased serum prolactin levels but intrapituitary prolactin contents were decreased. Hourly release of prolactin from pituitary constructs derived from reserpine-treated rats was significantly reduced as compared to ascorbic acid--treated controls. Inclusion of dopamine (10(-7) M), bromocriptine (10(-7) M) and apomorphine (5 x 10(-8) M) in these constructs inhibited prolactin secretion further. In vitro addition of perphenazine stimulated the release of prolactin by PHC but was without any effect on PI and (P-N). The data are interpreted to suggest that dopamine in posterior pituitary may be an important determinant of hypothalamic modulation of prolactin secretion.

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The effect of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists was studied on the calcium-dependent release of [3H]dopamine elicited by field stimulation at 3 Hz for a duration of 1 min (20 mA, 2 msec) from the rabbit retina in vitro and on adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of rabbit retina. The relative order of potency of dopamine receptor agonists to inhibit the stimulation-evoked [3H]dopamine release was pergolide greater than bromocriptine greater than apomorphine greater than LY 141865 greater than N,N-di-n-propyldopamine greater than or equal to dopamine. The relative order of potencies of dopamine receptor antagonists to increase [3H]dopamine release was: S-sulpiride greater than or equal to domperidone greater than or equal to spiroperidol greater than metoclopramide greater than fluphenazine greater than or equal to R-sulpiride. alpha-Flupenthixol (0.01-1 microM) and (+)-butaclamol (0.01-1 microM) did not increase [3H]dopamine overflow when added alone, but they antagonized the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of apomorphine (0.1-10 microM). These results suggest that the dopamine inhibitory autoreceptor involved in the modulation of dopamine release from the rabbit retina possesses the pharmacological characteristics of a D-2 dopamine receptor. Maximal stimulation by 30 microM dopamine resulted in a 3-fold increase in adenylate cyclase activity with half-maximal stimulation occurring at a concentration of 2.46 microM. Apomorphine and pergolide elicited a partial stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. However, at low concentrations both compounds were more potent than dopamine. N,N-di-n-Propyl-dopamine was 30 times less potent than dopamine, and bromocriptine was unable to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Some behavioral and biochemical effects of four dopaminergic agonists (apomorphine, piribedil, lergotrile, and bromocriptine) were determined in the mouse. As expected, all four drugs dose-dependently reversed the alpha-methyltyrosine-induced decline of forebrain dopamine. All four compounds reduced locomotor activity at low doses, but only apomorphine and bromocriptine increased motor activity at higher doses. All four drugs caused some reversal of the baclofen-induced elevation in forebrain dopamine concentrations, but only apomorphine and bromocriptine completely reversed the effects of baclofen. After chronic treatment with haloperidol, the behavioral effects of lergotrile and bromocriptine were altered. Doses of those drugs reducing motor activity in normal animals were ineffective after chronic haloperidol. The latent stimulation induced by bromocriptine was enhanced, while a stimulatory effect of lergotrile emerged in these animals. These effects were noted in conjunction with an enhanced sensitivity to the drug-induced decrease in dopamine turnover. These results demonstrate that dopamine agonists may be differentiated on the basis of certain behavioral and biochemical tests and suggest an interaction of these drugs with two different populations of dopamine receptors.

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A multicenter, Riluzole add-on, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 102-week extension BRC clinical trial.

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Executive control (EC) has different subcomponents, e.g., response inhibition (measured, for example, by the Stroop task) and working memory (WM-measured, for example, by delayed response tasks, DRT). EC has been associated with networks involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Moreover, there is evidence that dopamine agonists, especially those with a D1 profile, may modulate EC, since in the PFC D1 subtype receptors are more abundant.

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To report on a 10 year follow up of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, particularly with respect to mortality and the effect of early treatment with bromocriptine.

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Serum prolactin (PRL) and human growth hormone (HGH) were assessed before, and three hours after oral administration of 2.5 mg of bromocriptine in 39 hospitalized geriatric patients with organic brain syndrome. Serum PRL concentrations decreased significantly irrespective of initial values (also in the 7 geriatric control subjects), but HGH levels were low in all patients and did not change during the three hours after administration of bromocriptine. Closer scrutiny of the HGH responses to bromocriptine in 5 patients and 5 controls showed that the serum HGH response was more variable among the patients than among the controls. The findings are discussed in relation to neuroendocrine changes associated with aging, institutional living, and mental disease.

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A patient was successfully treated with bromocriptine for neuroleptic-induced galactorrhea. The correlations of the weekly plasma prolactin levels with the severity of galactorrhea (p less than .005) and with the duration of treatment (p less than .001) were highly significant. Because symptomatic relief occurs an average of 6 to 8 weeks after initiation of pharmacotherapy, clinicians presently manage neuroleptic-induced galactorrhea by trial and error. The authors suggest that weekly plasma prolactin levels may provide a readily obtainable, early indicator of proper dosage and thus minimize the chance of iatrogenic illness.

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To evaluate the safety of discontinuing drugs for prolactinoma during pregnancy, and the effect of prolactinoma on pregnancy.

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Journal articles, monographs, and book chapters.

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This study therefore investigated the effects of timed daily administration of bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on a) ventromedial hypothalamic catecholamine activity, b) MS and c) hepatic protein levels of key regulators of liver inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism in a non-seasonal model of MS - the hypertensive, obese SHR rat.

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17 hyperprolactinemic and 2 acromegalic patients, aged 19-73, and 47 and 59 years, respectively, were treated with Lisuride (dopergin). 12 of the hyperprolactinemic patients were treated with Lisuride because they could not tolerate the side effects of bromocriptine (Group A), and the other 5 because large doses of bromocriptine failed to reduce their plasma prolactin to normal (Group B). The 2 acromegalic men, were treated with Lisuride because of persistently high levels of growth hormone after hypophysectomy and irradiation of the sella turcica, and because of intolerance to bromocriptine. Lisuride reduced prolactin to normal in 11 of the 12 in Group A (from 217 +/- 175 to 27 +/- 10 micrograms/l, p less than 0.01) and reduced it in the last patient from 3900 to 270 micrograms/l. The prolactin-lowering effect of Lisuride was unsatisfactory in Group B since like bromocriptine, it failed to reduce prolactin levels. One of the acromegalics improved both clinically and biochemically and growth hormone levels were reduced from 56 to 18 ng/ml, while the other did not respond to Lisuride. Its main side effects were somnolence, nausea, and increased appetite (4 patients). These effects lasted only a few weeks. One patient stopped Lisuride because of severe constipation, which had been caused by bromocriptine as well. Lisuride is an effective drug in hyperprolactinemia, especially in those with severe side effects after other dopaminergic drugs. It is effective in some cases of acromegaly, but has little to offer to those resistant to bromocriptine.

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Twenty women with hyperprolactinaemia secondary to a pituitary adenoma were studied before and after selective transsphenoidal removal of the tumour. Pre-operatively, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) (200 micrograms iv) and metoclopramide (MCP) (10 mg po) did not produce a positive PRL response in the tumour patients. By contrast, 14 post-partum lactating women, who were used as controls, exhibited a positive response to MCP administration. Methergoline (4 mg po) was shown to decrease serum PRL levels in 8 normal subjects, in 6 puerperal women, and 9 of 10 tumour patients. Bromoergocriptine (CB-154, 2.5 mg po) decreased serum PRL levels in 10 tumour patients. Following transsphenoidal removal of the adenoma serum PRL levels were reduced in all patients, and returned to normal in 14 patients. Prognostics for completely normalizing PRL secretion after transsphenoidal surgery is bettery when initial serum PRL levels are below 200 ng/ml. After surgery all hyperprolactinaemic patients failed to show a positive PRL response to TRH and MCP. Nine normoprolactinaemic patients had a positive response to both stimuli while 3 patients failed to show a positive response immediately following surgery. Long-term studies, however, showed that a positive PRL response was obtained in all patients tested 8-14 months after treatment. A positive PRL response to methergoline and bromocriptine was observed post-operatively in the patients tested regardless of their basal PRL level. Data from this study indicate that surgically proven PRL-secreting adenomas are invariably associated with negative PRL responses to TRH and MCP. The normalization of the prolactin regulation after surgery points toward the intrapituitary localization of the lesion associated with PRL-secreting adenomas.

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The "empty sella" (ES), a common entity in adults, is so named because a cerebrospinal fluid-filled arachnoid hernia fills the pituitary fossa and compresses the pituitary gland, creating the illusion of an "empty" sella. We report our experience of ES in childhood. Our four cases represent associations with ES that have not been previously described in childhood: case 1 was associated with central precocious puberty; case 2 with secondary ES resulting from shrinkage of a prolactinoma during bromocriptine therapy; case 3 with pseudotumor cerebri; and case 4 with no significant pathology. Together, they account for approximately 1 percent of cases of radiographically enlarged sella tursica investigated here. This brings the number of cases of ES reported in children to 27. Review of these 27 cases reveals seven with local skull dysplasia and/or a familial inheritance. The remainder lacked clinical homogeneity or similarity to the common adult variety of ES. Children with ES did not exhibit the higher female preponderance reported in adults with ES. They showed a higher frequency of secondary cases (4/27), and of associated endocrine (10/15) and visual (8/17) abnormalities than is seen in adults with the "empty sella."

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Seven female patients with prolactinomas (age 37 (28-46) years), intolerant of bromocriptine, were studied before and after 3 months treatment with quinagolide (0.75-1.5 mg/day). Patients were otherwise disease free, were taking no other medication, and had been on no other medication (including bromocriptine) for at least 3 months prior to enrollment into the study.

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parlodel generic 2016-05-03

Results reveal that bromocriptine at a dose of 6 mg/kg. I.P. in mice caused a significant hyperglycaemic effect which was accompanied by a marked increase in liver glycogen. After adrenalectomy, the effect of bromocriptine on serum glucose level was reduced whereas its effect on liver glycogen content was abolished. In rats, administration of bromocriptine (17.5 mg/kg I.P.) induced a significant rise in buy parlodel online serum glucose level which was associated with marked reduction in serum insulin activity and increase in serum corticosterone level with no effect on serum triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) levels. It could be concluded that bromocriptine-induced hyperglycaemia might be attributed at least partially to inhibition of insulin release and stimulation of corticosterone secretion.

parlodel medication 2016-08-16

Transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) is an acquired impairment of language expression that occurs following neurologic damage that affects left frontal cortex and spares perisylvian regions. In some individuals with TCMA, verbal expression is rendered nonfluent due to difficulty spontaneously initiating and elaborating upon verbal messages. Nonfluency arises from impaired activation of intended messages and inhibition of competing verbal expressions. This impairment of the intentional aspects of language expression can be termed 'adynamia.' Because adynamic forms of TCMA occur infrequently, few systematic buy parlodel online treatment investigations have been reported for this condition. Behavioral treatments have been proposed to engage intact frontal regions to improve the ability to initiate spontaneous verbal expression. Some data suggest that nonsymbolic limb movements performed in the context of speaking activities, a form of what Luria termed gestural reorganization, may improve the adynamic verbal expression. (1) In addition, the influence of pharmacologic treatment with bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, has been considered for its effects on verbal nonfluency in aphasia. Individuals classified as TCMA are more likely to benefit than those with other forms of nonfluent aphasia, suggesting an influence of bromocriptine on circuits necessary to activate spontaneous language. Additional studies are warranted that contrast behavioral and pharmacologic interventions to determine optimal conditions to improve verbal expression in adynamic forms of aphasia.

parlodel tab 2017-09-22

We report here a rare form of invasive ductal carcinoma composed of a mass protruding from the tip of the nipple in a 43-year-old woman with hyperprolactinemia. She had been amenorrheic for 15 years following an incomplete pituitary adenomectomy for prolactinoma. She presented with a mass on the left nipple that had been growing for 6 months. Morphologically, the mass resembled adenoma of the nipple. Another mass was located in the subareolar region. She underwent mastectomy after invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. Histopathologically, the tumor of the nipple was invasive ductal carcinoma, which had extended intraductally from another invasive ductal carcinoma in the subareolar region, and had infiltrated the epidermis of the nipple (Paget's disease). MR mammography successfully detected the relationship between the tumors. Postoperatively, the plasma prolactin level was abnormally high, while the plasma estradiol level was quite low, although macro-pituitary adenoma was not detected by MRI. The patient was treated with bromocriptine buy parlodel online mesilate, in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, and the plasma prolactin level has since normalized.

parlodel cost 2015-07-04

Clinical characteristic of the hyperprolactinemia were studied in 101 cases and effects of Bromocriptine were investigated in 57 cases with hyperprolactinemic anovulation. 1. Lactation was observed in 93.1% of the cases with hyperprolactinemia. There was no relationship between the degree of lactation and Prolactin (PRL) levels. 2. Hyperprolactinemia had no influence on basal gonadotropin levels. 3. In hyperprolactinemic anovulatory syndrome, a negative correlation between estradiol and PRL levels was found. PRL levels in the second grade amenorrhea were higher than those in other grade. 4. In LH-RH test, there was no relationship between PRL and LH-RH test. 5. With Bromocriptine therapy, ovulation was induced in 45 cases and pregnancy was successful in 31 cases. 15 cases of pregnancies were delivered of normal babies and 3 cases fell into abortion. 6. The buy parlodel online initial dose of Bromocriptine was 2.5 mg/day. The dosage was increased by determining the PRL as index. 7. Cases with severe anovulation and high PRL levels, required prolonged administration. 8. 15 cases who had no ovulation by Bromocriptine administration for one month, ovulated successfully by clomiphene combined with Bromocriptine. 9. In 31 pregnant cases, there was no significant symptoms of pituitary tumor during pregnancy.

parlodel maximum dose 2015-10-11

The role of prolactin during fetal growth and lung maturation was investigated in humans. Prolactin levels in the maternal, fetal and amniotic compartments were measured by radio-immunoassay in patients with anencephalic fetuses, and patients treated with bromocriptine during pregnancy. Bromocriptine or an active metabolite(s) passed through the term placenta and suppressed buy parlodel online prolactin secretion by the fetal pituitary gland. Prolactin levels in amniotic fluid were scarcely affected by bromocriptine treatment. This suggested that prolactin in amniotic fluid was not derived from biosynthesis of the dopamine receptor-mediated process. The maternal and fetal prolactin may not play an obligatory role in the maintenance of pregnancy and fetal growth.

parlodel drug class 2017-12-31

Effects of 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (CB 154) on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels, accessory reproductive glands, and spermatogenesis were studied in lambs during puberty. 18 lambs born during normal lambing season (February and 10 lambs born during the nonlambing period (October) and received a daily injection of CB 154 (2 gm) from the 10th week after birth until the 21st week. Treatment resulted in a highly significant (p less than .001) decrease in the concentration of plasma prolactin, but did not affect LH or testosterone levels. There was no marked decrease in testis weight in the treated animals and the establishment of spermatogenesis was not delayed by the treatment. However, there was a significant decrease in the weight of the seminal vesicles (p less than .01) and in their fructose concentration (p less than .01 and p less than buy parlodel online .05). These results indicate that prolactin may play a role in the secretory activity of these glands in the male lamb.

parlodel 5mg tablets 2017-10-19

Between 5 and 10% of all young girls and women suffer of severe primary dysmenorrhoea which interfers monthly with their activities. In this type of primary dysmenorrhoea we found hyperprolactinemia in 13 of 15 women who were buy parlodel online examined. All 15 patients had a pituitary tumour ruled out and were treated with Bromo-ergocryptine (parlodel). Eight patients became free of symptoms and five were well improved. The possible correlation of hyperprolactinemia to premenstrual tension and severe primary dysmenorrhoea is discussed.

parlodel alcohol 2017-09-19

LC3 was significantly expressed buy parlodel online in prolactinoma in which patients were exclusively treated with BRC. LC3 expression was negative in normal tissues and prolactinoma in which patients were not treated with BRC. Treatment with 60 μM BRC for 24 h induced cell death in MMQ cells by up to 50%. However, 110 μM BRC was required to produce a similar effect in GH3 cells. The cell cycle was arrested at the G0-G1 phase and S phase. As the concentration and time increased, the conversion ratio of LC3-I to LC3-II increased and prolactin secretion decreased. In addition, Bcl-2 and BAX expression was decreased. The cell viability, PRL level and G0-G1 cells are similar in MMQ cells treated with RAPA and a low concentration of BRC and MMQ cells treated with a high concentration of BRC. Compared with the effects of a high concentration of BRC, treatment with RAPA and a low concentration of BRC effectively increase the conversion rate of LC3-I to LC3-II.

bromocriptine parlodel dosage 2016-05-19

Humoral regulation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal axis was found different in patients with microadenoma due to dopaminergic insufficiency of the hypothalamus and in patients with macroadenoma--tumor of the hypophyseal genesis. Patients with microadenoma were diagnosed to have low-renin diastolic arterial hypertension with clinical symptoms of hyperaldosteronism and high levels of plasma aldosterone. Patients with macroadenoma had normal arterial pressure, aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity. Treatment with parlodel, agonist of dopaminergic receptors, reduced arterial pressure, prolactin level, plasma aldosterone and raised plasma renin activity in patients with microadenoma. Such changes were not observed in patients with macroadenoma buy parlodel online .

parlodel tablets 2015-02-03

The present study was designed to see the effects of parenterally administered drugs cimetidine and bromocriptine affecting serum prolactin upon the fertility of adult male albino rats. Ninety adult young male albino rats between the ages of 60 to 120 days were selected. The animals were divided into three groups. Cimetidine was administered in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to group B intramuscularly and in addition to cimetidine, bromocriptine in a dose of 2.5 mg/day intramuscularly was given to group C. Normal saline was administered intramuscularly to control group A. Plasma prolactin was measured by Enzyme Immunoassays. Spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were studied under oil immersion. The final plasma prolactin level instead of being elevated was found slightly depressed though insignificant in case of group B while remained slightly elevated instead of being suppressed/depressed though insignificant in group C. In group B spermatogenesis was normal in almost all of the tubules but a few of them were seen lined with only Sertoli cells and all the other germ cells like spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, spermatids early and late, and spermatozoa were absent indicating total atrophy with both Sertoli cells and Leydig cells hyperplasia. While in the moderately affected tubules different types of spermatogonia A/B or intermediate were seen near the basement membrane. In group C both normal and abnormal germinal epithelium was seen in same/different tubules but a few of them were seen lined with only Sertoli cells and buy parlodel online all the other germ cells like spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, spermatids early and late, and spermatozoa were absent. The process of spermatogenesis was variable and appeared to be normal in most but in some it was found to be suppressed. This study revealed that the toxic effect of the drugs contributes to the infertility. It has not shown to be mediated through hormones in present study for which further research work is needed using low dose and longer duration to see the role of prolactin in causing infertility.

parlodel and alcohol 2015-12-23

The frequency of macroprolactinemia was 28.1%. In 19 patients prolactin remained elevated (persistent hyperprolactinemia). In 13, prolactin returned to normal (former hyperprolactinemia). Nine patients with PEG recovery between 40 and 50%, and the only two macroprolactinemic patients with previous hyperprolactinemia were excluded from the analysis of clinical outcomes. Only one of seven macroprolactinemic patients had an abnormal pituitary image (empty sella). None had buy parlodel online galactorrhea.

parlodel dose 2017-01-10

Ten patients with acromegaly, six with active acromegaly and four with inactive acromegaly were studied with regard to the possible relationship between aldosterone metabolism and hypertension. It was noted that tetrahydroaldosterone-3-glucuronide levels were highest in those cases which exhibited the highest prolactin levels. It was in these cases that hypertension was present and they were active as judged buy parlodel online by clinical and biochemical parameters. On administration of bromocryptine there was a reduction of tetrahydroaldosterone-3-glucuronide, prolactin and also a significant reduction of blood pressure. The significance of these results is discussed.

parlodel drug study 2016-03-18

The endocannabinoid system is an important modulatory system in the brain. Complex interactions with brain dopaminergic circuits have been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of the commonly used antiparkinsonian buy parlodel online drugs, levodopa (L-DOPA) and bromocriptine, on type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, using the PET radioligand [(18)F]MK-9470.

parlodel y alcohol 2016-09-28

Fifty-four patients with evidence of a prolactin-producing pituitary microadenoma were followed through pregnancy. Obstetric complications included four spontaneous abortions, one stillbirth, and one premature delivery. Four patients developed visual defects (two with abnormal visual fields). Four patients noted buy parlodel online headaches. The progressive rise in maternal prolactin levels seen in a control group was not seen in the prolactinoma patients. In the tumor patients, maternal prolactin levels were already elevated early in pregnancy and did not increase further. Maternal prolactin levels were not predictive of any complications. The present study suggests that pregnancy is safe in microadenoma patients and that the few complications encountered are highly amenable to appropriate management.

parlodel drug classification 2015-02-20

In recent years an antimitotic effect has been observed in animal studies for bromocryptine, an ergot-alkaloid derivative. In this paper a case of severe leucopenia in a hyperprolactinaemic woman on chronic bromocryptine treatment is reported. Furthermore, results are reported of an experimental study carried out in vitro on blood lymphocytes from healthy human donors. The suggested cytostatic activity of bromocryptine was studied by evaluating the effects of progressively increasing doses (1, 5, 20 micrograms) of the drug on methyl-[3H]-thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes. A significant reduction of thymidine incorporation was observed corresponding to the increase of the bromocryptine dose which had been added to the cultures. With only 20 micrograms of bromocryptine the viability of cells was reduced by 50%. These results, which demonstrate that bromocryptine has an inhibitory action on DNA synthesis of cultured lymphocytes, suggest Deltasone Tabs that it is justified to employ bromocryptine for medical therapy of large prolactinomas, in order to favour the subsequent surgical approach to these tumours.

parlodel drug uses 2016-02-05

Adrenal involvement in polycystic ovarian disease was assessed by measuring dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in 20 polycystic ovarian disease patients. The response of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate to bromocriptine treatment was compared to that of placebo, both being given for one cycle on a double-blind, cross over basis. The mean basal DHEA-S was above the upper limit of the normal range (6793 nmol/l) in three patients. The mean basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in the polycystic ovarian disease group was significantly higher than the mean of the normal control group (P less than 0.01). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate showed a significant drop with bromocriptine as compared to Zovirax 200 Mg placebo (P less than 0.001) and a significant correlation with prolactin both before (P less than 0.001) and after treatment with bromocriptine (P less than 0.001). These findings support the hypothesis of adrenal involvement in polycystic ovarian disease and prove the significant effect of bromocriptine on the adrenal which might be of therapeutic value.

parlodel 2 mg 2015-02-22

Recent studies have demonstrated that D1-selective and D2-selective dopamine receptor agonists inhibit catecholamine secretion and Ca2+ uptake into bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by receptor subtypes that we have identified by PCR as D5, a member of the D1-like dopamine receptor subfamily, and D4, a member of the D2-like dopamine receptor subfamily. The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of D5 or D4 receptors inhibits influx of Na+, which could explain inhibition of secretion and Ca2+ uptake by dopamine agonists. D1-selective agonists preferentially inhibited both dimethylphenylpiperazinium- (DMPP) and Cozaar Overdose Treatment veratridine-stimulated 22Na+ influx into chromaffin cells. The D1-selective agonists chloro-APB hydrobromide (CI-APB; 100 microM) and SKF-38393 (< 00 microM) inhibited DMPP-stimulated Na+ uptake by 87.5 +/- 2.3 and 59.7 +/- 4.5%, respectively, whereas the D2-selective agonist bromocriptine (100 microM) inhibited Na+ uptake by only 22.9 +/- 5.0%. Veratridine-stimulated Na+ uptake was inhibited 95.1 +/- 3.2 and 25.7 +/- 4.7% by 100 microM CI-APB or bromocriptine, respectively. The effect of CI-APB was concentration dependent. A similar IC50 (approximately 18 microM) for inhibition of both DMPP- and veratridine-stimulated Na+ uptake was obtained. The addition of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (1 mM) had no effect on either DMPP- or veratridine-stimulated Na+ uptake. These observations suggest that D1-selective agonists are inhibiting secretagogue-stimulated Na+ uptake in a cyclic AMP-independent manner.

parlodel ovulation drug 2015-08-19

We studied the effects of acute and chronic sc administration of SMS 201-995 (SMS), a long-acting somatostatin analog, in acromegalic patients. The results were compared with those obtained in the same patients treated Anafranil 50 Mg with oral bromocriptine (Brc). A single dose of 50 micrograms SMS administered to 28 patients induced a more rapid, greater, and more prolonged reduction in plasma GH levels than did 2.5 mg Brc. Chronic treatment [60-330 days; mean 208 +/- 23 (+/- SEM)] with SMS (100-300 micrograms/day) induced in 16 patients a significantly greater decrease in mean plasma GH and somatomedin-C levels than did 20 mg Brc. Combined treatment with the 2 agents had an additional effect. The clinical and metabolic parameters of acromegaly dramatically improved in all patients whose plasma GH and somatomedin-C levels decreased even if they were not normalized by SMS. Reduction in tumor size occurred in 3 of the 10 patients examined by computed tomography before and during SMS treatment. We conclude that SMS is more effective than Brc and that the 2 drugs may be complementary in the medical treatment of acromegaly.

parlodel tablet price 2016-02-07

These results support the hypothesis that dopaminergic mechanisms mediate cigarette Geodon Im Dosing smoking reinforcement.

parlodel pills 2016-10-30

Secondary diabetes mellitus is known to occur in acromegaly due to insulin resistance caused by growth hormone excess. However, diabetes in Cialis To Buy acromegaly usually does not lead to ketosis. We describe an unusual case of a patient that presented with diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency room with thirst, polyuria and dyspnoea. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a growth hormone-secreting pitutary macroadenoma as the underlying pathology; after initial stabilisation with insulin and fluids, the patient was successfully treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery.

parlodel brand name 2016-08-02

Bromocriptine (BC) is now an accepted primary therapeutic agent for patients with microadenoma. But, for patients with large or giant prolactinomas, the treatment choice is controversial. This report focuses on long-term results of the BC effect on 10 giant prolactinomas (maximum diameter more than 40 mm and the serum PRL level more than 1000 ng/ml) with particular emphasis on cases that needed surgical intervention due to unsatisfactory results from BC therapy alone. BC was effective in 6 cases (60%). They had the serum PRL level normalized in less than one year, with BC maintenance doses between 5-15 mg/day. MRI revealed complete or nearly total disappearance of the tumor. Discontinuation of the medicine was achieved Prilosec 80 Mg in one patient. In the remaining 4 cases, surgery was needed for various reasons: 1) BC resistant prolactinomas in 2 cases, 2) large hematomas in one of the previous cases, 3) regrowth of tumor size, despite the nearly normalized PRL level due to bulk increase in non-secretory adenomatous portion in 1 case, and 4) intolerable side effect in 1 case. BC is effective even for giant prolactinomas in 60% of cases. But, this therapy needs surgical intervention more often than microadenomas. Surgical indications and timing should be decided on based on closer follow-up of neuroimaging and visual evaluation as well as the serum PRL level.