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The interaction between a FAAH inhibitor URB597 and paracetamol was investigated in the writhing test in mice using an isobolographic analysis.
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Silymarin (Sm) is a polyphenolic component extracted from Silybum marianum. It is an antioxidant, traditionally used as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, and dietary supplement. Relatively recently, Sm has proved to be a valuable chemopreventive and a useful antineoplastic agent. Medical success for Sm is, however, constrained by very low aqueous solubility and associated biopharmaceutical limitations. Sm flavonolignans are also susceptible to ion-catalyzed degradation in the gut. Proven antihepatotoxic activity of Sm cannot therefore be fully exploited in acute chemical poisoning conditions like that in paracetamol overdose. Moreover, a synchronous delivery that is required for hepatic regeneration is difficult to achieve by itself. This work is meant to circumvent the inherent limitations of Sm through the use of nanotechnology. Sm nanoparticles (Smnps) were prepared by nanoprecipitation in polyvinyl alcohol stabilized Eudragit RS100(®) polymer (Rohm Pharma GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany). Process parameter optimization provided 67.39% entrapment efficiency and a Gaussian particle distribution of average size 120.37 nm. Sm release from the nanoparticles was considerably sustained for all formulations. Smnps were strongly protective against hepatic damage when tested in a paracetamol overdose hepatotoxicity model. Nanoparticles recorded no animal death even when administered after an established paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Preventing progress of paracetamol hepatic damage was traced for an efficient glutathione regeneration to a level of 11.3 μmol/g in hepatic tissue due to Smnps.
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Using an appropriate set of samples to construct the calibration set is crucial with a view to ensuring accurate multivariate calibration of NIR spectroscopic data. In this work, we developed and optimized a new methodology for incorporating physical variability in pharmaceutical production based on the NIR spectrum for the process. Such a spectrum contains the spectral changes caused by each treatment applied to the component mixture during the production process. The proposed methodology involves adding a set of process spectra (viz. difference spectra between those for production tablets and a laboratory mixture of identical nominal composition) to the set of laboratory samples, which span the wanted concentration range, in order to construct a calibration set incorporating all physical changes undergone by the samples in each step of the production process. The best calibration model among those tested was selected by establishing the influence of spectral pretreatments used to obtain the process spectrum and construct the calibration models, and also by determining the multiplying factor m to be applied to the process spectra in order to ensure incorporation of all variability sources into the calibration model. The specific samples to be included in the calibration set were selected by principal component analysis (PCA). To this end, the new methodology for constructing calibration sets for determining the Active Principle Ingredients (API) and excipients was applied to Irbesartan tablets and validated by application to the API and excipients of paracetamol tablets. The proposed methodology provides simple, robust calibration models for determining the different components of a pharmaceutical formulation.
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We have recently observed that oral administration of D-glucose saves animals from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death. This effect is the likely consequence of glucose-induced activation of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1. In this study, we investigated possible hepatoprotective effects of glucose-induced, sodium-dependent, glucose transporter-1 activation. We show that oral administration of D-glucose, but not of either D-fructose or sucrose, prevents LPS-induced liver injury, as well as liver injury and death induced by an overdose of acetaminophen. In both of these models, physiological liver morphology is maintained and organ protection is confirmed by unchanged levels of the circulating markers of hepatotoxicity, such as alanine transaminase or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, D-glucose was found to protect the liver from alpha-amanitin-induced liver injury. In this case, in contrast to the previously described models, a second signal had to be present in addition to glucose to achieve protective efficacy. Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation that was induced by low doses of LPS was identified as such a second signal. Eventually, the protective effect of orally administered glucose on liver injury induced by LPS, overdose of acetaminophen, or alpha-amanitin was shown to be mediated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. These findings, showing glucose-induced protective effects in several animal models of liver injury, might be relevant in view of possible therapeutic interventions against different forms of acute hepatic injury.
Preoperative oral gabapentin has been shown to reduce postoperative pain. However, the effects of gabapentin as an adjunct to regional anesthesia is unclear and its effects on chronic pain remains unknown. In patients undergoing thyroidectomy, we investigated the effects on early and late (at 6 mo) postoperative pain of preoperative oral gabapentin as an adjunct to superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB).
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Fraction of dose absorbed vs. time profiles showed high interindividual variability, comparable to human fed state absorption. Mean gastric transit times were determined to be 0.63 h, 1.36 h, and 0.73 h for solution, capsules, and tablets, respectively. Postmortem assessment confirmed that minipig stomachs were not empty after an overnight fast.
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We examined differences in TS and CPM in 2 chronic pain populations, patients with both chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and comorbid fibromyalgia (FM) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in sedentary, healthy controls, and evaluated whether activation of serotonergic descending pathways by acetaminophen improves central pain processing.
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Of 1,215 ED visits documented with 1 or more of the selected codes, 316 (26.0%) were a result of acetaminophen exposure or overdose. Sensitivity was highest (87.0%) for the combination of codes 965.4 (poisoning by aromatic analgesics, not elsewhere classified) and E950.0 (suicide and self-inflicted poisoning by analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics), with a positive predictive value of 86.2%. Code 965.4 alone yielded a sensitivity of 85.1%, with a positive predictive value of 92.8%. Code performance varied among age groups and depending on the type of exposure (intentional or unintentional).
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HNC patients (pts) receiving CRT were randomized to standard pain control (SPC) with acetaminophen and opioids, or SPC plus gabapentin (SPC+G). Gabapentin was maintained at 900mg/day for 4 weeks after CRT. Primary endpoint was maximum visual analogue scale (VAS) score during CRT, and secondary endpoints were total opioid dose, changes in QOL (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HN 35) from baseline to 4 weeks after CRT, and adverse events.
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The mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets formulated using Delonix regia seed gum (DRSG) as a binder have been studied in this work. Acacia BP (ACG) and tragacanth BP (TRG) were used as official gum standards. The mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength (TS) and brittle fracture index (BFI), showed that with an increase in concentration of the gum binder, the tensile strength increased while the BFI was reduced. The crushing strength - friability/disintegration time ratio used to analyze the disintegration properties gave a rank order: tablets containing DRSG > tablets containing ACG > tablets containing TRG at 1%, w/w binder concentration while for higher binder concentrations, the rank order is: tablets containing ACG > tablets containing TRG > tablets containing DRSG. The results suggest that while Delonix regia seed gum may be useful as a binder, its use at a low concentration will improve the balance between the binding and disintegration properties of tablets when a faster disintegration is desired, while its use at a high concentration could serve the desire for a modified or sustained release tablet formulation.
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The authors prospectively followed 1,505 pregnant women and their children until 6 years (+/-3 months) of life. Acetaminophen use in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy was assessed before 24 weeks of gestation and within 1 month of delivery, and asthma in children was assessed when the child was 6 years old. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were derived from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders.
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Our results provide additional support for the chemopreventive benefits of NSAIDs, at least in women. Because leukemia ranks fifth in person-years of life lost due to malignancy, further investigation is warranted.
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Eleven university medical centers in Germany were asked to report patients with (primary) severe acute liver injury (sALI) (international normalized ratio [INR] >1.5 but no hepatic encephalopathy) and primary ALF (INR >1.5 with overt hepatic encephalopathy) treated from 2008 to 2009. Data were analyzed from 46 patients with sALI and 109 patients with ALF.
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Prediagnostic intake of aspirin, both low-dose and regular-dose, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen was not associated with any of the outcomes of interest.
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This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 120 patients requiring elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomized to receive either etoricoxib 120 mg plus diazepam or placebo plus diazepam. Postoperatively, the visual analog score (VAS) for pain, the rescue morphine requirement, and the side effects were recorded.
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We have demonstrated that both pre-incisional ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric field block and post incisional wound infiltration provided adequate postoperative analgesia for 24 hours after inguinal herniotomy.
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Nonopioids such as paracetamol and NSAIDs play an increasing role as components of multimodal analgesia in children. However, studies on the safety and efficacy of many adjuvants in pediatrics are still lacking. The use of opioids is influenced understandably by safety concerns about respiratory depression, but data on its incidence are poor. The role of regional techniques in the treatment of pain after pediatric surgery is growing in line with the developments in adults; the emphasis here is more on peripheral techniques too.
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To examine the relationship between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and renal dysfunction in ALF, and to identify additional risk factors for renal dysfunction.
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The study found that a national database on DRPs contained multi-facetted DRPs, however evenly distributed for each of the 3 years. Even though the top 25 drugs were involved in 58 % of all DRPs, multiple drugs were associated with DRPs. The study emphasizes the importance of detecting and intervening for DRPs.
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Given the beneficial effects of Apotel in post-operative shivering and pain reduction, using the drug as a pre-drug is recommended in patients undergoing surgery with general anesthesia.
One hundred and twenty subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis were recruited and randomly allocated to two study groups. Group I (NSAIDs group) (n=60) received oral tablet diclofenac (50 mg) and paracetamol (500 mg) twice a day (BD) along with tab. ranitidine 150 mg BD. Group II (injectable steroid group) (n=60) received injection of 1 ml of methylprednisolone (Depomedrol) (40 mg) and 2 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine into the inflammed plantar fascia. Pain intensity was measured using 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects were evaluated clinically before, and 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks (2 months) after the initiation of treatment in both the groups. The outcome was assessed in terms of VAS score and recurrence of the heel pain.
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Patients with moderate to severe chronic low back pain received tapentadol IR 50, 75, or 100 mg every 4 or 6 hours (maximum TDD, 500 mg) during the 3-week open-label period to identify an optimal, stable dose of tapentadol IR for each patient. Patients were then randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive, during the first 2-week double-blind period, either the optimal dose of tapentadol IR identified during the open-label period or a TDD of tapentadol ER (100, 150, 200, or 250 mg bid) that was as close as possible to the TDD of tapentadol IR from the open-label period. During a subsequent, 2-week double-blind period, patients received whichever formulation was not received during the first double-blind period. The primary endpoint was the mean average daily pain intensity (on an 11-point numerical rating scale) during the last 3 days of each double-blind treatment period. If the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the least squares mean difference between formulations were within the range of -2 to 2, the formulations were considered equivalent.
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Rats pretreated with LPS (40 μg/kg, 12 h before PEA admission) significantly decreased animal mortality, serum enzyme (ALT, AST and T-bil) activities, histopathological changes and hepatocytes apoptosis following challenge with PEA. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were reduced, but IL-6 and IL-10 were increased in the serum. In addition, prior treatment of these LPS-pretreated rats with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a selective Kupffer cell depletion agent, markedly enhanced liver injury after PEA administration. In contrast, the pretreatment of LPS to T-cell deficient athymic nude rats still display significant attenuation of PEA-induced liver injury. This observation further confirmed our hypothesis that LPS ameliorate PEA-hepatotoxicity was through Kupffer cells but not T cells. Moreover, LPS-induced hepatoprotection ability was neutralized by co-treatment with anti-TNF-α antibodies, but not with anti-IFN-γ antibodies. Finally, replacement of LPS with RS-LPS (Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS), a Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) antagonist, resulted in severe hepatotoxicity.
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Participants received a median of 5.5 doses (interquartile range, 1.0 to 15.0) of trial medication; there was no significant between-group difference in the median number of doses received (P=0.47). The number of asthma exacerbations did not differ significantly between the two groups, with a mean of 0.81 per participant with acetaminophen and 0.87 per participant with ibuprofen over 46 weeks of follow-up (relative rate of asthma exacerbations in the acetaminophen group vs. the ibuprofen group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.28; P=0.67). In the acetaminophen group, 49% of participants had at least one asthma exacerbation and 21% had at least two, as compared with 47% and 24%, respectively, in the ibuprofen group. Similarly, no significant differences were detected between acetaminophen and ibuprofen with respect to the percentage of asthma-control days (85.8% and 86.8%, respectively; P=0.50), use of an albuterol rescue inhaler (2.8 and 3.0 inhalations per week, respectively; P=0.69), unscheduled health care utilization for asthma (0.75 and 0.76 episodes per participant, respectively; P=0.94), or adverse events.
It was found that patients with toxic hepatitis had higher serum acetaminophen level (P = 0.007), but they also arrived to the hospital later (P < 0.001) than patients without toxic hepatitis. Furthermore, patients with toxic hepatitis showed higher incidences of acute respiratory failure (P = 0.012) than those shown by patients who did not have hepatitis. The laboratory examinations also revealed greater degrees of granulocytosis (P < 0.001) and poorer liver function tests (P < 0.001) in patients with hepatitis than in patients without hepatitis. Nevertheless, a univariate logistic regression model failed to identify any significant risk factors for toxic hepatitis complication after ingestion (P > 0.05). At the end of the analysis, 1 patient with toxic hepatitis died of liver failure. Finally, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients with and without hepatitis (P = 0.080).
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For the first 24 hours after surgery, all patients were admitted to a level 2 (high-dependency) area on a general surgical ward with experience of bariatric surgery. They received supplemental oxygen, continuous pulse oximetry, and judicious analgesic administration using a combination of small boluses of i.v. morphine together with i.v. paracetamol. Perioperative continuous positive airway pressure support was not routinely given, unless patients with OSA had oxygen saturation below their recorded preoperative level on 2 consecutive readings.
It seems reasonable to use ketoprofen first in need of rapid fever reduction.
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The asialoglycoprotein receptor on hepatocyte membranes recognizes the galactose residues of glycoproteins. We investigated the specificity, accuracy and threshold value of asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging for estimating liver reserve via scintigraphy using (111)In-hexavalent lactoside in mouse models.