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Controversy exists about CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen efficacy.
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Krüpple-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the proliferative compartment of the intestinal crypt. There, it is thought to regulate epithelial turnover and homeostasis.
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Phospholipidosis (PLD) is characterized by the excessive intracellular accumulation of phospholipids. It is well established that a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs have the potential to induce PLD. In the present study, we describe two facile in vitro methods to determine the PLD-inducing potential of a molecule. The first approach is based on a recent study by (Sawada et al., 2005, Toxicol. Sci. 83, 282-292) in which 17 genes were identified as potential biomarkers of PLD in HepG2 cells. To confirm the utility of this gene panel, we treated HepG2 cells with PLD-positive and -negative compounds and then analyzed gene expression using real-time PCR. Our initial analysis, which used a single dose of each drug, correctly identified five of eight positive compounds and four of four negative compounds. We then increased the doses of the three false negatives (amiodarone, tamoxifen, and loratadine) and found that the changes in gene expression became large enough to correctly identify them as PLD-inducing drugs. Our results suggest that a range of concentrations should be used to increase the accuracy of prediction in this assay. Our second approach utilized a fluorescently labeled phospholipid (LipidTox) which was added to the media of growing HepG2 cells along with compounds positive and negative for PLD. Phospholipid accumulation was determined using confocal microscopy and, more quantitatively, using a 96-well plate assay and a fluorescent plate reader. Using an expanded set of compounds, we show that this assay correctly identified 100% of PLD-positive and -negative compounds. Dose-dependent increases in intracellular fluorescent phospholipid accumulation were observed. We found that this assay was less time consuming, more sensitive, and higher throughput than gene expression analysis. To our knowledge, this study represents the first validation of the use of LipidTox in identifying drugs that can induce PLD.
Breast cancer in men is relatively uncommon but its incidence has been rising. Traditionally, the management of breast cancer in men is based on extrapolation from clinical trials of breast cancer in women, due to the much more extensive data available in women with this disease. There are, however, unique characteristics that distinguish breast cancer in men and these should be taken into consideration when managing this patient population. Breast cancer in men is more frequently estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) positive, and less frequently HER2 amplified. Lobular carcinoma, which accounts for 10-15% of breast cancers in women, is exceptionally rare in men. Genetic risk factors, particularly BRCA2 mutations, are increasingly recognized as a key risk factor for breast cancer in men and genetic testing is now routinely recommended for all men diagnosed with breast cancer. Tamoxifen remains the gold standard endocrine therapy for breast cancer in men, but other endocrine agents such as the aromatase inhibitors (AI) and fulvestrant are increasingly being used. While superior to tamoxifen in postmenopausal women, the use of AIs for adjuvant therapy in men with breast cancer may not be optimal since the physiology of hormonal regulation in men resembles that of premenopausal rather than postmenopausal women. Emerging areas of investigation include the role of genomic risk stratification to gain further insight into the biology of breast cancer in men, the study of the androgen receptor (AR) as a therapeutic target, and the role of gonadal suppression in the management of the disease. There is clearly a more consorted effort to study breast cancer in men as a unique disease in order to have a better understanding of its biology and we are likely to witness further advances that will help us better manage this unique disease situation.
Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), reduces fracture risk at least in part by improving the mechanical properties of bone in a cell- and estrogen receptor-independent manner. In this study, we determined that raloxifene directly interacts with the bone tissue. Through the use of multiple and complementary biophysical techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we show that raloxifene interacts specifically with the organic component or the organic/mineral composite, and not with hydroxyapatite. Structure-activity studies reveal that the basic side chain of raloxifene is an instrumental determinant in the interaction with bone. Thus, truncation of portions of the side chain reduces bone binding and also diminishes the increase in mechanical properties. Our results support a model wherein the piperidine interacts with bone matrix through electrostatic interactions with the piperidine nitrogen and through hydrophobic interactions (van der Waals) with the aliphatic groups in the side chain and the benzothiophene core. Furthermore, in silico prediction of the potential binding sites on the surface of collagen revealed the presence of a groove with sufficient space to accommodate raloxifene analogs. The hydroxyl groups on the benzothiophene nucleus, which are necessary for binding of SERMs to the estrogen receptor, are not required for binding to the bone surface, but mediate a more robust binding of the compound to the bone powder. In conclusion, we report herein a novel property of raloxifene analogs that allows them to interact with the bone tissue through potential contacts with the organic matrix and in particular collagen.
The IL-6/GP130/STAT3 pathway is critical for the progression of multiple types of cancers. We report here the discovery of raloxifene and bazedoxifene as novel inhibitors of IL-6/GP130 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) using multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) and drug repositioning approaches. Multiple drug scaffolds were simultaneously docked into hot spots of GP130 D1 domain by MLSD to compete with the key interacting residues of IL-6, followed by tethering to generate virtual hit compounds. Similarity searches of virtual hits on drug databases identified raloxifene and bazedoxifene as potential inhibitors of IL-6/GP130 interaction. In cancer cell assays both compounds bind to GP130 and demonstrated selective inhibition of IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation and were significantly more potent than the previously reported natural product inhibitor MDL-A. The identified drugs represent a new class of lead compounds with piperidine, benzothiophene, and indole scaffolds to inhibit IL-6 induced homodimerization of GP130. Besides potential direct usage for clinic trials, the two compounds can also serve as lead compounds for optimization to speed the development of drugs selectively targeting the IL-6/GP130/STAT3 cancer signaling pathway.
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We examined the feasibility of using CYP2D6 genotyping to determine optimal tamoxifen dose and investigated whether the key active tamoxifen metabolite, endoxifen, could be increased by genotype-guided tamoxifen dosing in patients with intermediate CYP2D6 metabolism.
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The 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference (2015) reviewed substantial new evidence on locoregional and systemic therapies for early breast cancer. Further experience has supported the adequacy of tumor margins defined as 'no ink on invasive tumor or DCIS' and the safety of omitting axillary dissection in specific cohorts. Radiotherapy trials support irradiation of regional nodes in node-positive disease. Considering subdivisions within luminal disease, the Panel was more concerned with indications for the use of specific therapies, rather than surrogate identification of intrinsic subtypes as measured by multiparameter molecular tests. For the treatment of HER2-positive disease in patients with node-negative cancers up to 1 cm, the Panel endorsed a simplified regimen comprising paclitaxel and trastuzumab without anthracycline as adjuvant therapy. For premenopausal patients with endocrine responsive disease, the Panel endorsed the role of ovarian function suppression with either tamoxifen or exemestane for patients at higher risk. The Panel noted the value of an LHRH agonist given during chemotherapy for premenopausal women with ER-negative disease in protecting against premature ovarian failure and preserving fertility. The Panel noted increasing evidence for the prognostic value of commonly used multiparameter molecular markers, some of which also carried prognostic information for late relapse. The Panel noted that the results of such tests, where available, were frequently used to assist decisions about the inclusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with luminal disease, but noted that threshold values had not been established for this purpose for any of these tests. Multiparameter molecular assays are expensive and therefore unavailable in much of the world. The majority of new breast cancer cases and breast cancer deaths now occur in less developed regions of the world. In these areas, less expensive pathology tests may provide valuable information. The Panel recommendations on treatment are not intended to apply to all patients, but rather to establish norms appropriate for the majority. Again, economic considerations may require that less expensive and only marginally less effective therapies may be necessary in less resourced areas. Panel recommendations do not imply unanimous agreement among Panel members. Indeed, very few of the 200 questions received 100% agreement from the Panel. In the text below, wording is intended to convey the strength of Panel support for each recommendation, while details of Panel voting on each question are available in supplementary Appendix S2, available at Annals of Oncology online.
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation in R26-SmoM2;CAGGS-CreER mice, which carry a tamoxifen-inducible activated Smoothened allele (SmoM2), results in numerous microscopic tumor foci in mouse skeletal muscle. These tumors exhibit a highly differentiated myogenic phenotype and resemble human fetal rhabdomyomas. This study sought to apply previously established strategies to isolate lineally distinct populations of normal mouse myofiber-associated cells in order to examine cellular heterogeneity in SmoM2 tumors. We demonstrate that established SmoM2 tumors are composed of cells expressing myogenic, adipocytic and hematopoietic lineage markers and differentiation capacity. SmoM2 tumors thus recapitulate the phenotypic and functional hetereogeneity observed in normal mouse skeletal muscle. SmoM2 tumors also contain an expanded population of PAX7+ and MyoD+ satellite-like cells with extremely low clonogenic activity. Selective activation of Hh signaling in freshly isolated muscle satellite cells enhanced terminal myogenic differentiation without stimulating proliferation. Our findings support the conclusion that SmoM2 tumors represent an aberrant skeletal muscle state and demonstrate that, similar to normal muscle, myogenic tumors contain functionally distinct cell subsets, including cells lacking myogenic differentiation potential.
Both treatments increased bone mineral density (4.1%-7.85%). Reversal of macroscopic uterine atrophy was observed only in estrogen-treated mice. Ovariectomized mice had a shorter time to occlusion compared with sham-operated mice (70.8 +/- 7.4 vs 103 +/- 11.3 min), suggesting accelerated thrombosis. Both estradiol and raloxifene significantly inhibited intra-arterial thrombosis in ovariectomized mice, prolonging the time to occlusion to 136.33 +/- 13.5 and 141.43 +/- 9.26 min, respectively. Cyclooxygenase-2 levels in the lung tissue were significantly increased by both raloxifene and estradiol with endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression being unaltered. Platelet adhesion (measured by surface coverage under a shear rate of 1,800 s for 2 min) was significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, being 4.63% +/- 1.47%, 5.78% +/- 1.58%, and 10.04% +/- 1.33% for raloxifene, estradiol, and placebo, respectively.
Tamoxifen has played a central role in endocrine therapy for hormone-responsive breast cancer. Results of recent clinical trials have, however, clearly shown that third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), such as anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, are superior to tamoxifen in the treatment of postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer, in an adjuvant setting and for early breast cancer. Many studies have been published that describe new results from clinical trials and how they fundamentally prove the efficacy of AIs. There are, however, still some unresolved issues concerning the applications of AIs, such as the optimal duration of the therapy, the optimal regimens (initial, adjuvant or switching from tamoxifen to AI), and combination with LH-RH agonists for premenopausal woman. These issues are discussed in this review. Additionally, further possibilities for the application of AIs, for example in combination therapy with pure antiestrogen aimed at complete estrogen blockade and in combination with new biological agents, as well as the pharmacogenomics of AIs will be discussed.
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We followed 4456 women with a BRCA1 or a BRCA2 mutation for incident cases of endometrial cancer. The incidence of endometrial cancer was estimated per 100,000 women per year. The hazard ratios for endometrial cancer were estimated by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) according to age group and country of residence. We estimated the impact of tamoxifen and hormone replacement therapy on the incidence of endometrial cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
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Despite detection at comparable sizes, the prognostic effect of tumor size in patients with mammographically detected tumors is greater for black than in nonblack patients.
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The 5-year overall survival (85%) was better in women under the age of 50 years. Patients with ER+/PR+ tumors had a better 5-year survival rate (94%); those with ER-/PR- tumors experienced the worst outcome (74% survival rate); whereas single-positive cases were in between. In 97 out of 128 patients with ER-/PR+ tumors, tamoxifen was given as adjuvant hormonal therapy, and it increased the survival benefit in the lower grade group in terms of overall survival and disease-free survival (p=0.01 and p=0.03, respectively).
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The incidence of second non-breast primary cancer following adjuvant treatment was evaluated using data from patients enrolled from 1978 to 1999 in four International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) trials. The occurrence of these tumours as sites of the first failure was assessed separately for two treatment comparisons: toremifene versus tamoxifen for 5 years in 1035 patients in IBCSG Trials 12-93 and 14-93 with a median follow-up of 8 years and endocrine therapy (toremifene or tamoxifen) versus chemo-endocrine therapy (CMF or AC plus toremifene or tamoxifen) in 1731 patients from IBCSG Trials III, VII and 12-93, with a combined median follow-up of 14 years. No significant differences in second non-breast primary tumours were observed in either comparison. In particular, the incidences of second primary uterine tumours with toremifene and tamoxifen were similar and no significant increase of secondary leukaemias was observed with chemo-endocrine therapy compared with endocrine therapy.
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The current analyses were based on 10-year median follow-up data in the two monotherapy arms (anastrozole, n = 3,092; tamoxifen, n = 3,094) of the ATAC study. Baseline comorbidities and tumor and treatment characteristics were compared between women age less than 70 years and women age ≥ 70 years. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer-related and non-breast cancer-related mortality was assessed according to age and comorbidities.
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Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) to initiate contraction. We used a tamoxifen-activated, smooth muscle-specific inactivation of MLCK expression in adult mice to determine whether MLCK was differentially limiting in distinct smooth muscles. A 50% decrease in MLCK in urinary bladder smooth muscle had no effect on RLC phosphorylation or on contractile responses, whereas an 80% decrease resulted in only a 20% decrease in RLC phosphorylation and contractile responses to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Phosphorylation of the myosin light chain phosphatase regulatory subunit MYPT1 at Thr-696 and Thr-853 and the inhibitor protein CPI-17 were also stimulated with carbachol. These results are consistent with the previous findings that activation of a small fraction of MLCK by limiting amounts of free Ca(2+)/calmodulin combined with myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition is sufficient for robust RLC phosphorylation and contractile responses in bladder smooth muscle. In contrast, a 50% decrease in MLCK in aortic smooth muscle resulted in 40% inhibition of RLC phosphorylation and aorta contractile responses, whereas a 90% decrease profoundly inhibited both responses. Thus, MLCK content is limiting for contraction in aortic smooth muscle. Phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MYPT1 at Thr-696 and Thr-853 were also stimulated with phenylephrine but significantly less than in bladder tissue. These results indicate differential contributions of MLCK to signaling. Limiting MLCK activity combined with modest Ca(2+) sensitization responses provide insights into how haploinsufficiency of MLCK may result in contractile dysfunction in vivo, leading to dissections of human thoracic aorta.
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Two recombinant plasmids (pcDNA3-promoter-BCRP and pcDNA3-CMV-BCRP) were designed to express the wild-type full-length BCRP cDNA enforced driven by its endogenous promoter containing a functional ERE and a CMV promoter as control, respectively. Two recombinant plasmids were transfected into ERα-positive MCF-7 and ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Four kinds of BCRP expressing cell lines of MCF-7/Promoter-BCRP, MCF-7/CMV-BCRP, MDA-MB-231/Promoter-BCRP and MDA-MB-231/CMV-BCRP were established in which BCRP was promoted by the BCRP promoter and a CMV promoter as control, respectively. The drug resistant cells were treated with toremifene. Then RT-PCR, Western blot, mitoxantrone efflux assays and cytotoxicity assay were performed to detect the reversal function of BCRP by toremifene on the drug resistance cell lines.
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Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 is an independent risk factor in breast cancer and is correlated with shorter survival and enhanced recurrence rates. The present subgroup analysis of the German BRENDA-cohort aimed to investigate the correlation between BMI, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and adjuvant endocrine therapy. In this subgroup analysis, 4,636 patients were retrospectively examined using multivariate analyses. Overall 3,759 (81.1%) patients had a BMI <30 (non-obese) and 877 (18.9%) a BMI ≥30 (obese). In the group of all 3,896 (84.0%) patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR+) breast carcinomas a significant reduction in RFS was demonstrated for those who were obese (P = 0.002; HR = 1.45 (95% CI: 1.15-1.83)), also after adjustment for Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) (P = 0.028; HR = 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03-1.65)). In hormone-receptor-negative (HR-) patients BMI had no influence on RFS (P = 0.380; HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.80-1.81)). Considering menopausal status, a significantly shorter RFS was seen in postmenopausal obese than in non-obese patients (P < 0.001; HR = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.24-2.09)), whereas the premenopausal patient group only showed a trend towards a shorter RFS (P = 0.202; HR = 1.44 (95% CI: 0.82-2.53)). The group of HR+ postmenopausal patients with normal or intermediate weight showed a non-significant statistical trend towards a survival benefit for aromatase inhibitors (AI) compared to tamoxifen (RFS: P = 0.486; HR = 1.29 (95% CI: 0.63-2.62), while obese patients tended to benefit more from tamoxifen (RFS: P = 0.289; HR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.29-1.45)). In accordance with recently published results we demonstrated a negative effect of a high BMI on outcome in primary breast cancer. Furthermore the efficacy of AI seems dependent on BMI in contrast to tamoxifen. Prospective studies to optimise the therapy of obese breast cancer patients are urgently needed.
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Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy requires an interdisciplinary approach and careful consideration of the patient's stage of disease, the gestational age, and the preferences of the patient and her family.
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In HER2-overexpressing/ER-positive BT474 cells, combining all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) with tamoxifen or trastuzumab synergistically inhibited cell growth, and altered cell differentiation and cell cycle. Only atRA/trastuzumab-containing combinations induced apoptosis. BT474 and HER2-overexpressing/ER-negative SKBR3 cells were treated with a panel of retinoids (atRA, 9-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, or N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (fenretinide) (4-HPR)) combined with trastuzumab. In BT474 cells, none of the single agents except 4-HPR induced apoptosis, but again combinations of each retinoid with trastuzumab did induce apoptosis. In contrast, the single retinoid agents did cause apoptosis in SKBR3 cells; this was only modestly enhanced by addition of trastuzumab. The retinoid drug combinations altered signaling by HER2 and ER. Retinoids were inactive in trastuzumab-resistant BT474 cells.
The actuarial breast cancer specific survival in 1135 randomised patients at 10 years was 96%. Analysis by intention to treat showed that LR after WLE was reduced in patients randomised to radiotherapy (RT) (HR 0.37, CI 0.22-0.61 p<0.001) and to tamoxifen (HR 0.33, CI 0.15 - 0.70 p<0.004). Actuarial analysis of patients entered into the four-way randomisation showed that LR after WLE alone was 1.9% per annum (PA) versus 0.7% with RT alone and 0.8% with tamoxifen alone. No patient randomised to both adjuvant treatments developed LR. Analysis by treatment received showed LR at 2.2%PA for surgery alone versus 0.8% for either adjuvant radiotherapy or tamoxifen and 0.2% for both treatments.
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Vaginal administration of estradiol is a well known and safe alternative to systemic estrogen therapy, but studies demonstrated significant increases in plasma concentrations of estradiol. Such observations have also been reported in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with AIs. Further studies are needed to explore risk of breast cancer recurrence after vaginal estrogen application for patients on adjuvant endocrine therapy with AIs.
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We report a case of recurrent severe acute pancreatitis in a 44-year-old female induced by tamoxifen therapy and review the literature with regards to tamoxifen-associated pancreatitis.