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A prime concern for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients is fast symptom control. Sparse valid information is available on the rapidity of the effect of proton pump inhibitors in providing symptom relief. The new reflux questionnaire ReQuest is validated for daily assessment of changes in GERD symptoms. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of 20 mg pantoprazole and 20 mg esomeprazole with regard to the time to symptom relief in patients with endoscopy-negative GERD (enGERD) using ReQuest.
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To (a) describe the process used by an internal medicine clinic to ensure that patients requiring acid suppression therapy received appropriate treatment according to revised TennCare formulary criteria without unnecessary interruption of therapy, and (b) assess self-reported symptom control 8 months after intervention in the patients who either discontinued therapy or stepped-down to H2-blocker therapy.
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Helicobacter pylori have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, reducing eradication rates. A 10-day sequential regimen that contains levofloxacin was efficient, safe, and cost saving in eradicating H pylori infection in an area with high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. We performed a noninferiority randomized trial to determine whether a 5-day levofloxacin-containing quadruple concomitant regimen was as safe and effective as the 10-day sequential regimen in eradicating H pylori in previously untreated patients.
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Intravenous ilaprazole exhibited high antiulcer activity in a dose-dependent manner. Ilaprazole at a dose of 3 mg/kg decreased ulcer number and index to the same extent as 20 mg/kg esomeprazole. Moreover, the potency of intravenous ilaprazole is superior to that of intragastric ilaprazole. In anesthetized rats, the inhibitory effect of intravenous ilaprazole on histamine-induced acid secretion is faster and longer-lasting than that of intraduodenal ilaprazole.
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Through a simple intervention with an algorithm and education of junior doctors we have shown that significant improvement and adherence to guidance can be achieved.
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Questionnaires are frequently used to measure the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. These questionnaires can either be filled out by the physicians or by the patients, but it is not clear whether these scores correspond. This study aimed to investigate the interrater agreement between physician-reported severity and patient-reported severity concerning the patients' upper GI complaints.
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Predictors of response to proton pump inhibitor trial that could be easily assessed in a primary care clinic were identified. In our population the response was not as favorable as suggested by clinical trials. Frequent overlap with irritable bowel syndrome seems to be an important factor.
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Second-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication with fluoroquinolone-containing triple therapy is one of the recommended treatment options, but neither 7-day nor 10-day regimens provide >90% success rates. The current retrospective study aimed to clarify the effects of 10-day and 14-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapies for second-line H. pylori eradication in a Taiwanese cohort and to evaluate the potential clinical factors influencing eradication. A total of 200 patients who failed H. pylori eradication using the standard triple therapy were prescribed with either a 10-day (EAL-10) or a 14-day (EAL-14) levofloxacin-containing triple therapy group (levofloxacin 500 mg once daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily). Follow-up studies to assess treatment response were carried out 8 weeks later. Eradication rates attained by EAL-10 and EAL-14 were 75.6%; 95% CI = 63.9-85.3% and 92.5%; 95% CI = 84.5-98.1%, P = 0.002 in the per protocol analysis and 68%; 95% CI = 56.6-78.5% and 86%; 95% CI = 76.8-93.4%, P = 0.002 in the intention-to-treat analysis. The duration of H. pylori therapy is the independent risk factor of H. pylori eradication (P = 0.003). In conclusion, 14-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy can provide a >90% H. pylori eradication rate, but 10-day treatment duration may be suboptimal. The longer duration of H. pylori therapy (14 days) is the independent risk factor.
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Forty-eight patients diagnosed with gastric ulcer between June 2014 and February 2016 were randomly allocated to the combination therapy group or monotherapy group. The former received hydrotalcite combined with esomeprazole, and the latter received esomeprazole alone, for 8 wk. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were recruited and acted as the healthy control group. Endoscopic ulcer healing was observed using white light endoscopy and narrow band imaging magnifying endoscopy. The composition of collagen fibers, amount of collagen deposition, expression of factor VIII and TGF-β1, and hydroxyproline content were analyzed by Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent imaging and ELISA.
To evaluate gastric acid suppression with three doses of esomeprazole in PN 400 compared with EC esomeprazole 20 mg.
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Thirty-nine patients (25 men, 14 women) hospitalized with bleeding DU underwent emergency endoscopy and treated with intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and a 13C-UBT was performed the day after the resuming oral feeding.
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After adjustment for serial correlation, the formulary change was associated with a migration of approximately 5% of all PPI fills and 25% of esomeprazole fills to the preferred PPIs in the first post-intervention month. Over the 17-month post-intervention period, the trend toward increased esomeprazole use was slowed and use of the mail-order pharmacy for esomeprazole fills nearly doubled. Our observed PPI switch rate of 15.0% resembled the rate observed for another insured population that experienced a similar formulary restructuring, but was substantially lower than the rates reported for more sizeable formulary changes. Thus, the present study's copayment differentials for third-tier medications ($19 compared with tier 1 and $13 compared with tier 2 copayments) may be less than the threshold amount required to optimize switching to preferred PPIs.
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During a median follow-up period of 52 weeks, no patient in the esomeprazole group, as compared with 9 patients in the clopidogrel group, developed recurrent ulcer complications. The cumulative incidences of recurrent ulcer complications were 0% in patients receiving esomeprazole and aspirin and 13.6% in patients receiving clopidogrel (absolute difference, 13.6%; 95% confidence interval for the difference, 6.3-20.9; log-rank test, P = .0019).
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Our study demonstrates a strong negative clopidogrel/esomeprazole interaction, compensated by increasing the dose of clopidogrel to 150 mg or replacing esomeprazole with ranitidine. That could offer a simple solution to the PPI-induced clopidogrel resistance.
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Complete remission of symptoms and prevention of symptomatic recurrence are among the main therapeutic aims in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). In this context, a potent pharmacologic inhibition of gastric acid secretion plays a central role. The goal of antisecretory treatment in GORD is to maintain an intragastric pH greater than 4.0 for the longest possible time. This is best achieved by the administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Tolerability and safety of different PPIs are similar and consistently high, but therapeutic efficacy may differ among them. Esomeprazole appears to achieve an intragastric pH greater than 4.0 for a larger number of hours compared with any other PPI. This is associated with a greater therapeutic efficacy of esomeprazole compared with omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole in both complete remission of symptoms and prevention of symptomatic recurrence in GORD. This review provides evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of GORD-related symptoms in clinical practice.
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Rabeprazole 20 mg and Esomeprazole 20 mg are equally effective in increasing gastric pH in H. pylori-positive PPI extensive metabolizers on days 1 and 5. Esomeprazole 20 mg is more effective than Rabeprazole 20 mg in maintaining pH 4 during the first 6 hours on the first day and increasing of intragastric pH on the day 24 hours later the last dose.
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A simple and inexpensive titrimetric method for the determination of magnesium ion in esomeprazole magnesium raw material was developed and validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and the United States Pharmacopoeia. The method depends on complex formation between EDTA and magnesium ion. The method was proven to be valid, equivalent and useful as an alternative method to the current pharmacopeial methods that are based on atomic absorption spectrometry.
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After a proactive collaboration between physicians and clinical pharmacists in response to changes in TennCare formulary criteria for PPIs, more than one-half of patients were stepped down to H2-blocker therapy, and 14% were discontinued from acid suppression therapy. Among the step-down or therapy discontinuation patients for whom data were available at the 8-month follow-up, 81% were still using either an H2-blocker or no acid suppressing therapy at all, and 19% had resumed PPI use.
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Sleep is a time of vulnerability to respiratory compromise, especially in asthma patients experiencing nocturnal exacerbations. This asthma phenotype is associated with poorer control, reduced sleep quality, daytime somnolence and increased morbidity and mortality. Nocturnal asthma is a common but under-recognized problem.
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The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of esomeprazole-based triple therapy compared with rabeprazole-based triple therapy according to CYP2C19 genotype and clarithromycin susceptibility status for first-line eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Japan. We enrolled 219 H. pylori-infected patients, and randomly allocated patients to the EAC group (esomeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 200 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg for one week, with all drugs given twice daily) or RAC group (rabeprazole 10 mg, clarithromycin 200 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg for one week, with all drugs given twice daily). The H. pylori eradication rate according to the PP analyses was 75.0% (95% CI: 65.2-82.8%) in the EAC group and 71.4% (95% CI: 61.4-79.1%) in the RAC group. There were no statistically significant differences. The eradication rates of the clarithromycin-resistant/-sensitive strains were, respectively, 45.0% (95% CI: 30.7-60.2%)/98.0% (95% CI: 88.7-100%) in the EAC group and 39.5% (95% CI: 25.6-55.3%)/93.5% (95% CI: 81.9-98.4%) in the RAC group. The eradication rate of the clarithromycin-sensitive strains was significantly higher than that of the resistant strains in both groups. In conclusion, EAC and RAC therapies show a comparable efficacy regardless of the CYP2C19 genotype and clarithromycin susceptibility status in Japan.
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A total of 424 patients in 12 centres participated in the study: 85% were male, 88% were of German nationality, 82% were >35 years of age and 201 (47.4%) were receiving a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART regimen. Of these, 74 (37%) had received an acid-reducing drug within the previous 6 months and 43 (58%) were currently still on it. Two-thirds of patients (64.9%) were treated with proton-pump inhibitors (pantoprazole, omeprazole or esomeprazole) and 56% of patients on PI-containing regimens had been taking these drugs for longer than 2 months and up to a maximum of 3 years. The majority of patients (77%) had received the prescription for the acid-reducing drugs from their HIV specialist and the remaining patients had received over the counter (OTC) medication or prescriptions from other medical personnel.
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This international, 31-site, 8-week safety study randomized adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years inclusive, with GERD to receive esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg once daily. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire (QOLRAD), previously validated in adults, consists of 25 questions grouped into 5 domains: emotional distress, sleep disturbance, food/drink problems, physical/social functioning, and vitality. The QOLRAD was administered at the baseline and week-8 (final) visits.
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Compared to the standard triple therapy regimen, the bismuth-containing quadruple therapy regimen has higher eradication rate and cost-effectiveness, which can be recommended as the fist-line treatment for H.pylori infection.
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A total of 43,159 clopidogrel users were identified. Among them, 15,415 (35.7%) received clopidogrel and a PPI concomitantly at any time during the study period, 3502 (8.1%) experienced a MCE, 7306 (17.1%) died, and a total of 9908 (22.8%) experienced the primary composite outcome (any MCE or all-cause mortality) during follow-up. The odds ratio (OR) for the primary composite outcome was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.35). Secondary analyses indicated that elderly patients using clopidogrel and a PPI concomitantly were more likely to experience all-cause mortality (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.53) as compared to those receiving clopidogrel only, but not MCEs (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95-1.18).
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Determinar los patrones de prescripción de inhibidores de la bomba de protones y estimar el costo económico que genera su utilización en pacientes afiliados al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud de Colombia.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have revolutionised the treatment of acid-related disorders, and they have also made it possible to define the spectrum of acid inhibition required for optimal treatment in each disorder. Five PPIs are now available: the older drugs, omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole, and the two newest, rabeprazole and esomeprazole. These agents have predominantly been developed in the younger adult population, and data for the elderly population are limited. Subtle differences have emerged between the old and the new PPIs in their pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and efficacy profiles. The degree of clinical relevance of these differences in the adult population is in question. However, according to this review, based on the available data for the elderly and by inference from the adult population, the differences are highly relevant in the elderly population. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of older PPIs demonstrated considerable variation in drug clearance that was reflected in a wide range of efficacy related to acid suppression with standard dosages. The newer PPIs offer several advantages over older agents, particularly in terms of rapid, profound and consistent acid inhibition. Consistent acid inhibition is particularly important in the elderly since clinical response is often difficult to judge in this patient group. An individual's cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype predicts the degree of acid suppression and consequently the clinical efficacy of the PPIs. The older PPIs are predominantly metabolised by CYP2C19, with this being of more importance for omeprazole and lansoprazole than pantoprazole. The hepatic metabolism of rabeprazole is predominantly by nonenzymatic reactions and minimally by CYP-mediated reactions, which therefore confers an advantage over older PPIs in that genetic polymorphisms for CYP2C19 do not significantly influence rabeprazole clearance, clinical efficacy or potential for drug interactions. The metabolism of esomeprazole involves CYP2C19 but to a lesser extent than its predecessor omeprazole. Furthermore, esomeprazole has a more rapid onset of action and less variation in clearance rates than omeprazole. Drug clearance decreases with age independently of CYP2C19 status, exaggerating some of the differences between the PPIs and increasing the risk of drug interactions.
nexium reviews 2014
A total of 648 patients who had failed previous H. pylori eradication on standard triple therapy were randomized into two regimens: 1, esomeprazole (20 mg b.i.d), tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate (300 mg q.i.d), metronidazole (500 mg t.i.d), and tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d) (EBMT) or 2, moxifloxacin (400 mg q.d.), esomeprazole (20 mg b.i.d), and amoxicillin (1000 mg b.i.d.) (MEA). At four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, H. pylori tests were performed with 13C urea breath test or invasive tests. In patients who maintained continuous H. pylori negativity for the first year after eradication therapy, H. pylori status was assessed every year. For the evaluation of risk factors of reinfection, gender, age, clinical diagnosis, histological atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia were analyzed.
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Increasing clarithromycin resistance reduces Helicobacter pylori eradication rates with conventional triple regimens. We evaluated effectiveness and safety of a 10-day-quadruple nonbismuth containing regimen, as first-line treatment or second-line treatment (after conventional triple) for H. pylori, and assessed impact of antibiotic resistance on treatment success.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common, usually lifelong, disorder resulting from chronic abnormal exposure of the lower esophagus to gastric contents. Motor dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter is the primary cause of this disease. At this writing, no medical therapies can completely resolve abnormal lower esophageal sphincter function; therefore, the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease centers on suppression of intragastric acid secretion. Available acid-suppressant medications include proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists, and antacids. Of these, the proton pump inhibitors are recognized generally as the mainstays of both short-term and long-term therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. All have a low incidence of side effects and are well tolerated by most patients. Five proton pump inhibitors are available currently for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Of these, esomeprazole has shown greater efficacy in controlling intragastric acidity than the others. For patients with erosive esophagitis, esomeprazole has demonstrated higher healing rates and more rapid sustained resolution of heartburn than omeprazole or lansoprazole after up to 8 weeks of once-daily treatment. Because new therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease are highly effective, patients can be reassured that their disease will be well controlled and their symptoms resolved with a safe and appropriate treatment.
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To determine predictors of clinical response of proton pump inhibitor therapy.