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At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 56 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 31 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 18 studies and the further review of 13 full publications. Of the 13 full articles evaluated, two RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 11 PICO combinations.
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Pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical attention, and neuropathic pain is among the most common types of pain. Despite its prevalence, neuropathic pain is often underrecognized and inadequately treated. Many cases are refractory to the medications traditionally used for pain, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Tricyclic antidepressants are considered first-line agents for neuropathic pain, but their use is limited by unwanted side effects and a risk of cardiovascular mortality.
Epilepsy in adult patients with a MID was classified as "structural/metabolic" in two-thirds of the cases and as "genetic" in one-third of the cases. Although all types of seizures may occur in mitochondrial epilepsy, adult patients most frequently presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures, partial seizures, convulsive status epilepticus, or non-convulsive status epilepticus. Cerebral imaging was normal in one-third of the patients. Two-thirds of the adult patients with mitochondrial epilepsy who took antiepileptic drugs received monotherapy, one-third combination treatment. The antiepileptic drugs most frequently administered included levetiracetam, lamotrigine, valproic acid, and gabapentin. Antiepileptic drugs were usually well tolerated and the outcome favourable.
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Drosophila bang-sensitive (bs) mutants exhibit a stereotypic seizure and paralysis following exposure to mechanical shock. In a physiological preparation, seizures and failures corresponding to the defective behavior are observed in response to high frequency stimulation. The amplitude of the stimulus necessary to produce bs behavior, or seizure threshold, varies with bs mutant and its gene dosage. In many respects, the bs defects are similar to those observed in mammalian seizure disorders. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were administered by feeding to easily shocked(2) (eas(2)), a representative bs mutant. The mean recovery times of treated flies were examined in comparison to control cultures. Some of the drugs administered, including carbamazeprine, ethosuximide, and vigabactrin, had little or no effect on the bs behavior of eas(2). Gabapentin, however, showed a reduction in mean recovery time with chronic drug exposure. Phenytoin also had a significant effect on the bs behavior of treated flies. There was a reduction of both mean recovery time and the percentage of flies that displayed bang-sensitive behavior with both acute and chronic treatment. The adult giant fiber preparation was used to examine the effects of phenytoin physiologically. Treated eas(2) flies showed changes in their response to normal stimulation as well as alterations in seizure threshold in response to high frequency stimulation. Gabapentin was also effective against two other bs mutants, bangsenseless(1) and slamdance(iso7.8), at strain-specific concentrations, while phenytoin also reduced bang-sensitive behaviors in bangsenseless(1) in a dose dependent manner. AEDs, therefore, can be used to dissect aspects of bs behavior and this model may be useful in understanding the underlying basis of seizure disorders.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN-a non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant activity of various second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and tiagabine) in the mouse 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure model. Psychomotor seizures were evoked in albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Additionally, total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations were measured. Results indicate that WIN (5 mg/kg, administered i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin (P < 0.05) and levetiracetam (P < 0.01), but not that of lacosamide, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin or tiagabine in the mouse psychomotor seizure model. Moreover, WIN (2.5 mg/kg) had no significant effect on the anticonvulsant activity of all tested antiepileptic drugs in the 6 Hz test in mice. Measurement of total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations revealed that WIN (5 mg/kg) had no impact on gabapentin or levetiracetam total brain concentrations, indicating the pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between these antiepileptic drugs in the mouse 6Hz model. In conclusion, WIN in combination with gabapentin and levetiracetam exerts beneficial anticonvulsant pharmacodynamic interactions in the mouse psychomotor seizure model.
The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), singly and in combination, has been marked by variation among European countries and by a slow progress toward a standard of care that is still far from uniform. Phenobarbital, phenytoin, trimethadione, and primidone, given in various combinations, were the predominant agents used in the first half of this century. Prescribing habits differed among the Latin countries, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia, based on local trends, divergent teaching philosophies of medical schools, and the medical specialty of the prescribing physician. The advent of carbamazepine and valproate, in the early 1960s, changed European prescribing habits. Despite early fears regarding bone marrow toxicity, carbamazepine was found to be superior for treatment of complex partial seizures. Valproate, when the proper therapeutic dosage was belatedly realized, was seen as a superior treatment for generalized and partial epilepsies. Both agents are now considered first-line treatments for these seizure types. The role of the benzodiazepines as adjunctive anticonvulsant therapy remains controversial because of concerns about neurotoxicity and patient tolerance. The number of AEDs marketed in Europe has grown dramatically in the past decade, with agents such as felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, and tiagabine having been approved as either adjunctive or sole therapy. However, not all new agents are available in each European country, and some variation in prescribing persists.
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The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner.
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A recurrent clinical dilemma in the management of patients with painful metastatic lesions is achieving a balance between effective analgesic therapies versus intolerable side effects, in particular altered mental status. We present the case of an immunosuppressed patient post-lung transplant who was suffering from intractable pain caused by widely metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient's progressive, excruciating neuropathic pain was localized to the area of the left wrist and forearm. Additionally, the patient complained of moderate pain at sites of tumor involvement on her right arm and scalp. Attempts to adequately manage her left upper extremity pain included a combination of pharmacologic treatments intended to treat neuropathic pain (gabapentin, SNRI, ketamine, opioids) and focused regional analgesia (infraclavicular infusion of local anesthetic). However, the patient developed intolerable side effects including altered mental status and delirium associated with the systemic agents and suboptimal control with the infraclavicular infusion. Given that the most severe pain was well localized, we undertook a diagnostic block of the cutaneous nerves of the left forearm. As this intervention significantly reduced her pain, we subsequently performed neurectomies to the left superficial radial nerve, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm. This resulted in immediate and continued relief of her left upper extremity pain without an altered mental status. Residual focal pain from lesions over her right arm and scalp was successfully managed with daily topical applications of lidocaine and capsaicin cream. Successful pain control continued until the patient's death five months later.
The present study showed that the administration of multidrug regimens is a useful alternative in controlling trigeminal neuralgia in patients who are unable to tolerate higher doses of carbamazepine. Age, sex, ethnicity, and the side of affliction did not have a significant influence on the choice of drug regimen and the duration of treatment for pain control.
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This study has demonstrated the good pharmacotherapeutic response of persistent myofascial pain, even in more severe cases. Not being a randomized controlled trial, the results may be biased and should be interpreted with caution. Patients who do not respond to TCAs may be a distinct subgroup and this needs further investigation. The results also suggest that gabapentin, at a lower dose than previously reported, is a good alternative in TCA-resistant patients.
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A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized dose-ranging trial of 150 men and women older than 18 years with current alcohol dependence, conducted from 2004 through 2010 at a single-site, outpatient clinical research facility adjoining a general medical hospital.
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The study aims to investigate the effect and safety of gabapentin, esmolol or their combination on the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.
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The results presented here demonstrate that CRANE provides an objective assessment of pain behaviours for sub-acute inflammatory pain in rats. The pharmacological profile of standard analgesics supports that CRANE model may potentially be used to identify novel analgesic agents for the treatment of sub-acute inflammatory pain.
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Pulsed radiofrequency modulation (PRM) is a minimally invasive procedure that has been used successfully to treat neuropathic pain. Its use to treat lingual neuralgia has not to our knowledge been described previously, and we report a case.
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Older AEDs, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone are considered to have a good level of safety during lactation, due to the long term clinical experience and the consequent amount of available data from the scientific literature. On the contrary, fewer data are available on the use of new AEDs. Therefore, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, tiagabine, pregabalin, leviracetam and topiramate are compatible with breastfeeding with a less documented safety profile. Ethosuximide, zonisamide and the continue use of clonazepam and diazepam are contraindicated during breastfeeding.
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The mechanism of action of the antiepileptic and antinociceptive drugs of the gabapentinoid family has remained poorly understood. Gabapentin (GBP) binds to an exofacial epitope of the alpha(2)delta-1 and alpha(2)delta-2 auxiliary subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels, but acute inhibition of calcium currents by GBP is either very minor or absent. We formulated the hypothesis that GBP impairs the ability of alpha(2)delta subunits to enhance voltage-gated Ca(2+)channel plasma membrane density by means of an effect on trafficking. Our results conclusively demonstrate that GBP inhibits calcium currents, mimicking a lack of alpha(2)delta only when applied chronically, but not acutely, both in heterologous expression systems and in dorsal root-ganglion neurons. GBP acts primarily at an intracellular location, requiring uptake, because the effect of chronically applied GBP is blocked by an inhibitor of the system-L neutral amino acid transporters and enhanced by coexpression of a transporter. However, it is mediated by alpha(2)delta subunits, being prevented by mutations in either alpha(2)delta-1 or alpha(2)delta-2 that abolish GBP binding, and is not observed for alpha(2)delta-3, which does not bind GBP. Furthermore, the trafficking of alpha(2)delta-2 and Ca(V)2 channels is disrupted both by GBP and by the mutation in alpha(2)delta-2, which prevents GBP binding, and we find that GBP reduces cell-surface expression of alpha(2)delta-2 and Ca(V)2.1 subunits. Our evidence indicates that GBP may act chronically by displacing an endogenous ligand that is normally a positive modulator of alpha(2)delta subunit function, thereby impairing the trafficking function of the alpha(2)delta subunits to which it binds.
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Topical AmiKet has the potential to be a first-line treatment option for PHN, and to be useful in other NP conditions. Furthermore, AmiKet has the potential to be an adjunct to systemic therapies, with the targeting of a peripheral compartment in addition to central sites of action representing a rational drug combination.
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Serum GBP levels after rectal administration decreased at a rate similar to their rate of decrease after oral administration. However, GBP concentrations were much lower after rectal administration; therefore, we concluded that the aqueous solution was poorly absorbed rectally. The GBP half-life (t1/2) for the 2 children after oral doses were 4.2 and 4.8 h.
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Using telemetric recordings in a rat model of estrogen deficit-induced vasomotor dysregulation, we compared the long- and short-term effects of estrogen supplementation and treatment with neuropharmaceuticals (venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, fluoxetine, agomelatine, gabapentin) on endpoints of thermoregulation.
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We studied ADRs reported to the French Pharmacovigilance System occurring between 1995 and 2009.
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Some newer antidepressants and gabapentin, within 4 weeks of therapy initiation, decrease hot flashes more than placebo.
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We retrieved and analyzed all AED prescribing and dispensing data in 2001-2012 in patients aged 0-18 years with an established diagnosis of epilepsy at the largest tertiary children's hospital in Korea. AEDs included for analysis were classified as older (i.e., carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproic acid) and newer (i.e., gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, topiramate, vigabatrin, zonisamide, lacosamide, and rufinamide) on the basis of market availability before versus after 1991.
Hot flush intensity and frequency significantly decreased for both groups at 1, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment as compared to baseline; however, this decrease was statistically more evident for the E(2) group. Although the percentage of hot flush intensity and frequency reduction at the end of the treatment was higher for E2, this was not statistically significant (68.2% vs. 60.6% for intensity and 70.1% vs. 58.9% for frequency, respectively, p > 0.05, NS). Encountered side effects included: drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue (GPT group) and mastodynia, vaginal spotting and a local allergic reaction (E(2) group). Compliance to treatment was 95.6% (GPT group) as compared to 90.9% for the E(2) group.
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Chronic pain can often occur after surgery, substantially impairing patients' health and quality of life. It is caused by complex mechanisms that are not yet well understood. The predictable nature of most surgical procedures has allowed for the conduct of randomized controlled trials of pharmacological interventions aimed at preventing chronic postsurgical pain.
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Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux is a troublesome condition unresponsive to the standard medical anti-reflux therapy. Its underlying mechanisms may include incomplete acid suppression, non-acid reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and esophageal hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of this disorder depends on both the findings of multi-channel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and the subsequent intensified anti-reflux therapy. The strategies of pharmacological treatment for refractory chronic cough due to reflux include the optimization of proton pump inhibitors and add-on therapies with histamine H2 receptor antagonists, baclofen and gabapentin. However, the further study is needed to satisfy its management.
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A simple isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of gabapentin and its major degradation impurity, 3,3-pentamethylene-4-butyrolactam, was developed and validated for use in the analysis of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. Separation was achieved on a Brownlee Spheri-5 Cyano column using an acetonitrile-10 mM KH2PO4/10 mM K2HPO4 (pH 6.2) (8:92, v/v) mobile phase. The compounds were eluted isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Both compounds were analyzed with UV detection at 210 nm. The method was validated according to USP Category I requirements for gabapentin and USP Category II for 3,3-pentamethylene-4-butyrolactam. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, linearity, range, specificity, limit of quantitation and robustness. Validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. This method was used successfully for the quality assessment of four gabapentin drug products.
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A multi-target method that can detect a broad range of drugs in human hair, such as hypnotics, anxiolytics, analgesics, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anticonvulsants, was developed based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The drugs were extracted from 10 mg of washed hair by incubation for 18 h in a 25:25:50 (v/v/v) mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium formate (8% acetonitrile, pH 5.3). For 51% of the basic drugs, the lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were in the range of 0.05-0.5 pg/mg, and the majority (98%) were ≤ 5 pg/mg. Linearity ranged from LLOQs to 100-500 pg/mg for all the basic drugs. For acid and neutral drugs, the LLOQs ranged from 0.4 to 500 pg/mg, and linearity ranged from LLOQs to 80-40 000 pg/mg. According to published reports on concentrations attained in single dose control studies, the present method is sensitive enough to detect single-dose drug exposure for many of the drugs. The accuracy was within 75-125% for the majority of drugs. Good precision was observed (relative standard deviations [RSD%] < 25%) for most of the compounds, including the prepared quality control (QC) hair samples. The method was applied to forensic cases and concentrations of rarely reported drugs in hair in 25 post-mortem forensic cases were presented. Hair concentrations of amisulpride, gabapentin, mianserin, mepyramine, orphenadrine, and xylometazoline have not been previously reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The cognitive effects of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) compared with the older standard AEDs are uncertain.