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We have recently described a novel assay to assess ex vivo the activity and selectivity on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (EC 184.108.40.206) of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) administered to rats [Br. J. Pharmacol. 126 (1999) 1824.]. Here, we have extended these studies to humans. Healthy male volunteers were given orally one of the following drugs (mg) for 5 days: etodolac (200 or 400 b.i.d.), meloxicam (7.5 or 15 q.d.), nimesulide (100 or 200 b.i.d.), nabumetone (500 or 1000 b.i.d.) or naproxen (500 b.i.d.). Blood samples were withdrawn from the volunteers before and up to 24 h after the last dose. Plasma obtained from the blood was tested for its ability to inhibit prostanoid formation in interleukin-1beta-treated A549 cells (cyclooxygenase-2 system) and human washed platelets (cyclooxygenase-1 system). Plasma from etodolac-treated subjects demonstrated a slight selectivity towards the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. This effect was more prominent in plasma from subjects receiving meloxicam or nimesulide. Plasma from nabumetone-treated subjects showed no or little selectivity towards cyclooxygenase-1 depending on the dose of drug administered, while plasma taken from subjects receiving naproxen was more active at inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 than cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that this assay can be used to assess ex vivo the relative activity against cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 of NSAIDs consumed by human volunteers. It is to be hoped that data from such systems will aid in our understanding of the relationships between the differential inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 by NSAIDs and their reported efficacies and (gastrointestinal) toxicities.
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Expression of COX-2 was detected using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was detected with TUNEL method. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins A, B1, D1 and E, and apoptosis-related proteins including Fas, Fas ligand and Bcl-2 were examined using Western blotting.
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To investigate the distribution of meloxicam in the human knee joint and to compare it with the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity in synovial cells.
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A 12-year-old neutered male Springer Spaniel was referred with a 1-year history of recurring urinary tract infections. Repeated treatment with appropriate antimicrobials selected on the basis of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results would result in clinical improvement, but recurrence of clinical signs was observed within days after discontinuation of treatment.
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A second-year, female golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was live trapped in northern California because of severe feather loss and crusting of the skin on the head and legs. On physical examination, the bird was lethargic, dehydrated, and thin, with severe feather loss and diffuse hyperemia and crusting on the head, ventral wings, ventrum, dorsum, and pelvic limbs. Mites morphologically similar to Micnemidocoptes derooi were identified with scanning electron microscopy. The eagle was treated with ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) once weekly for 7 weeks, as well as pyrethrin, meloxicam, ceftiofur crystalline free acid, and voriconazole. Although the eagle's condition improved, and live mites or eggs were not evident on skin scrapings at the time of completion of ivermectin treatment, evidence of dead mites and mite feces were present after the last dose of ivermectin. Two additional doses of ivermectin and 2 doses of topical selamectin (23 mg/kg) were administered 2 and 4 weeks apart, respectively. No mite eggs, feces, or adults were evident after treatment was completed. A second golden eagle found in the same region was also affected with this mite but died soon after presentation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of successful treatment, as well as treatment with selamectin, of mites consistent with Micnemidocoptes species in any raptorial species.
Effects of NSAIDs on radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and COX-2 were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). As NSAIDs, diclofenac, etodolac, indomethacin, ketoprofen, meloxicam, and rofecoxib were used.
This study describes a sensitive and selective technique suitable for the validated detection and quantification of frequently prescribed veterinary drugs in horse hair. The segmental method can be applied for time-resolved long-term retrospective drug monitoring, for example in prepurchase examinations of horses as drug detection in hair can prove preceding medical treatments.
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Our results suggested that meloxicam, a nonselective COX inhibitor, caused neural tube closure defects when injected at supratherapeutic doses. However, further studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed for its use in lower doses.
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Meloxicam gel was designed based on the matching of the solubility parameter (delta) of the drug with that of the polymer and subsequently with skin for improved dermal delivery of meloxicam. The delta of meloxicam (11.48 (cal/cm(3))(0.5)) determined by solubility measurement was matched statistically to the solubility parameter of monomers, n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol methacrylate (EGMA) determined by intrinsic viscosity measurement. Consequently gels were formulated by polymerization in selected solvent blend of water/ethyl acetate (20:80) in which the drug showed maximum solubility. Thus, F1-F16 formulations designed were evaluated for physicochemical properties, textural analysis, and in vitro drug release. On the basis of optimum characteristics, F2 (PVA, delta = 16.96 (cal/cm(3))(0.5)) and F8 (EGMA, delta = 18.35 (cal/cm(3))(0.5)) formulated by suspension polymerization were selected and subjected to skin irritation and topical anti-inflammatory studies. The formulation F8 demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) of anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to marketed piroxicam gel and was free from irritation.
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Overall, we found high levels of use of analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicines, which increased by 43% over the study period. Use of paracetamol-containing medicines was overtaken by NSAIDs in 1999/2000, corresponding to the introduction of the Cox-2-selective agents. Between 12 and 17% of Cox-2-selective medicine recipients were supplied amounts indicative of continuous use in relatively high doses and 51% of veterans received at least one relatively Cox-2-selective medicine (celecoxib, rofecoxib, meloxicam, diclofenac) by the end of the study period. Dextropropoxyphene use declined during the study and tramadol use increased 10-fold.
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The results revealed that niosomes prepared from span 60 and cholesterol at 6:4 molar ratio using 20 mg of MX were of the highest entrapment efficiency (> 55%) and with particle size (187.3 nm). There was a marked increase in the percentage inhibition of edema in animals treated with MX vesicular gel compared to those treated with free MX and piroxicam gels.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can affect renal function in a variety of ways. The most important clinical effects are decreased sodium excretion, decreased potassium excretion, and declines in renal perfusion. Decreased sodium excretion can result in weight gain, peripheral edema, attenuation of the effects of antihypertensive agents, and rarely precipitation of chronic heart failure. Hyperkalemia can occur to a degree sufficient to cause cardiac arrhythmias. Renal function can decline sufficiently enough to cause acute renal failure. Risk factors for all of these effects have been identified, allowing prospective identification of patients at risk with institution of appropriate precautionary measure. All NSAIDs seem to share these adverse effects. Preliminary data from cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors suggest that they also affect renal prostaglandins. Therefore, the same cautions should be exercised with their use as with traditional NSAIDs.
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For stride length (expressed as a relative percentage increase from control values), the median effective dose (ED50) was 0.120 mg/kg for an Emax of 11.15%. For clinical lameness score (expressed as an absolute increase from the control value), the ED50 was 0.265 mg/kg for an Emax of 9.16 units. The PK-PD analysis allowed calculation of a median effective concentration of 130 ng/mL for stride length and 195 ng/mL for lameness score. Use of the Emax model predicted a maximal possible increase in effect of 19.5% for stride length and 13.91 units for lameness score. For stride length and lameness score, the Hill coefficient (slope) was extremely high, which suggested a steep dose-effect relationship.
Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric stability-indicating methods have been developed for the determination of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory oxicam derivatives namely lornoxicam (Lx), tenoxicam (Tx) and meloxicam (Mx) after their complete alkaline hydrolysis. The methods are based on derivatization of alkaline hydrolytic products with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). The products showed an absorption maximum at 460 nm for the three studied drugs and fluorescence emission peak at 535 nm in methanol. The color was stable for at least 48 h. The optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated and it was found that the reaction proceeds quantitatively at pH 8, after heating in a boiling water bath for 30 min. The methods were found to be linear in the ranges of 1-10 microg ml(-1) for Lx and Tx and 0.5-4.0 microg ml(-1) for Mx for spectrophotometric method, while 0.05-1.0 microg ml(-1) for Lx and Tx and 0.025-0.4 microg ml(-1) for Mx for the spectrofluorimetric method. The validity of the methods was assessed according to USP guidelines. Statistical analysis of the results revealed high accuracy and good precision. The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of the above mentioned drugs in pure and dosage forms as well as in the presence of their degradation products.
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This study was aimed at investigating the antifibrotic effect of meloxicam in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and elucidating its underlying mechanism. Forty male rats were equally randomized for 8-week treatment with corn oil (negative control), CCl4 (to induce liver fibrosis), and/or meloxicam. Meloxicam effectively ameliorated the CCl4-induced alterations in liver histology, liver weight to body weight ratio, liver functions, and serum markers for liver fibrosis (hyaluronic acid, laminin, and PCIII). Meloxicam significantly abrogated CCl4-induced elevation of messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions for collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hepatic contents of hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases (TIMP-1). Meloxicam mitigated CCl4-induced elevation in hepatic levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), total nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-l beta (IL 1β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Meloxicam modulated CCl4-induced disturbance of liver cytochrome P450 subfamily 2E1 (CYP2E1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The attenuation of meloxicam to liver fibrosis was associated with suppression of oxidative stress via reduction of lipid peroxides along with induction of reduced glutathione content and enhancement of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities. This study provides an evidence for antifibrotic effect of meloxicam against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rat. The antifibrotic mechanism of meloxicam could be through decreasing NF-κB level and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, NO, IL-1 beta, and PGE2) and, hence, collagen deposition through inhibition of TIMP-1 and TGF-β. Abrogation of oxidative stress and modulation of liver-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2E1 and GST) were also involved.
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been shown to exert inhibitory effects on many types of malignant tumors and several groups have suggested that COX-2 inhibitors enhance the cytotoxic effects of other anti-cancer agents. We previously reported that meloxicam has an anti-tumorigenic effect on COX-2-expressing osteosarcoma cells. In the current study, we evaluated the synergy between meloxicam and cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (DXR) and 4-hydroperoxy ifosfamide (4OOH-IFM), using the human osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. Cytotoxicity was determined using 3-(4,5'-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5'-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and isobolographic analysis was used to evaluate any synergy. Apoptotic activity was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and by evaluating Bax and Bcl-2 expression levels using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Cell cycling was evaluated by flow cytometry. The cytotoxic effects of CDDP and DXR were enhanced synergistically in the presence of meloxicam and were partially due to an increase in apoptosis. By contrast, meloxicam enhanced neither the cytotoxic nor the apoptotic activity of 4OOH-IFM. Combining meloxicam with DXR significantly up-regulated Bax expression, whereas it down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in combination with CDDP. Furthermore, the number of cells in the G2/M phase was significantly increased in DXR-treated samples by the addition of meloxicam, but not in CDDP-treated or 4OOH-IFM-treated samples. These results suggest a potential clinical application of meloxicam in combination with cytotoxic drugs in patients with COX-2-positive osteosarcoma.
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We found 19 eligible studies out of 2,422 reports. Meloxicam demonstrated a low increase in composite risk (OR' 1.14; CI 1.04-1.25) which was mainly vascular in nature (OR' 1.35; CI 1.18-1.55] as it did not elevate myocardial (OR' 1.13; CI 0.98-1.32) or renal (OR', 0.99; CI 0.72-1.35) risks. Relative to meloxicam, other NSAIDs increased the composite risk, in a dose-dependent fashion, in the following order: rofecoxib > indomethacin > diclofenac > celecoxib > naproxen > ibuprofen. OR' was also influenced by type of disease and the comparator used, and acetylsalicylic acid.
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Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned to use area under the "pain relief versus time" curve to derive the proportion of participants with meloxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations; to use number needed to treat to benefit (NNT); the proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period; time to use of rescue analgesia; information on adverse events and withdrawals.
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We measured COX-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in rat lung with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide, and observed changes of prostaglandins (PGs), PaO2 and histopathology.
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Membrane fusion, an integral event in several biological processes, is characterized by several intermediate steps guided by specific energy barriers. Hence, it requires the aid of fusogens to complete the process. Common fusogens, such as proteins/peptides, have the ability to overcome theses barriers by their conformational reorganization, an advantage not shared by small drug molecules. Hence, drug induced fusion at physiologically relevant drug concentrations is rare and occurs only in the case of the oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To use drugs to induce and control membrane fusion in various biochemical processes requires the understanding of how different parameters modulate fusion. Also, fusion efficacy needs to be enhanced. Here we have synthesized and used Cu(II) complexes of fusogenic oxicam NSAIDs, Meloxicam and Piroxicam, to induce fusion in model membranes monitored by using DSC, TEM, steady-state, and time-resolved spectroscopy. The ability of the complexes to anchor apposing model membranes to initiate/facilitate fusion has been demonstrated. This results in better fusion efficacy compared to the bare drugs. These complexes can take the fusion to its final step. Unlike other designed membrane anchors, the role of molecular recognition and strength of interaction between molecular partners is obliterated for these preformed Cu(II)-NSAIDs.
Meloxicam 15 and 7.5 mg daily was administered for 21 days in this double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. 159 patients received meloxicam 7.5 mg, 162 received meloxicam 15 mg, and 147 received placebo.
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These findings suggest that SP contributes to the pain and inflammation associated with CTS. Further studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of SP receptor (NK1R) antagonists in CTS.
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64 female and 74 male cats that were 4 to 192 months old and weighed 1.09 to 705 kg (2.4 to 15.5 lb).
To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous (IV) lidocaine, meloxicam, and their combination in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.