Doxazosin XL may be an effective alternative to prazosin for the treatment of some PTSD symptoms.
Employing a two-lever, food-reinforced FR10 procedure, rats were trained to recognize a discriminative stimulus (DS) elicited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist and potential antipsychotic agent, MDL100,907 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.). In generalization tests, by analogy to MDL100,907 itself (Effective Dose(50) (ED(50)), 0.002 mg/kg, s.c.), the 'atypical' antipsychotic, clozapine, which displays high affinity for 5-HT(2A) as compared to D(2) receptors, dose-dependently and fully generalized to MDL100,907 (ED(50), 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). S16924 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.), S18327 (0.09 mg/kg, s.c.), quetiapine (1.8 mg/kg, s.c.), risperidone (0.02 mg/kg, s.c.) and ziprasidone (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.), antipsychotics which possess-like clozapine-marked affinity for 5-HT(2A) versus D(2) receptors, also generalized to MDL100,907. In distinction, raclopride, an antipsychotic which selectively interacts with D(2) versus 5-HT(2A) receptors, did not display significant generalization. Interestingly, haloperidol, which shows only modest affinity for 5-HT(2A) versus D(2) sites, generalized to MDL100,907 (ED(50), 0.02 mg/kg, s.c.). In light of the antagonist properties of haloperidol, clozapine and all other antipsychotics tested (except raclopride) at alpha(1)-adrenoceptors (ARs), the selective alpha(1)-AR antagonists, prazosin and WB4101, were examined. Both dose-dependently and fully generalized to MDL100,907 (ED(50)s, 0.07 and 0.11 mg/kg, s.c., respectively). At doses showing pronounced generalization to MDL100,907, the only drugs which significantly suppressed response rates were haloperidol and, weakly, quetiapine. Raclopride also markedly decreased response rates. In conclusion, the antipsychotic agents, clozapine, ziprasidone, risperidone, S16924, S18327, quetiapine and haloperidol, all generalized to a DS elicited by MDL100,907. While D(2) receptors are not implicated in their actions, in addition to antagonist properties at 5-HT(2A) receptors, blockade of alpha(1)-ARs and other, as yet unidentified, mechanisms may be involved. These data underpin interest in MDL100,907 as a potential antipsychotic agent.
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Adrenergic receptor binding characteristics were analyzed in the mutant mouse tottering (tg/tg), a single gene locus autosomal recessive mutation causing hyperinnervation by locus coeruleus neurons of their target regions, which results in epilepsy. Instead of the expected down-regulation of receptors due to the hyperinnervation, both [3H]prazosin (alpha 1-receptor) and [125I]iodopindolol (beta-receptor) binding were normal in the tg/tg hippocampus, spinal cord and slightly increased in the cerebellum. This lack of postsynaptic receptor modulation in the target cells, combined with increased levels of norepinephrine due to the aberrant axon growth, may the critical factors in the expression of the abnormal spike-wave absence seizures in the tg/tg mouse.
The effects of peptidoleukotrienes (LTs) on electrically driven guinea pig left atria (GPLA) were investigated. LTD4 produced a positive inotropic response; however, rapid desensitization required the construction of noncumulative dose-response curves to naive tissues. The maximal inotropic response to LTD4 was 24 +/- 3% of isoproterenol and the EC50 = 267 +/- 77 nM. The functional response was corroborated by the demonstration of specific and rapid [3H]LTD4 binding to GPLA membranes with low affinity (Kd = 212 +/- 80.2 nM), in a saturable (Bmax = 20 +/- 1.1 pmol/mg protein) manner. In tissues pretreated with acivicin, which inhibits conversion of LTC4 to LTD4, the response to LTC4, but not LTD4, was abolished. Selectivity towards LTD4 was demonstrated by the inability of propranolol, prazosin, atropine, pyrilamine, capsaicin or indomethacin (all tested at 1 microM) to alter the functional response to LTD4. Similarly, none of the tested compounds (100 microMs) was inhibitory in the binding assay. Structurally diverse LTD4 antagonists SKF102922 (pKb = 6.42) and ICI 198.615 (pKb = 8.74) were able to inhibit the functional response as well as [3H]LTD4 binding to GPLA membranes. The calcium channel antagonist, verapamil, inhibited the functional response but did not alter [3H]LTD4 binding. These data support the existence of specific LTD4 receptors in GPLA which evoke a modest, rapidly desensitized, increase in the force of myocardial contraction.
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The effects of alpha-adrenoceptors agents on seizures induced by intraperitoneal administration of lidocaine (75 mg/kg) were studied in mice. Pretreatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, tizanidine, decreased the incidence of seizures induced by lidocaine. Tizanidine increased the latency to the first seizure in those animals which progressed to seizures. The blockade of alpha 2-adrenoceptors with yohimbine or phentolamine counteracted the protection induced by tizanidine. The selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, did not modify the protection induced by tizanidine. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine also increased the latency to the first seizure induced by lidocaine. The protective effect of clonidine was also reversed by pretreatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Taken together, these results suggest that alpha 2-adrenoceptors are involved in seizures induced by lidocaine.
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The present study was aimed at investigating in rats whether a common mechanism might underlie the reversal of depressive-like behaviors by classical antidepressants and by GABA agonists such as muscimol. Blockade of GABA transmission with picrotoxin (1 mg/kg IP) abolished the muscimol (0.5-1 mg/kg)-induced reduction of immobility in the swimming test and the reversal of escape failures in the learned helplessness paradigm. Conversely, picrotoxin was found not to reduce the efficacy of imipramine-like drugs in these same animal models. The combination of muscimol and tricyclics given at subeffective doses resulted in behavioral changes that can be accounted for by an additive interaction between these two classes of drugs. These data confirm the antidepressant-like profile of GABA agonists but suggest that it is unlikely that the primary antidepressant mechanism of conventional antidepressants involves GABA-A receptors. In the swimming test, prazosin (2 mg/kg), an alpha adrenoceptor blocker, antagonized the reduction of immobility produced by both muscimol and imipramine-like drugs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, penbutolol (0.25-0.5 mg/kg) and, though to a lesser extent prazosin, counter-acted the reversal of escape failures caused by muscimol and imipramine. On the basis of these data, it is tempting to speculate that increased transmitter outflow at noradrenergic receptors may be an essential component in the mechanism of action of imipramine-like drugs but also of GABA agonists.
This randomized, open-label, 2-sequence, 2-period crossover study was conducted at the Urological Clinic, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center, Taman, Taiwan. Men newly diagnosed with symptomatic BPH who had not previously received treatment for BPH were recruited between August 2002 and April 2006. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment sequences. Group A received generic terazosin during period 1 (6 weeks) and branded terazosin in period 2 (6 weeks); group B received the branded drug during period 1 and the generic during period 2. The 2 study periods were separated by a 1-week washout period. All treatments were given by mouth once daily (bedtime) at an initial dosage of 2 mg/d for the first 2 weeks. At the week-2 study visit in each treatment period, the dosage could be increased to 4 mg/d or decreased to 1 mg/d based on each patient's response and experience of adverse effects (AEs), based on the opinion of the investigator. Efficacy variables included the total score on the International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS), a 7-item instrument used to assess objective lower urinary tract symptoms, including quality of life. IPSS was measured at baseline and weeks 2 and 6 of each treatment period, and maximal and mean uroflow rates, measured at baseline and week 6. Tolerability was assessed at each time point using physical examination, including vital signs; laboratory analysis; and spontaneous reporting.
Knowledge about the noradrenergic system in birds is very scarce even though their biological diversity and complex social behavior make them an excellent model for studying neuronal functions and developmental biology. While the role of norepinephrine has been described in depth in a large number of central and peripheral functions in mammals, reports for avian species are limited. The radioligand [(3)H]RX 821002 ([(3)H]1,4-[6,7(n)3H]-benzodioxan-2-methoxy-2-yl)-2-imidazol) has been used to map and characterize alpha(2)-adrenoceptors through the chicken brain using in vitro autoradiography and membrane homogenates binding assays. [(3)H]RX 821002 showed a saturable and high affinity binding to a site compatible with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor, and to a serotonergic component. The autoradiographic assays displayed a similar alpha(2)-adrenoceptor distribution than those previously reported in birds using other radioligands such as [(3)H]UK 14304 ([(3)H]5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine) or [(3)H]clonidine. [(3)H]RX 821002 binding pharmacological characterization was carried out in different chicken brain regions using membrane homogenates for competition assays with different alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists drugs (oxymetazoline, BRL 44408 [2-(2H-(1-methyl-1,3-dihydroisoindole)methyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole] ARC 239 [2-(2-4-(O-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,3-(2H,4H)-isoquinolindione], prazosin, UK 14304 and RX 821002). The results showed alpha(2A) as the predominant alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtype in the chicken brain while alpha(2B)- and/or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor subtypes were detected only in the telencephalon. RX 821002, serotonin (5-HT) and 8-OH-DPAT [8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin] competition assays, and competition binding assays performed in the presence of serotonin demonstrated that [(3)H]RX 821002 binds with higher affinity to a serotonergic component, probably 5-HT(1A) receptors, than to the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Similar pharmacological properties for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor component were observed both in rat and chicken brain. The results demonstrate that the different alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes are present in chicken brain and suggest that these receptors are highly conserved through evolution.
Treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) represents a major clinical challenge in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Agitation and aggression are frequently seen during institutionalization and increase patient morbidity and mortality and caregiver burden. Off-label use of atypical antipsychotics for treating agitation in AD showed only modest clinical benefits, with high side-effect burden and risk of mortality. Non-pharmacological treatment approaches have become the preferred first-line option. When such treatment fails, pharmacological options are often used. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify effective and safe pharmacological treatments for efficiently treating agitation and aggression in AD and dementia.
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Hyponatremia is a serious complication of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use. We investigated potential mechanisms in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In Study 1, healthy drug-experienced volunteers received MDMA or placebo alone and in combination with the alpha-1 adrenergic inverse agonist prazosin, used as a positive control to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In Study 2, volunteers received MDMA or placebo followed by standardized water intake. MDMA lowered serum sodium but did not increase ADH or copeptin, although the control prazosin did increase ADH. Water loading reduced serum sodium more after MDMA than after placebo. There was a trend for women to have lower baseline serum sodium than men, but there were no significant interactions with drug condition. Combining studies, MDMA potentiated the ability of water to lower serum sodium. Thus, hyponatremia appears to be a significant risk when hypotonic fluids are consumed during MDMA use. Clinical trials and events where MDMA use is common should anticipate and mitigate this risk.
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We analyzed a retrospective cohort from an administrative claims database from January 2004 through December 2010.
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We hypothesized that pacing-induced congestive heart failure alters alpha-adrenergic constriction in intrapulmonary bronchial arteries. Cumulative dose responses to norepinephrine (NE), phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were determined in pressurized vessel segments. ED(50) values for NE and PE were higher for control (-5.34 +/- 0.09 and -4.27 +/- 0.08 M, respectively) vs. paced (-5.73 +/- 0.10 and -5.06 +/- 0.28 M, respectively) groups. Prazosin increased the ED(50) values for NE and PE in both control and paced groups. Yohimbine decreased NE ED(50) in the control group only. Endothelium removal or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition decreased control but not paced NE ED(50). Maximum vasodilation and sensitivity (i.e., -ED(50) values) were decreased for ACh but were similar for SNP in paced vs. control groups. Secondary segments were more reactive than paired primary segments in both groups, although pacing effects on ED(50) were unrelated to branching order. In conclusion, adrenergic constriction of canine intrapulmonary bronchial arteries is predominantly mediated via alpha(1)-adrenoreceptors and is enhanced after pacing. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) normally opposes alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction but not after pacing in this vasculature.
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We studied the effects of adrenoceptor antagonists and imidazoline derivatives on endogenous adrenaline-induced inhibition of insulin release in anesthetized rats. The intracerebroventricular injection of neostigmine increased plasma levels of catecholamines and glucose but not insulin. Pretreatment with an i.p. injection with phentolamine caused a dose-dependent increase in insulin secretion. When atropine was coadministered with phentolamine, the phentolamine-induced increase in insulin secretion was inhibited. Neither phentolamine nor atropine affected plasma levels of catecholamine. Yohimbine and idazoxan, which are alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, and tolazoline, a non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, also reversed adrenaline-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. Phenoxybenzamine, prazosin, propranolol, and antazoline, an imidazoline without alpha 2-adrenoceptor activity, did not affect insulin levels. When agents were preinjected i.p. in rats that were given saline into the third cerebral ventricle, phentolamine and antazoline, but not yohimbine and idazoxan, increased plasma levels of insulin. The results suggest that the inhibition of insulin release induced by adrenaline was reversed by antagonism of alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Phentolamine and antazoline, both of which are imidazoline derivatives, induced insulin secretion independently of the adrenoceptors only under the resting conditions.
In the present study we have characterized the hypothermic effect of the psychoactive cannabinoid HU-210, by investigating its interaction with the endogenous pyrogens, IL-1 and PGE2. We also studied the involvement of the adrenergic system in mediation of this hypothermic effect. Injection of HU-210 directly into the preoptic area caused a dose dependent reduction of rectal temperature from 37 to 32.1 degrees C. Injection of the non-psychoactive analog, HU-211 which does not bind to brain cannabinoid receptor, did not affect body temperature. Injection of the adrenergic agonists, CGP-12177 and clonidine (beta, and alpha adrenergic agonists, respectively) abrogated the hypothermia induced by HU-210. Injection of the adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1) and propranolol (beta) enhanced the hypothermic effect of HU-210. Intracerebral administration of IL-1 or PGE2 to rats pretreated with HU-210 caused a transient inhibition of the hypothermia. The ex vivo rate of basal or bacterial endotoxin-induced synthesis of PGE2 by different brain regions, including the preoptic area was not affected by HU-210 administration. These results suggest that the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 acts in the preoptic area, probably via the brain cannabinoid receptor to induce hypothermia. The hypothermic effect can be antagonized by adrenergic agonists and enhanced by adrenergic antagonists. HU-210 does not interfere with the pyrogenic effect of IL-1 or PGE2.
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Recently published studies have suggested that behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors are potentiated by coadministration of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. The potentiating effect is hypothesized to be due to antagonism of somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. In the present study the effects of concomitant administration of a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) cyclo-hexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635) or a beta-adrenoceptor and 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist (pindolol or (-)-penbutolol) were studied in isolated aggressive mice. WAY 100635 was inactive, but high doses of WAY 100635 produced a marked anti-aggressive effect when combined with a non-effective dose of citalopram or paroxetine. Low doses of pindolol, but not (-)-penbutolol, produced a minor but significant anti-aggressive effect in combination with citalopram or paroxetine. High doses of pindolol or (-)-penbutolol inhibited aggressive behavior, an effect which was reversed by citalopram or paroxetine. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, metoprolol, but not the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, facilitated the anti aggressive effect of citalopram. The significance of these findings is discussed relative to the above hypothesis.
In this work we studied the possible interaction between cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic) and adrenergic (alpha 1- and beta-adrenergic) pathways of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus on the regulation of arterial pressure and heart rate in conscious normotensive rats. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded in rats with cerebral chronic stainless steel cannulae implanted directly into the ventromedial nucleus. The changes in arterial pressure and heart rate produced by the injection of the cholinergic agonist (carbachol or nicotine) into the ventromedial nucleus were studied before and after the injection of prazosin (an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) or propranolol (a beta-adrenergic antagonist) into this same area. The injection of carbachol (2 nmol) or nicotine (40 mmol) into the ventromedial nucleus induced pressor and tachycardia responses. Previous treatment with prazosin or propranolol blocked the pressor response to carbachol and nicotine. Propranolol also abolished the tachycardic response to carbachol or nicotine, but prazosin reduced only the tachycardia produced by carbachol into the ventromedial nucleus. These results show an interaction between cholinergic and adrenergic pathways of the ventromedial nucleus affecting cardiovascular regulation and suggest that the alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors of this nucleus are involved in these responses.
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5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates the rate and force of cardiac contraction. However, the molecular mechanisms of 5-HT actions on the heart are unknown. We examined effects of 5-HT on phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and its regulation in cultured fetal mouse ventricular myocytes labeled with [3H]inositol. Accumulation of inositol monophosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and inositol trisphosphate was assessed after stimulation with 5-HT, catecholamines, and AlF4-. Inositol bisphosphate and trisphosphate reached a peak at 15 minutes by 5-HT stimulation and at 30 minutes by AlF4- stimulation. Inositol monophosphate accumulated linearly for at least 30 minutes in the presence of LiCl. The 5-HT effect was dose dependent, and the threshold concentration was 0.1 microM with the half-maximum effective concentration of 1 microM. Ketanserin in nanomolar concentrations inhibited the phospholipase C reaction by 100 microM 5-HT with the half-maximum inhibitory concentration of 0.5 nM. Pertussis toxin (100-1,000 ng/ml) did not influence the phospholipase C reaction by 5-HT, but it partially inhibited the reaction by AlF4-. Protein kinase C-activating phorbol esters like 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, but not 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, which is inactive for protein kinase C, completely inhibited the reaction by 5-HT; TPA showed 30% inhibition on the reaction by AlF4-. The magnitude of accumulated inositol phosphates by AlF4- was at least several times greater than that by 5-HT. Norepinephrine- and epinephrine-stimulated phospholipase C reactions were completely abolished by prazosin. These results suggest that 5-HT directly stimulates phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoinositides through 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 (5-HT2) receptors in the ventricular myocytes and that this reaction is negatively regulated by protein kinase C. 5-HT2 receptors may be coupled to phospholipase C via a pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP-binding protein in the myocytes.
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Using radioligand binding techniques we studied whether alpha 1a- and alpha 1b-adrenoceptor recognition sites can be regulated independently by drugs and hormones. In rat cerebral cortex subchronic treatment with reserpine enhanced the number of [3H]-prazosin binding sites and the proportion of alpha 1b binding sites. Desipramine treatment which did not alter Bmax values, increased the proportion of alpha 1a and decreased alpha 1b binding sites. In rat myocardium hypothyroidism decreased alpha 1b-adrenoceptor binding sites. These results suggest that alpha 1-adrenoceptors are regulated in a subtype-selective manner.
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35% of patients were responsive (BP<130/85 mmHg) to add-on treatment with doxazosin (CI 90%: 30.3%-40.4%; P<0.05, stat. an. intention to treat). During the run-in phase with placebo, mean SBP/DBP (+/-SD) decreased from 155.6+/-13.2/91.8+/-6.8 mmHg (Week -3) to 151.9+/-12.9/90.1+/-7.2 mmHg (Week -1) and to 151.2+/-11.5/90.1+/-6.9 mmHg (Week 0). During add-on treatment with doxazosin, mean SBP/DBP (+/-SD) further decreased to 144.9+/-15.2/86.3+/-8.3 mmHg (Week 4), 139.7+/-15.3/83.4+/-7.9 mmHg (Week 8), 135.5+/-14.3/81.7+/-7.6 mmHg (Week 12) and 136.4+/-14.5/81.0+/-7.0 mmHg (Week 16). Overall, mean BP changes reached a plateau of about -15 mmHg (SBP) and -9 mmHg (DBP) after 16 weeks of treatment; at each visit the mean decreases from baseline were statistically significant. The following mean values of metabolic parameters were reduced during the study: fasting plasma glucose (-4.1mg/dl; -2.8%), fasting insulin (-2 microU/ml; -12.3%; P<0.05), glycated hemoglobin (-0.12%; -1.7%), HOMA-R (-1.03; -18.2%; P<0.05), total cholesterol (-1.85 mg/dl; -1.1%), LDL cholesterol (-1.35 mg/dl; -0.8%) and triglycerides (-5.64 mg/dl; -2.4%); mean HDL cholesterol increased (+1.79 mg/dl; +3.9%; P<0.01). At the end of study treatment, the percentage of patients with lab values returned within normal ranges, in comparison with basal values, was statistically significant (P<0.05) for the following parameters: fasting plasma glucose (6.3%), fasting insulin (7.5%), LDL cholesterol (6.0%). Ten-year CHD risk (+/-SD) decreased from 16.4+/-7.8% to 13.6+/-7.4% (final vs. basal: -2.87+/-3.9; -17%; P<0.01). Six patients (2.3%) reported 8 adverse drug reactions: dizziness (3), edema (2), headache (2), asthenia (1). In one out of these 6 patients, in whom doxazosin was associated to the ACE inhibitor quinapril, adverse reaction (peripheral edema) led to treatment withdrawal.
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1. The effectiveness of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation was compared at different levels of the saphenous and cephalic vein of the dog in vitro. 2. Helically cut strips were used to determine concentration-response curves to phenylephrine, noradrenaline, UK-14,304 (5-bromo-6-(imidazoline-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline) and B-HT 920 (2-amino-6-allyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-4H-(thiazo)-4,5-d-azepine). The effect of prazosin and yohimbine on these curves was also studied. 3. At the distal level, the maximum response to UK-14,304 amounted to 33 and 50% of those to noradrenaline in the saphenous and cephalic vein, respectively, while at the proximal level the maximum response to UK-14,304 amounted to 72 and 78% of those to noradrenaline, in the saphenous and cephalic vein, respectively. 4. In both vessels, the results obtained with B-HT 920 were very similar to those for UK-14,304. 5. The pD2 values for UK-14,304 - which were identical at the three levels of both vessels - and the pA2 values for the antagonism exerted by either prazosin or yohimbine against the responses to UK-14,304 indicate that the alpha 2-adrenoceptors are identical at the different levels of both vessels. 6. These results show that the effectiveness of alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation increases from the distal to the proximal regions of canine limb veins. Apparently, this is due to a greater density of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the proximal regions. 7. Yohimbine is much more potent against phenylephrine distally than proximally in both vessels. However, after 30 nm phenoxybenzamine - a concentration which eliminates the vast majority of alpha,-adrenoceptors without affecting alpha 2-adrenoceptors - yohimbine became equally potent at both levels, suggesting that the difference existing before phenoxybenzamine depended on alpha,-adrenoceptors. Hence it is concluded that alpha,-adrenoceptors in distal and proximal portions may differ.
In human kidney, we found unique prazosin-binding sites that were insensitive to phentolamine and were thus unlikely to be alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. As the binding of [(3)H]prazosin to phentolamine-insensitive sites was prevented by 100 microM guanabenz, the insensitive sites were evaluated by subtracting [(3)H]prazosin binding in the presence of 100 microM guanabenz from that in the presence of 10 microM phentolamine. [(3)H]Prazosin bound to the phentolamine-insensitive sites monophasically with a high affinity (pK(d); 9.1+/-0.08, n=8), and the B(max) value (814+/-204 fmol mg(-1) protein, n=8) was more than ten times that of the phentolamine-sensitive alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (pK(d)=9.9+/-0.13, B(max)=66+/-23 fmol mg(-1) protein, n=7). The phentolamine-insensitive sites in human kidney were highly sensitive to other quinazoline derivatives such as terazosin and doxazosin. However, other alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists (tamsulosin, WB4101 and corynanthine) did not inhibit the binding at a range of concentrations that generally exhibit alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism, and noradrenaline, rauwolscine and propranolol were without effect on the [(3)H]prazosin binding. On the other hand, ligands for the renal Na(+)-transporter (amiloride and triamterene) and for imidazoline recognition sites (guanabenz, guanfacine and agmatine) displaced the binding of [(3)H]prazosin to phentolamine-insensitive sites at micromolar concentrations. Photoaffinity labeling with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin showed phentolamine-insensitive labeling at around 100 kDa, a molecular size larger than that of human alpha(1a)- and alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors expressed in 293 cells (50-60 and 70-80 kDa, respectively) on electrophoresis. In contrast, there was no detectable phentolamine-insensitive binding site but were phentolamine-sensitive alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in human liver (pK(d)=10.0+/-0.06, B(max)=44+/-6 fmol mg(-1) protein, n=3). Phentolamine-insensitive prazosin binding sites were also detected in rabbit kidney (approximately 50% of specific binding sites) but were minor in rat kidney (less than 20%). In conclusion, there are unique prazosin-binding sites in human kidney, the pharmacological profiles of which were distinct from those of known adrenoceptors.
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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction are common in aging men. Nearly 25% of men >40 years of age have LUTS. Medical therapy with alpha-blockade is the most common method of medical therapy for benign prostatic obstruction. Multiple methods of minimally invasive surgical therapies have been introduced in the last decade. These methods include balloon dilatation, temporary and permanent urethral stents, various laser techniques, microwave thermotherapy, transurethral needle ablation, electrovaporization, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. alpha-Receptor blockers to reduce the sympathetic tone of the prostate are considered as first-line therapy to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selective alpha(1)-receptor blockers relax prostatic smooth muscle, relieve bladder outlet obstruction, and enhance urine flow with fewer side effects. In addition, it was determined that treating patients with alpha-blockers increases prostatic apoptosis. Pharmacokinetic activity, mode of action, clinical efficacy, and side effects of the selective alpha(1)-receptor blockers terazosin, doxazosin, and prazosin are reviewed.
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The present study investigates the role of the two putative amine transmitters (norepinephrine and serotonin) in mediating the facilitatory action following locus coeruleus (LC) stimulation on hindlimb flexor and extensor monosynaptic reflexes (MSRs) in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. When administered sequentially, in either order, methysergide (a serotonergic blocker) and prazosin (an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker) were observed to cause subtotal, decremental changes in the potentiation of gastrocnemius-soleus and common peroneal MSRs by stimuli applied in the LC. These changes were determined to be independent of the blood pressure changes induced by the aminergic blockers. These results support the hypothesis that the facilitation of the group Ia reflex transmission in cat spinal cord by stimulation of LC is mediated in part by alpha 1-noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms.
1. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of intravenous and oral doxazosin were investigated in 6 normotensive volunteers. 2. The pharmacokinetics of i.v. and oral doxazosin were fitted simultaneously and independently. The parameters derived were in good agreement with a mean elimination half-life of 539 +/- 75 min, bioavailability of 0.65 +/- 0.11 and clearance of 140 +/- 26 ml/min. 3. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling indicated that the sensitivities to oral and i.v. doxazosin in individual subjects were in good agreement. 4. Based on these findings it is unlikely that doxazosin metabolites contribute significantly to the pharmacodynamic profile of doxazosin.
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1. The effects of intravenous captopril and enalaprilic acid on the increase in pulmonary inflation pressure induced by different bronchoconstrictor agents were evaluated in the anaesthetized guinea-pig. 2. Captopril and enalaprilic acid (1.6-200 micrograms kg-1) enhanced dose-dependently the bronchoconstriction (BC) induced by substance P. The threshold effective dose was 1.6 micrograms kg-1 and maximal potentiation over the control response was more than 400% for both agents. Enalaprilic acid was also assayed for serum and lung angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. This drug produced a dose-dependent inhibition of ACE in both tissues, with ED50 s of 7.6 and 9.4 micrograms kg-1, respectively: this inhibitory activity was positively correlated to substance P potentiation. 3. Captopril (8-1000 micrograms kg-1) enhanced dose-dependently the BC induced by capsaicin. The threshold effective dose was 40 micrograms kg-1 and maximal potentiation about 90%. 4. Captopril (200-1000 micrograms kg-1) did not affect BC induced by bradykinin. However, this response was markedly enhanced (about 200%) by captopril 200 micrograms kg-1 in propranolol-pretreated animals. 5. Captopril and enalaprilic acid (200-1000 micrograms kg-1) slightly (20-40%) but significantly enhanced the BC induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. However, this response was potentiated to the same extent by a dose of prazosin, which produced a degree of hypotension similar to that observed after administration of the ACE inhibitors. 6. In conclusion, ACE inhibitors potentiate the BC induced by substance P and, to a minor extent, that induced by capsaicin in the anaesthetized guinea-pig. Potentiation of substance P is well correlated with ACE inhibition in guinea-pig serum and lungs. These experimental results may offer a mechanistic interpretation of cough and bronchial hyperreactivity observed in patients receiving treatment with ACE inhibitors.
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[(3)H]Prazosin bound to alpha(1A)- and alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors, as well as to a cimetidine-sensitive non-alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding site in rat kidney membranes. An experimental design is presented where the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors are selectively exposed by blocking the non-alpha(1) binding site with 60 microM cimetidine. Conversely, the non-alpha(1) binding site can be selectively exposed by blocking the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors with 600 nM metitepine. The identity of the non-alpha(1) binding site for [(3)H]prazosin in the rat kidney, herein pharmacologically characterized by 33 competing substances, is still unknown.
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Systemic administrations (0.1, 0.5, and 2 mg/kg) of alpha1-adrenoreceptor (AR) antagonist prazosin dose-dependently attenuated cold allodynia in a rat tail model of neuropathic pain, whereas alpha2-AR antagonist yohimbine exacerbated it. These results suggest that the functions of alpha1- and alpha2-AR in this model are excitatory and inhibitory, respectively, consistent with their general properties. It is also proposed that cold allodynia can be reversed by alpha1-AR antagonist and exacerbated by alpha2-AR antagonist.
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This study was performed to examine whether an alpha 1-constrictor tone, which limits coronary functional hyperemia during exercise, imposes a significant limitation on global cardiac performance as determined by cardiac output (CO). Seven dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure (LVP), maximum rate of rise of LVP (dP/dtmax), heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (AoP), circumflex blood flow velocity (CFV), and CO at rest and during submaximal exercise. Either the selective alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazo (0.5 mg) or the vasodilator adenosine was administered into the circumflex artery during exercise at 6.4 kilometers per hour (kph)/16% treadmill incline. Exercise caused significant increase in mean AoP, HR, LVP, dP/dtmax, CFV, stroke volume (SV), and CO, whereas systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was significantly reduced. After intracoronary alpha 1-blockade with prazosin, CFV, dP/dtmax, SV, and CO increased further (17 +/- 2, 19 +/- 3, 16 +/- 2, and 17 +/- 2%, respectively) without changing mean AoP, HR, or SVR. Comparable increases were observed when CFV was increased by a similar degree using the direct vasodilator adenosine. These results indicate that increasing coronary flow by removing a coronary alpha 1-constrictor tone with prazosin or by direct vasodilation with adenosine during submaximal exercise leads to an increase in myocardial oxygen supply and, as a result, cardiac pump performance (SV and CO).