Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Glyburide.
Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Generic Micronase is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicine. It works by causing the pancreas to release insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar.
Brand name of Generic Micronase is Micronase.
Take Generic Micronase by mouth with food.
If you are taking 1 dose daily, take Generic Micronase with breakfast or the first main meal of the day unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
High amounts of dietary fiber may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar.
Generic Micronase works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
Continue to take Generic Micronase even if you feel well.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Micronase and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Micronase are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are allergic to Generic Micronase components.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Micronase can ham your baby.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma).
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have moderate to severe burns or very high blood acid levels (acidosis) you are taking bosentan.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, itching, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to any other sulfonamide medicine, such as acetazolamide, celecoxib, certain diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), glipizide, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, valdecoxib, or zonisamide.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of liver, kidney, thyroid, or heart problems.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have stomach or bowel problems (eg, stomach or bowel blockage, stomach paralysis), drink alcohol, or have had poor nutrition.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have type 1 diabetes, very poor health, a high fever, a severe infection, severe diarrhea, or high blood acid levels, or have had a severe injury.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of certain hormonal problems (eg, adrenal or pituitary problems, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [SIADH]), low blood sodium levels, anemia, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you will be having surgery.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan because liver problems may occur; the effectiveness of both medicines may be decreased; beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; they may also hide certain signs of low blood sugar and make it more difficult to notice; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), azole antifungals (eg, miconazole, ketoconazole), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clofibrate, fenfluramine, insulin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), phenylbutazone, probenecid, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), salicylates (eg, aspirin), or sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine), diazoxide, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogens, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, niacin, phenothiazines (eg, promethazine), phenytoin, rifamycins (eg, rifampin), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), or thyroid supplements (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar; gemfibrozil because blood sugar may be increased or decreased; cyclosporine because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Generic Micronase.
Do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
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ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels were reported to be involved in morphine analgesia in vivo. The present study, using patch-clamp technique in brain slices of neonatal (P12-P16) and adult rats, investigated cellular actions of K(ATP) channel ligands and their interactions with morphine in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG), a crucial site for morphine analgesia. In neonatal PAG neurons, morphine depressed evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in almost all tested neurons and elicited an inwardly rectifying K+ current in one-third of tested neurons. Glibenclamide (1-10 microM), a K(ATP) channel blocker, did not affect the membrane current or synaptic current per se but also failed to affect the effects of morphine. No outward current was elicited upon using microelectrodes containing ATP-free internal solution. In adult neurons, morphine, at the concentration up to 300 microM, failed to activate K+ current in all 25 neurons tested but depressed IPSCs to a comparable extent as that in neonatal neurons. Glibenclamide also failed to alter the effect of morphine in adult neurons. The openers of K(ATP) channels, lemakalim (10-30 microM) and diazoxide (10-500 microM), unlike morphine, did not increase membrane currents in both neonatal and adult neurons. However, diazoxide induced a glibenclamide-sensitive outward current in hippocampal CA1 neurons. It is concluded that K(ATP) channels display little functional role per se and might not be involved in effects of morphine in the ventrolateral PAG. The correlation between the insensitivity in K+ channel activation and the less antinociceptive response to morphine in adults was discussed.
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The aim was to investigate the properties of two potassium channel openers in human myometrium.
Study one: There was no significant difference in mRNA expression levels of SUR1, SUR2, and Kir6.2 in heart between diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic and control groups (P > 0.05). Study two: Glibenclamide-treated non-diabetic rats had higher mRNA expression levels of SUR1 and SUR2 in heart than normal control. The SUR1 were 43.0 +/- 16.6 vs 30.8 +/- 7.8 (P < 0.05), SUR2 161.9 +/- 51.0 vs 118.9 +/- 40.9 (P < 0.05), respectively. No difference in heart Kir6.2 mRNA level was found between the two groups (P > 0.05). Comparison between Glibenclamide-treated diabetic and non-treated diabetic rats showed that there was no change in mRNA levels of SUR1, SUR2 and Kir6.2 in heart (P > 0.05).
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Magnesium depletion induces K+ and Na+ uniports in rat liver mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects exerted by the antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glibenclamide, a well known blocker of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, on mitochondrial K+ and Na+ uniports. The K+ and Na+ uniport activities were monitored indirectly, in energized mitochondria, by following K+ and Na+ influxes as measured by light scattering. The membrane potential of the mitochondria was determined using a TPP+ selective electrode. Equilibrium binding measurements of glibenclamide to the inner mitochondrial membrane was performed with [3H]glibenclamide. Mitochondrial K+ and Na+ uniports were found to be inhibited by glibenclamide in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 of 20 +/- 7 and 15 +/- 8 microM, respectively. On lowering of the pH value, the potency of glibenclamide to inhibit the uniports activity was increased. Binding studies revealed the presence of a single class of low affinity binding sites for glibenclamide in the inner mitochondrial membrane, with a Kd of 4 +/- 2 microM and a BMAX of 148 +/- 50 pmoles/mg of protein. The present study provides evidence that both mitochondrial K+ and Na+ uniport activities are sensitive to the antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glibenclamide.
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This study addressed the possibility that acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rabbit aorta is mediated by dual mechanisms: one N omega-nitro-L-arginine (NLA)-sensitive, the other glybenclamide-sensitive. Acetylcholine, nitroglycerin and BRL38227 (lemakalim), an activator of glybenclamide-sensitive potassium channels, were added to an organ bath containing rabbit aortic rings in a cumulative manner in the absence or presence of NLA and/or glybenclamide. NLA inhibited acetylcholine-induced relaxation and potentiated the relaxant response to nitroglycerin. BRL38227 caused a dose-dependent relaxation in rabbit aortic rings, and 30 microM glybenclamide produced essentially complete inhibition of this relaxation. Glybenclamide alone produced no inhibition of acetylcholine-induced relaxation. These results indicate that glybenclamide-sensitive potassium channels in the rabbit aorta play no role in mediating the relaxant response to acetylcholine, while NLA can produce a selective and essentially complete blockade of the relaxant response to acetylcholine in the rabbit aorta.
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Compared to the currently available therapeutic drugs for peripheral vascular diseases, agents that are selective for relaxing pulmonary circulation are scarce. The present study was undertaken, using isometric tension change measurement and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology methods, to evaluate the vascular relaxation effect and the underlying mechanisms involved of two naturally found alkaloids: paeonol (2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-acetophenone), acetovanillone (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone) and the non-substituted analogue acetophenone on pulmonary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats. Cumulative administration (3 microM-1 mM) of acetophenone analogues resulted in a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (1 microM) pre-contracted pulmonary artery. A relative order of inhibitory potency, estimated by comparing the concentration at which a 50% relaxation of phenylephrine-induced contraction observed was: acetovanillone > paeonol > acetophenone. Endothelial denudation and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (with 20 microM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester) only moderately suppressed (17.6 +/- 4.2%) acetovanillone- but not paeonol- or acetophenone-mediated maximum relaxation. Glibenclamide (3 microM, an ATP-sensitive K(+) (IK(ATP)) channel blocker) markedly attenuated all acetophenone analogues-mediated endothelium-independent relaxation. Neither cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine (MDL 12330A, 10 microM), iberiotoxin (300 nM), 4-aminopyridine (3 mM), (+/-)-propranolol (1 microM, a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker) nor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (3 microM, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor) altered endothelium-independent relaxation. In electrophysiological experiments using single pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, acetovanillone, paeonol, acetophenone and cromakalim activated glibenclamide-sensitive, IK(ATP) channels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that acetophenone analogues caused pulmonary artery relaxation through opening of IK(ATP) channels. In addition, acetovanillone-mediated pulmonary artery relaxation is partly depended on nitric oxide released from endothelium.
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Glibenclamide's effects on agonist-induced constrictions are unlikely to be via an inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and with U46619- and U44069-induced constrictions, glibenclamide may be acting as a competitive antagonist of thromboxane receptors.
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In a clinical trial with patients with chronic heart failure, a higher incidence of elevated levels of liver transaminases was observed during concomitant treatment with bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, and glyburide (INN, glibenclamide), a sulfonylurea-type antidiabetic drug, than with treatment with bosentan alone. This study was conducted to investigate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between bosentan and glyburide.
A novel pyranoquinoline analog (BMS-188107) of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener cromakalim was previously shown to be devoid of KATP opening activity in nonischemic myocardium and vascular smooth muscle, but appeared to be a relatively potent calcium antagonist. This clear differentiation between channels within a structural series is a novel finding. With the idea that KATP openers are often more active in ischemic relative to nonischemic myocardium, we determined the cardioprotective effects of this agent in isolated rat hearts and whether these anti-ischemic effects are abolished by KATP blockade. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 25 min of global ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion and the severity of ischemic/reperfusion injury was determined. BMS-188107 was given before ischemia at 0.5 to 10 microM. Pretreatment (before ischemia) with BMS-188107 caused significant cardiodepressant activity and increased coronary flow only at a concentration of 10 microM, although modest negative inotropic effects were observed at the 0.5 and 1 microM concentrations. Significant improvements in postischemic contractile function and reductions in lactate dehydrogenase release were observed with 1 to 10 microM BMS-188107, indicating significant reductions in ischemic/reperfusion injury. Neither the pre- nor the postischemic effects of 1 to 10 microM BMS-188107 were significantly altered by the KATP blockers sodium 5-hydroxydecanoate (100 microM) or glyburide (1 microM). Previous studies did not determine the effect of BMS-188107 on sodium channels and thus, the effect of this agent on maximum upstroke velocity of the action potential was determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Erythrocytes release ATP in response to exposure to the physiological stimulus of lowered oxygen (O(2)) tension as well as pharmacological activation of the prostacyclin receptor (IPR). ATP release in response to these stimuli requires activation of adenylyl cyclase, accumulation of cAMP, and activation of protein kinase A. The mechanism by which ATP, a highly charged anion, exits the erythrocyte in response to lowered O(2) tension or receptor-mediated IPR activation by iloprost is unknown. It was demonstrated previously that inhibiting pannexin 1 with carbenoxolone inhibits hypotonically induced ATP release from human erythrocytes. Here we demonstrate that three structurally dissimilar compounds known to inhibit pannexin 1 prevent ATP release in response to lowered O(2) tension but not to iloprost-induced ATP release. These results suggest that pannexin 1 is the conduit for ATP release from erythrocytes in response to lowered O(2) tension. However, the identity of the conduit for iloprost-induced ATP release remains unknown.
An estimated 20 million Americans suffer from diabetes. Patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) comprise approximately 90% of the diabetic population. An estimated 10-30% of patients with NIDDM withdraw from their prescribed regimen within 1 year of diagnosis, and of the remainder, nearly 20% administer insufficient medication to facilitate an adequate reduction in blood glucose. A randomized trial was undertaken to discern the effect of pharmacy-based value-added utilities on prescription-refill compliance with sulfonylurea therapy and health service utilization. The subjects were 258 Medicaid beneficiaries from the state of South Carolina, previously untreated for NIDDM, prescribed 5 mg of the second-generation sulfonylurea glyburide twice daily, and monitored with regard to prescription-refill compliance and health service utilization for 1 year. Subjects provided informed consent and were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: (i) the control cohort received standard pharmaceutical care with each dispensing of glyburide; (ii) the second cohort received standard pharmaceutical care and was mailed a medication-refill reminder 10 days prior to each sequential refill date; (iii) the third cohort received standard pharmaceutical care and was provided unit-of-use packaging with each prescription-refill request; (iv) the fourth cohort received standard pharmaceutical care, mailed medication-refill reminders, and unit-of-use packaging. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures revealed that patients receiving mailed prescription-refill reminders, unit-of-use packaging, or a combination of both interventions achieved a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) for sulfonylurea therapy relative to controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We expanded and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating hepatic CYP2B6 induction (based on in vitro data), CYP2C9 induction (based on phenytoin PK) and CYP2C19 suppression (based on proguanil PK), into the model. This model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 activity. For verification, the pregnancy-related changes in the disposition of methadone (cleared by CYP2B6, 3A and 2C19) and glyburide (cleared by CYP3A, 2C9 and 2C19) were predicted.
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Extracts of pine needles (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have diverse physiological and pharmacological actions. In this study we show that pine needle extract alters pacemaker currents in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) by modulating ATP-sensitive K+ channels and that this effect is mediated by prostaglandins. In whole cell patches at 30 degrees , ICC generated spontaneous pacemaker potentials in the current clamp mode (I = 0), and inward currents (pacemaker currents) in the voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -70 mV. Pine needle extract hyperpolarized the membrane potential, and in voltage clamp mode decreased both the frequency and amplitude of the pacemaker currents, and increased the resting currents in the outward direction. It also inhibited the pacemaker currents in a dose-dependent manner. Because the effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents were the same as those of pinacidil (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener) we tested the effect of glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channels blocker) on ICC exposed to pine needle extract. The effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents were blocked by glibenclamide. To see whether production of prostaglandins (PGs) is involved in the inhibitory effect of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents, we tested the effects of naproxen, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor, and AH6809, a prostaglandin EP1 and EP2 receptor antagonist. Naproxen and AH6809 blocked the inhibitory effects of pine needle extract on ICC. These results indicate that pine needle extract inhibits the pacemaker currents of ICC by activating ATP-sensitive K+ channels via the production of PGs.
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This study examines the effect of rosiglitazone on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with type II diabetes. Urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in a 52-week, open-label, cardiac safety study comparing rosiglitazone and glyburide. Patients were randomised to treatment with rosiglitazone 4 mg b.i.d. or glyburide. ACR was measured at baseline and after 28 and 52 weeks of treatment. Statistically significant reductions from baseline in ACR were observed in both treatment groups at week 28. By week 52, only the rosiglitazone group showed a significant reduction from baseline. Similar results were observed for the overall study population and for the subset of patients with baseline microalbuminuria. For patients with microalbuminuria at baseline, reductions in ACR did not correlate strongly with reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin, or fasting plasma glucose, but showed strong correlation with changes in mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure for rosiglitazone-treated patients (deltaACR vs deltamean 24-h systolic blood pressure, r=0.875; deltaACR vs deltamean 24-h diastolic blood pressure, r=0.755; P < 0.05 for both). No such correlation was observed for glyburide-treated patients. In conclusion, rosiglitazone treatment was associated with a decrease in urinary albumin excretion. These findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of rosiglitazone in the treatment or prevention of renal and vascular complications of type II diabetes.
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Enterostatin (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) inhibited insulin secretion from islets incubated in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Enterostatin also inhibited insulin secretion stimulated by glybenclamide (5.0 and 10 microM), phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) (50 and 100 nM), and the kappa-opioid agonist U50,488 (100 nM). The inhibitory effect of enterostatin on TPA-induced insulin secretion was attenuated but still remained in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. The enterostatin inhibition of insulin secretion was blocked by 8-Br-cAMP (1 mM) independent of extracellular Ca2+. Enterostatin reduced the increase in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) content produced by U50,488 (100 nM) and the changes in cAMP content were parallel with changes in insulin release.
We have recently proposed that opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels (mitoK(ATP)) acts as a trigger for preconditioning (PC) by causing mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Controversy exists as to whether the putative sarcolemma-selective K(ATP) channel opener P1075 also opens mitoK(ATP) channels and may be cardioprotective. We purified mitoK(ATP) channels from either rabbit heart, rat heart or rat brain and reconstituted the proteins into liposomes. mitoK(ATP) channels from each of these tissues were opened by P1075 with EC(50) values of 60-90 nM. We next tested whether P1075 causes rabbit cardiomyocytes to produce ROS in a K(ATP)-dependent fashion. Mitochondrial ROS production was monitored by the appearance of fluorescence as reduced MitoTracker Red was oxidized. P1075 (100 microM) led to a 44 +/- 9% increase in ROS generation (P < 0.001 vs. untreated cells), which was similar to the increase seen with 50 microM diazoxide, a selective mitoK(ATP) channel opener (49 +/- 9%, P < 0.001 vs. untreated cells). The effect of P1075 was equally potent at a concentration of 150 nM. The P1075-induced increase in ROS production was blocked by 50 microM glibenclamide (GLI), a non-selective K(ATP) blocker, and by 5-hydroxydecanoate (1 mM), a highly selective mitoK(ATP) blocker (-6 +/- 14% and +4 +/- 12%, respectively; P = n.s). In isolated rabbit hearts, P1075 (150 nM) markedly reduced infarct size compared to control animals (10.6 +/- 8.1% of the area at risk vs. 31.5 +/- 5.6%, P < 0.05). GLI (5 microM) as well as 5-hydroxydecanoate (200 microM) completely blocked P1075's anti-infarct effect (31.7 +/- 9.5% and 27.7 +/- 4.6% infarction, respectively; P = n.s. vs. untreated hearts). These data provide strong evidence that P1075 does open mitoK(ATP) channels and protects the ischemic rabbit heart in a mitoK(ATP)-dependent manner.
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The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IP) on hydroxyl free radical production in an in vivo rabbit model of regional ischemia and reperfusion. Another goal was to determine whether K(ATP) channels are involved in these effects. The hearts of anesthetized and mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits were exposed through a left thoracotomy. After i.v. salicylate (100 mg/kg) administration, all animals underwent a 30-min stabilization period followed by 40 min of regional ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. In the IP group, IP was elicited by 5 min of ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion (prior to the 40-min ischemia period). Glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, was administered prior to the preconditioning stimulus. Infarct size was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. We quantified the hydroxyl-mediated conversion of salicylate to its 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate derivatives during reperfusion by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electro-chemical detection.IP was evidenced by reduced infarct size compared to control animals: 22% vs. 58%, respectively. Glibenclamide inhibited this cardioprotective effect and infarct size was 53%. IP limited the increase in 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to 24.3 and 23.8% above baseline, respectively. Glibenclamide abrogated this effect and the increase in 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was 94.3 and 85% above baseline levels, respectively, similar to the increase in the control group. We demonstrated that IP decreased the formation of hydroxyl radicals during reperfusion. The fact that glibenclamide inhibited this effect, indicates that K(ATP) channels play a key role in this cardioprotective effect of IP.
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In this study, patch-clamp techniques were applied to cultured neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes (NMCM) to assess the contribution of cAMP stimulation to the anion permeability in this cell model. Addition of either isoproterenol or a cocktail to raise intracellular cAMP increased the whole cell currents of NMCM. The cAMP-dependent conductance was largely anionic, as determined under asymmetrical (low intracellular) Cl(-) conditions and symmetrical Cl(-) in the presence of various counterions, including Na(+), Mg(2+), Cs(+), and N-methyl-D-glucamine. Furthermore, the cAMP-stimulated conductance was also permeable to ATP. The cAMP-activated currents were inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, glibenclamide, and an anti-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) monoclonal antibody. The anti-CFTR monoclonal antibody failed, however, to inhibit an osmotically activated anion conductance, indicating that CFTR is not linked to osmotically stimulated currents in this cell model. Immunodetection studies of both neonatal mouse heart tissue and cultured NMCM revealed that CFTR is expressed in these preparations. The implication of CFTR in the cAMP-stimulated Cl(-)- and ATP-permeable conductance was further verified with NMCM of CFTR knockout mice [cftr(-/-)] in which cAMP stimulation was without effect on the whole cell currents. In addition, stimulation with protein kinase A and ATP induced Cl(-)-permeable single-channel activity in excised, inside-out patches from control, but not cftr(-/-) NMCM. The data in this report indicate that cAMP stimulation of NMCM activates an anion-permeable conductance with functional properties similar to those expected for CFTR, thus suggesting that CFTR may be responsible for the cAMP-activated conductance. CFTR may thus contribute to the permeation and/or regulation of Cl(-)- and ATP-permeable pathways in the developing heart.
Particle size reduction is a suitable method to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The reduction effectiveness depends on compound properties like crystallinity, hardness and morphology. Sometimes, it is difficult to obtain small particles. To solve this problem a combinative method was developed: a combination of freeze drying with high pressure homogenization (so-called H 96 process). The freeze drying modifies the drug structure to obtain a brittle, fragile starting material for the subsequent homogenization step. Screening experiments with glibenclamide have shown a relation between the lyophilization conditions and the final particle size. Systematic investigations using design of experiment (DoE) were conducted to identify optimal process parameters. The influence of the independent variables drug concentration and organic solvent composition during freeze drying were tested by conducting a two factorial design of experiment. The model drug was dissolved in mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tert-butanol (TBA) in different concentrations, freeze dried and subsequently homogenized at high pressure. Using optimized process conditions the particle size after 20 cycles was very small: 164 nm (z-average) and 0.114 μm (d50%). On the contrary, with unmodified drug the results were 772 nm (z-average) and 2.686 μm (d50%). It was shown, that the structure modification of the drug by means of freeze drying can significantly improve the particle size reduction effectiveness of high pressure homogenization. The study confirmed also the usefulness of DoE for nanocrystal production.
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Bosentan caused dose-dependent and reversible liver injury in 2% to 18% of patients and caused a significant increase of serum bile salt levels (P <.01). Concomitant administration of glyburide (INN, glibenclamide) enhanced the cholestatic potency of bosentan. Similar effects were seen in rats, in which serum bile salt levels were increased by glyburide less than by bosentan, which increased the levels less than a combination of bosentan and glyburide. In vitro, Bsep-mediated taurocholate transport was inhibited by bosentan (inhibition constant, approximately 12 micromol/L) and metabolites (inhibition constant, approximately 8.5 micromol/L for metabolite Ro 47-8634).
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