Lopid is an effective medication which helps to fight with high levels of serum triglycerides. Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Gemfibrozil.
Lopid target is to fight against high levels of serum triglycerides.
Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
Generic name of Lopid is Gemfibrozil.
Brand name of Lopid is Lopid.
Take Lopid tablets orally.
Take Lopid twice a day with water at the same time.
Do not crush or chew it.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.
If you overdose Lopid and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lopid overdosage: arthralgia, muscle pain, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Protect from light and humidity. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Lopid are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Lopid if you are allergic to Lopid components.
Do not take Lopid if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
Be careful with Lopid if you are taking cholesterol-lowering medications (statins) such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor); and repaglinide (Prandin), anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin).
Be careful with Lopid if you suffer from or have a history of kidney, liver, gallbladder disease.
Do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.
Low heart rate (HR) variability is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the causes and mechanisms of this association are not well known. This prospective study was designed to test the hypothesis that reduced HR variability is related to progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Average HR and HR variability were analyzed in 12-hour ambulatory ECG recordings from 265 qualified patients participating in a multicenter study to evaluate the angiographic progression of coronary artery disease in patients with prior coronary artery bypass surgery and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (<1.1 mmol/L). Participants were randomized to receive a placebo or gemfibrozil therapy. The progression of coronary atherosclerosis was estimated by quantitative, computer-assisted analysis of coronary artery stenoses from the baseline angiograms and from repeated angiograms performed an average of 32 months later. The progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis of the patients randomized to placebo therapy was more marked in the tertile with the lowest standard deviation of all normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN, 74+/-13 ms; mean decrease in the per-patient minimum luminal diameter -0.17 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.23 to -0.12 mm) than in the middle tertile (SDNN, 107+/-7 ms; mean decrease -0.05 mm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.01 mm) or highest tertile (SDNN, 145+/-25 ms; mean change 0.01 mm; 95% CI, -0. 04 to 0.02 mm) (P<0.001 between the tertiles). This association was abolished by gemfibrozil. SDNN was lower (P<0.001) and minimum HR was faster (P<0.01) in the patients with marked progression than in those with regression of focal coronary atherosclerosis. In multiple regression analysis including HR variability, minimum HR, demographic and clinical variables, smoking, blood pressure, glucose, lipid measurements and lipid-modifying therapy, progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis was independently predicted by the SDNN (beta=0.24; P=0.0001). Low HR variability analyzed from ambulatory ECG predicts rapid progression of coronary artery disease. HR variability provided information on progression of focal coronary atherosclerosis beyond that obtained by traditional risk markers of atherosclerosis.
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The effects of gemfibrozil on plasma prekallikrein, kallikrein inhibitors, kininogen and plasma lipids were investigated in 31 male subjects having either type IIA or IIB dyslipidaemia. During gemfibrozil use, plasma prekallikrein and kininogen were increased significantly while kallikrein inhibitors increased only slightly. Total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased while HDL cholesterol was increased. Changes in prekallikrein and HDL cholesterol were correlated, whereas no other significant correlations between changes in lipid and kinin parameters were seen. The observed changes in prekallikrein and kininogen possibly indicate a shift in the thrombo-haemorrhagic balance in favour for increased fibrinolysis. If so, the effects of gemfibrozil in prevention and management of atherosclerosis would not be solely due to correlation of the dyslipidaemia but also to protection against the accelerated coagulation tendency seen in type II dyslipidaemia.
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Gemfibrozil was given as 600 mg tablets twice a day for 12 months to a group of middle-aged non-diabetic men with moderate HTG. Patients served as their own controls, because the treatment period was preceded by a single-blinded 2-month placebo phase. Gradient gel electrophoresis subfractionation of HDL was performed and glucose tolerance was defined according to World Health Organization criteria. The insulin sensitivity was assessed by the insulin-modified minimal model method. Plasma PAI-1 was assayed as activity.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of combined treatment with fluvastatin (F) and gemfibrozil (G) in hypercholesterolemic renal transplant recipients (RTR). Ten hypercholesterolemic (total cholesterol [TC] > 220 mg/dl) RTR (7 men) with mean age 44 years (range 25-56 years) who remained hypercholesterolemic after 3 months of treatment (period A) with fluvastatin (40 mg/d) continued taking the same dose of F plus G (600 mg/dl) for another 3-month period (B). Serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, serum creatinine (creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were measured before treatment and at the end of periods A and B. Mean TC levels were 360.30 +/- 62.42 mg/dl, 324.10 +/- 100.53 mg/dl, 270.80 +/- 67.77 mg/dl; mean LDL-C levels were 259.33 +/- 71.43 mg/dl, 219.60 +/- 81.31 mg/dl, 189.70 +/- 65.51 mg/dl; mean HDL-C levels were 37.10 +/- 11.68 mg/dl, 39.80 +/- 13.21 mg/dl, 41.00 +/- 12.94 mg/dl; mean triglyceride levels were 354.60 +/- 183.29 mg/dl, 349.30 +/- 242.94 mg/dl, 207.00 +/- 85.35 mg/dl before treatment and at the end of periods A and B, respectively. There was a statistically significant fall of serum TC (P = 0.002), LDL-C (P = 0.016), and triglyceride (P = 0.029) levels at the end of periods A and B. Kidney and liver function did not change. F and G combined treatment is safe and useful in patients who do not respond satisfactorily to monotherapy with F. Gemfibrozil augments the effect of F on TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels.
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We included three randomised trials with 170 participants. Ninety participants were randomised to the Chinese herbal medicines groups and 80 to the comparator groups with numbers ranging from 50 to 60 participants per trial. The duration of treatment varied from four to six weeks. All the included trials were conducted in China and published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was unclear. There were no outcome data in any of the trials on death from any cause, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, health-related quality of life, or costs.Three different herbal medicines, including Zhusuan Huoxue decoction, Huoxue Huayu Tongluo decoction, and Chushi Huayu decoction were evaluated. All three trials investigating Chinese herbal medicines treatment alone (two studies) or in combination with gemfibrozil (one study) reported results on serum triglyceride (TG) in favour of the herbal treatment. We did not perform a meta-analysis due to significant clinical heterogeneity between the studies.No relevant differences in adverse effects occurred and no serious adverse events were noted.
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The three subtypes of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARalpha, delta and gamma) control the storage and metabolism of fatty acids. Treatment of rats with the PPARalpha ligand ciprofibrate increases serum gastrin concentrations, and several lines of evidence suggest that non-amidated gastrins act as growth factors for the colonic mucosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of PPARs and the effect of PPAR ligands on gastrin production and cell proliferation in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines. mRNAs for all three PPAR subtypes were detected by PCR in all CRC cell lines tested. The concentrations of progastrin, but not of glycine-extended or amidated gastrin, measured by radioimmunoassay in LIM 1899 conditioned media and cell extracts were significantly increased by treatment with the PPARalpha ligand clofibrate. Similar increases in progastrin were seen following treatment with the PPARalpha ligands ciprofibrate and fenofibrate, but not with bezafibrate, gemfibrozil or Wy 14643. The PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone had no significant effect on progastrin production. The PPARalpha ligand clofibrate also stimulated proliferation of the LIM 1899 cell line. We conclude that some PPARalpha ligands increase progastrin production by the human CRC cell line LIM 1899, and that clofibrate increases proliferation of LIM 1899 cells. These studies have revealed a relationship between PPARs and gastrin, two regulatory molecules implicated in the pathogenesis of CRC.
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Fifty eight patients with primary dysli pidemia were recruited for a 12-week treatment. Forty two patients were allocated to be treated with statins (20 mg): 24 with simvastatin and 18 with pravastatin. Sixteen patients received gemfibrozil in a dose of 900 mg daily. Using enzyme, colorimetric, turbidimetric, immunoenzyme and chromogenic substrate methods, we studied the following laboratory parameters: 1) lipid parameters - total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apoli poprotein A-I, apoli poprotein B, anticardioli pin antibodies and lipid indices; 2) hemostasis, fibrinolysis and blood rheology parameters - platelet count, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, fibrinogen, platelet factor 4,antithrombin III activity, alpha2-anti plasmin concentrations, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-antitripsin, plasma viscosity and hematocrit.
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In VA-HIT, a population with low HDL-C and LDL-C, high Lp-PLA(2) independently predicted CV events that were reduced by gemfibrozil.
Aggressive treatment of atherosclerotic risk factors can substantially reduce stroke risk in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Data from several recent large clinical trials provide convincing evidence of benefit for a number of specific therapies directed at this population. The authors recommend treatment with ramipril alone or perindopril plus indapamide regardless of blood pressure, provided there is no contraindication. For patients already taking a different angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, the authors do not routinely switch agents. The authors recommend use of simvastatin 40 mg per day in patients with a total cholesterol level of 135 mg/dL or greater, provided no contraindication exists. The authors also recommend consideration of gemfibrozil in patients with isolated low high- density lipoprotein levels. In patients with diabetes mellitus, tight glycemic control has not been shown to reduce macrovascular complications such as stroke, but does reduce microvascular complications. However, diabetics should receive especially aggressive treatment of other vascular risk factors. There is no role for post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy in prevention of stroke. Weight loss for overweight patients, regular exercise, and a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish, as well as low in fat and cholesterol, should be a standard recommendation for this group of patients. Treatment with folic acid, B(6), and B(12) for patients with elevated homocysteine appears rational, though this is unproven. However, there is no benefit to vitamin E, vitamin C, or beta-carotene supplementation. Smokers should stop. For every 43 smokers who quit, one stroke is prevented. Moderate consumption of alcohol (one to two drinks a day) may be beneficial, but heavy alcohol use (more than five drinks a day) increases stroke risk.
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Treatment with gemfibrozil modifies acyl composition of hepatic microsomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in guinea-pigs. Palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic (16:1) fatty acids are increased, and stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1) are decreased; further, while linoleic acid [18:2 (n-6)] is increased by gemfibrozil treatment, the other constituents of the n-6 fatty acids family, including arachidonic acid [20:4 (n-6)], are decreased. As gemfibrozil is a potent inhibitor of fatty acid elongation in vitro (Sánchez et al., FEBS Lett 300: 89-92, 1992), the inhibition of this enzyme system by gemfibrozil treatment could be responsible for the observed results in vivo. These changes in fatty acid composition are accompanied by a decrease in serum lipids and, more important, are independent of peroxisomal proliferation.
The evaluation of drug disposition properties of chemical entities in drug discovery research typically involves the conduct of pharmacokinetic studies in rodents that requires blood sampling over several time points, preferably without disrupting the physiological status of the animals. Several blood withdrawal methods have been employed throughout the industry, yet these methods have not been comprehensively evaluated with regard to their effects on pharmacokinetic profiles of the drug investigated to recommend best practices.
In a university hospital setting, 48 patients with uncomplicated gallstones and a serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol greater than 130 mg/dL were randomly assigned to open-label treatment with bezafibrate (400 mg/d), fenofibrate (200 mg/d), gemfibrozil (900 mg/d), or placebo for 8 weeks before elective cholecystectomy. Serum samples for lipid determinations were obtained at baseline and before surgery. A liver specimen was obtained at operation, and the relative levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for the wild and truncated forms of PPAR(alpha), acyl coenzyme A oxidase, liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, apolipoprotein A-I, and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase were determined.
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The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 1-week washout interval. Plasma samples were obtained over a 24-h period. Plasma gemfibrozil concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with negative ion electrospray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). From the gemfibrozil plasma concentration vs time curves, the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUClast, AUC(0-inf) and Cmax.
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Bexarotene (Targretin oral capsules), the first RXR-selective retinoid "rexinoid" approved for all stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), had a response rate (RR) of 45% at the optimal dose of 300 mg/m(2) per day in 2 multicenter trials. With hypertriglyceridemia reported at 79%, bexarotene is often administered with lipid-lowering agents (LLAs). Statins (inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) may modulate class II major histocompatibility class expression and T-cell responses.
Hypertriglyceridaemia is a well known risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Hypertriglyceridaemia may be primary in origin or secondary to alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy or use of drugs. In this case report, the cause of acute pancreatitis was tamoxifen. We report on a patient with tamoxifen-induced acute pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridaemia who was successfully treated with insulin infusion and long-term gemfibrozil.
Combination therapy with simvastatin and gemfibrozil often did not meet ATP III standards. A higher risk of serious adverse events results from combining these drugs, and systems to improve adherence to guidelines may improve the safety of treating dyslipidemic patients.
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Gemfibrozil therapy retarded the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and the formation of bypass-graft lesions after coronary bypass surgery in men with low HDL cholesterol as their main lipid abnormality.
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The liver plays an important role in the disposition of acyl glucuronides by determining their extent of formation, biliary excretion, and efflux into blood. Thus, both intrahepatic and extrahepatic exposure to these reactive polar conjugates depends on the efficiency of hepatic transport mechanisms, which may be shared with other nonbile acid organic anions. Using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation, the hepatic disposition of the acyl glucuronide, 1-O-gemfibrozil-beta-D-glucuronide, was examined in the presence of the organic anion dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP). Using a recirculating system, livers were perfused for 90 min with an erythrocyte-free perfusion medium containing 1% (w/v) albumin and 1-O-gemfibrozil-beta-D-glucuronide (3 microM) alone (n = 6) or with DBSP (200 microM, n = 7). The glucuronide was avidly taken up by the liver, excreted into bile, and hydrolyzed within the liver to its aglycone, gemfibrozil. DBSP significantly (P <.05) lowered the conjugate's mean hepatic clearance (8.98-5.17 ml/min), intrinsic clearance (44.0-17.7 ml/min), and fraction eliminated in bile (72. 8-48.7% of the dose), while increasing perfusate gemfibrozil concentrations (0.52-0.92 microM at 90 min). Furthermore, DBSP significantly (P <.05) lowered the ratio of intrahepatic to unbound perfusate concentrations of 1-O-gemfibrozil-beta-D-glucuronide (139. 0-35.0) and showed a trend to lower the ratio of bile to intrahepatic concentrations (111.3-76.2, P =.05). Thus, the study demonstrated that DBSP inhibited both the sinusoidal uptake and canalicular transport of 1-O-gemfibrozil-beta-D-glucuronide, suggesting that the hepatic membrane transport of acyl glucuronides is carrier mediated and shared with other organic anions.
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In patients with advanced CKD, atorvastatin is associated with improvement in dyslipidemia and small-artery stiffness, but not endothelial function. Gemfibrozil improves dyslipidemia, but has no effect on arterial function.
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The dyslipidaemia of chronic renal disease could contribute to a hypercoagulable state by activation of blood coagulation and/or impairment of fibrinolysis, thereby increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
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Induction with HFD for 10 weeks caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in % body wt, BMI, LEE indices; serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, free fatty acid, ALT, AST; tissue TBARS, nitrate/nitrite levels; different fat pads and relative liver weight; and significant decrease in food intake (g and kcal), serum HDL and tissue glutathione levels in HFD control rats. Treatment with B. ceiba extract and Gemfibrozil significantly attenuated these HFD induced changes, as compared to HFD control. The effect of B. ceiba 200 and 400 mg/kg was more pronounced in comparison to Gemfibrozil.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a purified 10 kcal% from fat diet for 56 days and assigned to diet alone (control) or diet plus oral administration of gemfibrozil (34 mg/kg), metformin (500 mg/kg), rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg), taurine (520 mg/kg), or vitamin E (200 mg/kg).
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Our purpose was to investigate whether gemfibrozil would lower triglycerides and raise HDL-C with minimal adverse effects in a pediatric population with metabolic syndrome.
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We obtained data on incident melanomas from 20 of 36 qualifying randomized controlled trials (12 statin trials and eight fibrate trials), with a total of 70,820 participants. A total of 127 melanomas occurred among the 39,426 participants in the statin trials (59 among the 19,872 statin group participants and 68 among the 19,554 control group participants). A total of 27 melanomas occurred among the 31,394 participants enrolled in the fibrate trials (seven among the 12,324 fibrate group participants and 20 among the 19,070 control group participants). Overall, incidence of melanoma was not statistically significantly associated with the use of either statins (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.23) or fibrates (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.01). In a subgroup analysis by drug, only lovastatin use (in one trial) was statistically significantly associated with lower incidence of melanoma (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99).
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The average retention times of gemfibrozil and tashinone II(A) were 10.5 and 14.5 min, respectively. The half-life was prolonged from 2. 573 h of free tashinone II(A) to 4. 117 h and MRT(0-infinity) from 2.585 h to 6.033 h. The max concentration of tashinone II(A) was reduced from 0.21 to 0.134 mg/L.
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In a randomized crossover study, 11 healthy subjects ingested gemfibrozil 600 mg, itraconazole 100 mg (first dose 200 mg) or both, or placebo twice daily for 5 days, and on day 3, 10 mg montelukast. Plasma concentrations of montelukast, gemfibrozil, itraconazole and their metabolites were measured up to 72 h.
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In the approach to lipid-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels bear a particular significance as this lipoprotein is considered to be an antiatherogenic factor mainly, but not only, because of its influence and impact on reverse cholesterol transport. Hence the need and requirement to consider serum HDL-C levels for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A particularly important aspect is the association of the 'low HDL syndrome' with the metabolic syndrome. These factors force us to consider serum HDL-C level as a therapeutic target by itself, or even in association with low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when the latter are increased. This review stresses the aspects connecting serum HDL-C levels and cardiovascular risk, and looks at the populations that should be considered amenable to therapeutic management because of low serum HDL-C levels. We review therapeutic strategies, both pharmacological and nonpharmacological. The aim of this review is to present therapeutic management recommendations for correcting the proportion of cardiovascular risk that is attributable to changes in HDL-C. Serum HDL-C levels of >40 mg/dL must be a therapeutic target in primary and secondary prevention. This goal is particularly important in patients with low serum HDL-C levels and ischemic heart disease (IHD) or its equivalents, even if the therapeutic target for serum LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL) has been achieved. The first choice for this clinical condition is fibric acid derivates. The same therapeutic option should be considered in patients without IHD with low serum HDL-C levels and high cardiovascular risk (>20%), hypertriglyceridemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or metabolic syndrome.
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Compared with placebo, atorvastatin significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein (-52%), triglyceride (-30%), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels (-41%; P < 0.0001). Gemfibrozil significantly decreased triglyceride levels (-40%) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels (+20%; P < 0.0001). Neither atorvastatin nor gemfibrozil had a significant effect on markers of insulin resistance or inflammation. There was no significant change in FMD, GTNMD, or C1 with either atorvastatin or gemfibrozil. There was improvement in C2 with atorvastatin (+1.1 mL/mm Hg x 100) compared with placebo (P = 0.024), but not with gemfibrozil compared with placebo.
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Bezafibrate belongs to the class of fibric acid derivatives usually used as antihyperlipidemia agents. From the biochemical point of view, these drugs show intriguing properties which leads one to think they may promote a differentiation process in tumour cells. This new pharmacological activity of fibrates could partially depend on the induction of an oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, the effect of bezafibrate, as well as of clofibric acid and gemfibrozil, on growth, functional and cytochemical characteristics of human leukaemia-derived cell lines HL-60, U-937 and K-562 has been studied in some details. The results show that bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and clofibric acid, do induce differentiation in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines as indicated by several differentiation markers. Moreover fibrates, in dose dependent manner, significantly alter the cell cycle distributions, mainly leading to G0/G1 phase increment and G2/M phase reduction. The differentiating activity of fibrates could have significant implications both for the pharmacotoxicological profile of this class of compounds and for the pathophysiology of neoplastic disease.
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Previously, we demonstrated that when two human hepatoma cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, were exposed to gemfibrozil, a hypolipidemic drug, a 2-fold induction in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mRNA levels resulted. To determine if mRNA stabilization was responsible for the changes in apoA-I mRNA levels, the half-lives for apoA-I mRNA were measured in the presence of actinomycin D with and without gemfibrozil. These experiments revealed no differences in stability. However, nuclear run-off assays indicated that the transcription rate of the apoA-I gene was increased 2-fold in gemfibrozil-treated cells. Transient transfection experiments also indicated that the induction of apoA-I mRNA level in response to gemfibrozil is mediated at the transcriptional level. We have identified two copies of the "drug-responsive element" (DRE) in the apoA-I promoter region that may be responsible for the increase in apoA-I transcriptional activity by gemfibrozil. Using gel mobility shift assays with a synthetic DRE oligonucleotide, we have demonstrated that exposure of Hep3B and HepG2 cells to gemfibrozil resulted in strong induction of a protein-DNA complex. The formation of this complex is highly sequence-specific as indicated by the DNA competition experiments. The drug-inducible nuclear proteins bind to the DRE of the human apoA-I gene with an apparent Kd of 4.1 nM. Methylation interference experiments have localized the contact sites of nuclear factors to the DRE region. Southwestern blot analyses have identified two groups of drug-inducible nuclear proteins with molecular masses of approximately 30 and 15 kDa. When a copy of synthetic DRE oligonucleotide was inserted upstream of the thymidine kinase promoter and luciferase reporter construct, a significant 2-fold induction in luciferase activity was observed in the presence of gemfibrozil following transient transfection of two human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B. However, a plasmid containing one copy of mutated apoA-I-DRE oligomer did not confer responsiveness to gemfibrozil treatment. Furthermore, pGL2 (apoA-I -250 mutant DRE), which carried an internal mutation of the DRE in the human apoA-I proximal promoter region, showed no increase in luciferase activity in response to gemfibrozil. These results implicate protein-DNA interactions at the DRE region in the transcriptional induction of human apoA-I gene expression by gemfibrozil.
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