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Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) Inhibitor mediated relaxation of prostatic duct smooth muscle increases washout of prostatic reflux products reducing prostatic inflammation and consequent prostatitis symptoms. RATIONALE OF HYPOTHESIS: The presence of both Nitric Oxide Synthase and Phosphodiesterase 5 in human prostatic tissue and the effect of nitric oxide donors and PDE5 inhibitors in vitro indicate PDE5 inhibitors relax prostatic smooth muscle. Significant retrograde urinary flux into prostatic ducts has been described and suggested as the mechanism of chronic prostatitis. We postulate PDE5 inhibitors alter prostatic reflux hence prostatitis symptoms.
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Erectile dysfunction has usually been treated by a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor in men, especially in the past decade. Although sildenafil and vardenafil are widely used, there is a high percentage of people who do not respond to these drugs. This study was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the lastly presented phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, tadalafil, in nonresponder group of patients to sildenafil and vardenafil.
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• The PDE5 inhibitors seem to prolong ELT and the quality of penile rigidity is better with PDE5 inhibitors in post-ejaculatory period. • These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibitors might have some beneficial effects in men with lifelong premature ejaculation.
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There were 11,327 males with a diagnosis of back pain. Males who received medications for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement (n = 909) were significantly older than those who did not and had greater comorbidity, depression, smoking, and use of sedative-hypnotics. In logistic regressions, the long-term use of opioids was associated with greater use of medications for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement compared with no opioid use (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.87, P < 0.01). Age, comorbidity, depression, and use of sedative-hypnotics were also independently associated with the use of medications for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement. Patients prescribed daily opioid doses of 120 mg of morphine-equivalents or more had greater use of medication for erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement than patients without opioid use (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.43), even with adjustment for the duration of opioid therapy.
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The most important issue in flap surgery is flap viability. This study aimed to compare the effects of most commonly used phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors on flap survival.
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Data were pooled from two 12-week, double-blind studies that included 306 East Asian men randomized to placebo or 10 mg of vardenafil.
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The study included 74 arteriogenic ED patients (mean age 57.4 +/- 4.7 years). In addition to a comprehensive andrological examination, all the patients underwent the estimation of the endothelial function of cavernous arteries, the indicator of which is the percentage increase in the diameter of cavernous arteries. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) 24 patients receiving vardenafil on demand in a dose of 10 mg; 2) 26 patients taking the drug on demand in a dose of 20 mg; and 3) 24 patients regularly using the agent in a dose of 10 mg every other day. Endothelial and erective functions were re-estimated 1, 3, and 6 months after the initiation of vardenafil therapy and a month following its discontinuation.
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A new, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection was developed and validated for the determination of vardenafil in small volumes of rat plasma and bile. The absorbance and fluorescence characteristics of vardenafil were studied and factors that affect the HPLC resolution and fluorescence intensity were examined and optimized. Vardenafil and the internal standard cisapride were extracted using acetonitrile. The separation was achieved on a C18 column at 35 degrees C using acetonitrile-50 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution (pH 6.8) (40:60) as mobile phase. At a flow rate of 1 ml/min, the total run time was 18 min. Fluorescence was measured with excitation and emission set at 280 and 470 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear from 10 to 1000 ng/ml and 0.2-100 microg/ml for plasma and bile samples, respectively. The intra- and inter-day imprecision did not exceed 10.8%, and the accuracy was within 9.6% deviation of the nominal concentration. The method was used successfully to investigate the disposition and biliary excretion of vardenafil in rats.
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Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors including sildenafil and vardenafil induce powerful preconditioning-like cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury through opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels in the heart. The goal of these studies was to demonstrate the protective effect of sildenafil and vardenafil on reperfusion injury and to compare it with the antianginal vasodilator nitroglycerin (NTG). In addition, we determined the role of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels in protection. Adult male New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized and subjected to ischemia by 30 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Seven groups were studied. 1-Controls; 2-Sildenafil (total dose: 0.71 mg/kg; i.v.) infused for 65 min starting 5 min before reperfusion; 3-Sildenafil+5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, blocker of mitochondrial K(ATP) channel, total dose: 5 mg/kg) administered as 2 bolus injections; 4-Vardenafil (total dose: 0.014 mg/kg; iv) administered as in group 2; 5-Vardenafil+5-HD administered as in group 3; 6-5-HD administered as two bolus injections and 7-Nitroglycerin (NTG, total dose: 2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) administered as in group 2. Infarct size was reduced in sildenafil (19.19+/-1.3%) as well as vardenafil (17.0+/-2.0%) treated groups as compared to controls (33.8+/-1.7%). However, NTG failed to confer similar cardioprotection (31.5+/-0.8%). 5-HD blocked the cardioprotective effects of sildenafil and vardenafil as shown by an increase in infarct size (34.0+/-1.1% and 28.3+/-1.9%, respectively). Both sildenafil and vardenafil protect the ischemic myocardium against reperfusion injury through a mechanism dependent on mitochondrial K(ATP) channel opening.
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PDE-5 inhibitors appear to have significant but moderate efficacy in secondary RP. A further large RCT is needed.
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of sildenafil, norsildenafil, vardenafil, norvardenafil, and tadalafil in human blood plasma was developed and validated. It has proven to be selective, linear, accurate, and precise for all studied drugs. The method has also proven to be applicable for forensic cases and for therapeutic drug monitoring.
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Systolic blood pressure did not change significantly where diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (P = 0.043) after drug ingestion. There was no significant change in IOP. Increase in EDV of CRA was significant (P = 0.04), but the increase of orbital blood flow velocities of OA and PCA were insignificant.
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Vardenafil 10 mg did not impair the ability of patients with stable CAD to exercise at levels equivalent or greater than that attained during sexual intercourse (average of 2.5 to 3.3 METS).
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Chronic phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment may be useful in reversing erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the mechanisms of this improvement remain unknown.
In the rat study, vehicle or 0.3-3 mg/kg of the PDE5-I vardenafil was given orally 30 min before testing and electrode locations were the vertex, hippocampus and the striatum. The human subjects received placebo, 10-20 mg vardenafil 85 min before testing and sensory gating was measured at the cortex (Fz, Fcz and Cz) electrodes.
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are a well-established, first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Extensive clinical trials and clinical experience established the highly significant efficacy and the safety of this class of drugs in the treatment of ED.Furthermore, the efficacy of PDE-5 inhibitors has been established in men with ED with a broad range of etiologies and comorbidities. The future of PDE-5 inhibitors includes the expansion of indications such as the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and the potential of treatment of symptomatic BPH.
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This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose, multicenter study of unselected men with ED of diverse origins and severity. Unlike previous studies, prostatectomy-induced ED and previous unresponsiveness to sildenafil were not exclusion criteria. After 4 weeks of treatment with 10 mg of vardenafil, the dose could be continued or titrated to 5 mg or 20 mg, depending on efficacy and tolerability. After 8 weeks, another dose change was possible. Efficacy was assessed with International Index of Erectile Function erectile function (IIEF-EF) domain scores, diary questions of the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP), and a global assessment question (GAQ) about erection improvement during the previous 4 weeks.
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Human ureteral investigations cannot entirely be replaced by existing animal models since results of the latter will vary significantly according to the tested pharmaceutical agent.
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Efficacy variables included the International Index of Erectile Function-erectile function (IIEF-EF) domain score, questionnaires of Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP2 and SEP3), and a Global Assessment Question (GAQ). Safety assessments included laboratory tests, vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings, and patients' reporting of adverse events.
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Our real-life observational study shows that in our institution, dropout of therapy is unusual. We hypothesize that this reflects, in part, the reimbursement issue. We also found that switching between drugs was unusual, although there are several possible explanations for that. Although this is a successful system for the patients, the hospital, which bears the costs of medication, is finding this an increasing economic drain.
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Oral vardenafil therapy has a high efficacy and a low incidence of adverse events for ED patients with mixed etiologies.
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Vardenafil is an effective, well-tolerated oral drug for the treatment of East Asian men with moderate ED of broad-spectrum etiology.
Vardenafil had no effect on body and bladder weight. Contractile forces to EFS, carbachol, and KCl were all increased significantly in group 2 by chronic vardenafil treatment.
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Male patients aged 18+ years filling PDE5-I prescriptions between December 2003 and March 2006 were identified using a U.S. longitudinal prescription database (IMS Health LRx). Similar patients not dispensed a PDE5-I during this period were matched to the tadalafil-dispensed cohort using a propensity score approach. Co-possession, as a proxy for concurrent use, was defined as an overlap in time on therapy for a PDE5-I and nitrate and was compared for the three PDE5-Is and for tadalafil to the matched control group.
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Although temporary ototoxicity was noted in four patients, we could not find any permanent, deleterious effect of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor on hearing thresholds.
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The mean Gomella ischemic areas were 63.3 mm2 in the control group; 3.4 and 9.6 mm2 in the vardenafil 5 and vardenafil 10 groups, respectively; and 3.4 mm2 in the pentoxifylline group (p = 0.0001). The mean malondialdehyde values were 63.7 nmol/g in the control group; 25.3 and 25.6 nmol/g in the vardenafil 5 and vardenafil 10 groups, respectively; and 22.8 nmol/g in the pentoxifylline group (p = 0.0001).