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Our findings demonstrated that human ABCB1 polymorphisms may alter the interactions between Pgp and substrates, and provided functional evidence for ABCB1 haplotypes-associated epilepsy treatment responses.
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We performed a systematic literature search, extending from the period when it was first described (1991) to March 2014. We included all case descriptions of which criteria for PMA formulated in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition, were met. In addition, we described four new cases.
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Presynaptic and post-synaptic glutamatergic modulation is associated with antidepressant activity that takes several weeks to reach a maximal full effect. Limiting mood elevating effects after single drug administration may be the result of compensatory synaptic processes. Therefore, using augmentation treatment with agents having presynaptic and post-synaptic effects on the glutamatergic system, this study aims to evaluate the effect of augmentation therapy on the rate of change in mood elevation in patients with bipolar depression.
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Postoperative pain is undertreated. Lamotrigine, a new antiepileptic drug, has analgesic properties in its antisodium and antiglutamatergic effects. It may prevent postoperative pain. This pilot study assessed lamotrigine effects on postoperative pain.
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There are cases with unknown etiology and symptomatic cases with a wide spectrum of etiologies. While children with LGS have a high frequency of generalized seizures, seizure activity tends to decrease somewhat in adulthood and the seizures may become more focal. The prognosis is usually poor. The adult patient with LGS is clearly affected by global encephalopathy and is typically characterized by bluntness, apathy, progressive cognitive failure and motoric deficits. Valproate has been the first-line treatment for many years, but newer antiepileptic drugs; such as lamotrigine, topiramate and rufinamide, have shown efficacy as add-on therapy. Overtreatment with antiepileptic drugs is common.
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The effects of HCTZ and AEDs on convulsions were examined in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice. Additionally, adverse effects of combined treatment with HCTZ and the AEDs in the passive avoidance task and chimney test were assessed. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally (ip) at single doses.
The aim of this study was to investigate the acoustic effects of lamotrigine in pediatric epileptic patients. Newly diagnosed 52 pediatric epileptic patients were assessed standard speech test through a Computerized Speech Lab applied before the beginning of therapy with lamotrigine and 2months after dosage had been stabilized. The voice onset times for /t/, /k(h)/, /p'/ and /t'/ after the therapy and those for /p/, /k/, /p(h)/, /t(h)/ and /k'/ was not affected. Total durations for all stop consonants did not change significantly except that lenis /p/ and /k/ increased significantly (P<0.05). No noteworthy alteration was observed for mean pitch and speaking rate of counting 1-10. Vowel formants and precise articulation rate remained the same. In conclusion, no significant effects of lamotrigine on speech were found in this study. Lamotrigine is safe for acoustic function in pediatric patients.
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Olanzapine, OFC, and quetiapine are effective in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. Compared with lithium and divalproex, lamotrigine is more effective in preventing bipolar depression. Larger controlled studies of the other agents in the acute and maintenance treatment of bipolar depression are warranted.
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We conducted a MEDLINE search through 2009, and examined only English-language, randomized/controlled, placebo, or comparison studies. Tolerability as a factor was not considered for this review.
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A 10-member subcommission of the Commission on Therapeutic Strategies of The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), including adult and pediatric epileptologists, clinical pharmacologists, clinical trialists, and a statistician evaluated available evidence found through a structured literature review including MEDLINE, Current Contents and the Cochrane Library for all applicable articles from 1940 until July 2005. Articles dealing with different seizure types (for different age groups) and two epilepsy syndromes were assessed for quality of evidence (four classes) based on predefined criteria. Criteria for class I classification were a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, >or=48-week treatment duration without forced exit criteria, information on >or=24-week seizure freedom data (efficacy) or >or=48-week retention data (effectiveness), demonstration of superiority or 80% power to detect a
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Retrospective analysis of three identified patients in a large university hospital.
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Finally, although we all know that antipsychotics should no longer be prescribed in the elderly, the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia remains a difficult problem, considering the lack of a real alternative to these medications. Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers are an interesting solution but none of them, other than carbamazepine, which did, but which is not better tolerated than the usual drugs in this population - was able to prove its efficacy in this indication. Among these medications, valproic acid, gabapentin and lamotrigine should be studied further, and the neuroprotective effect of some of them is an interesting route for research.
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We previously showed that local striatal injections of malonate produce age-dependent excitotoxic lesions. In the present study volumetric analysis confirmed that malonate produces age-dependent striatal lesions. Pretreatment with the non-competitive and competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 and LY274614, and with lamotrigine resulted in significant protection in 4-month-old animals. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of lesion area showed a significant correlation of increasing lesion size and lactate production in rats ranging from 1 to 12 months of age. Histological evaluation showed NADPH-diaphorase neurons were spared. The results provide further evidence that a subtle impairment of energy metabolism may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases.
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The purpose of this review is to examine the accumulating evidence indicating that lamotrigine is effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
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Rash was the most common ADR of lamotrigine and the most common reason for treatment discontinuation. Children receiving polytherapy have a higher risk of AEs than monotherapy users.
Results in many clinical trial support the use of some old antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine and sodium valproate in monotherapy in the acute treatment of severe, mixed or mild manic episodes as well as in the management treatment of bipolar disorder. Overall, new antiepileptic drugs show a better profile of adverse reactions with fewer interactions than lithium, but data on their efficacy in bipolar disorder remain scarce. Oxcarbazepine efficacy in mania is similar to that of the carbamazepine. Lamotrigine is becoming the best alternative to lithium in depressive episodes. Topiramate does not appear to be effective in acute treatment of manic episodes. Levetiracetam seems to produce some benefits, but controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trials are not yet available. Data on gabapentin efficacy are controversial.
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Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA) are primary headache syndromes. A growing body of literature has focused on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of neurovascular compression in these syndromes.
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These results suggest that at least one AED regimen provides significantly better efficacy in refractory convulsive epilepsy, and that AEDs should be used no more than 2 at a time. Limitations of the study include its retrospective design, lack of randomization, and small sample sizes for some drug combinations. Future prospective trials are needed in this challenging clinical population.
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In the first study reviewed, 258 outpatients with bipolar illness were assessed prospectively on a daily basis using the National Institute of Mental Health-Life Chart Method (NIMH-LCM) for 1 year. In the second study, 127 bipolar depressed patients were randomized to 10 weeks of sertraline, bupropion, or venlafaxine, as adjuncts to mood stabilizers; non-responders were re-randomized and responders were offered a year of continuation treatment. In the final study, Altshuler et al. retrospectively and prospectively assessed the risk of depressive relapses in patients who remained on ADs after 2 months of euthymia compared with those who discontinued ADs.
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Pharmacotherapy resulted in symptom improvement and normalization of higher cortical emotional and cognitive regions in patients relative to HC, suggesting that the VLPFC dysfunction may be state-specific in PBD. Amygdala was overactive in PBD, relative to HC, regardless of reduction in manic symptoms, and may be a trait marker of PBD.
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Notwithstanding pharmacokinetics has greatly increased the rational approach to the drug treatment of epilepsies, about 25% of the patients do not respond to the therapy. Therefore, a great effort has been made to discover new antiepileptic drugs effective in refractory seizures. On the basis of increased knowledge of seizure pathophysiology two principal groups of drugs have been developed: the first enhancing brain GABA activity (vigabatrin); the second inhibiting excitatory amino-acids (lamotrigine and felbamate). Oxcarbazepine has the same mechanism of action as carbamazepine, whereas gabapentin's mechanism is still uncertain. The major clinical indications of these new antiepileptic drugs are represented by partial complex seizures. Side effects (mostly regarding the central nervous system) appear mild, and clinical interactions have little importance. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring for these substances is at present not well established.
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Within the last years five new antiepileptics have become available in Germany. Vigabatrin is a second choice drug against partial seizures, West syndrome and epilepsies in infant encephalopathy syndromes. Lamotrigine and Gabapentin can be used as add-on therapy in partial seizures in children above 12 years of age Felbamate has a high incidence of severe side-effects like aplastic anemia and liver failure. Therefore it should be restricted to the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Oxcarbazepine is not yet on the German market, but is available by import from Austria. Its therapeutic range is similar to carbamazepine with less side-effects. The new antiepileptics discussed have turned out to be useful additional therapeutics, especially in focal epilepsies. There is, however, still limited experience with these drugs in children. So none can as yet be considered a drug of first choice in any epileptic childhood disorder. The classical antiepileptic drugs remain essential in antiepileptic therapy.
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In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 61 children with well-controlled or mild epilepsy were randomly assigned to add-on therapy with either lamotrigine followed by placebo or placebo followed by lamotrigine. Each treatment phase was 9 weeks, the crossover period 5 weeks. A neuropsychological test battery was performed during EEG monitoring at baseline and at the end of placebo and drug phases. The paired Student' t test was used for statistical analysis for neuropsychological data (two tailed) with a p value of 0.01 considered significant. Carryover and period effect were analyzed with generalized linear modeling (SPSS 10).