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Karela is a herbal medication of high-quality which helps regulate blood sugar levels. Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence. Karela is also a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

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Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence.

Karela helps to control blood glucose naturally. It is proved to be a boon for patients suffering from high glucose levels.

Karela is known to be a wonderful product for the purification of the blood and increasing immunity to prevent any infection.

Karela is alsox a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

Karela's main ingredient is: Bitter Lemon.


Karela is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Karela capsule twice a day after meals.


If you overdose Karela and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Do not take Karela if you are allergic to Karela components.

Be careful with Karela if you are pregnant. Consult your doctor first.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

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The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of Momordica charantia fruit extract (MCE) in ammonium chloride-induced (AC) hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced in adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) by intraperitoneal injections of ammonium chloride (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) thrice a week. The effect of oral administration (thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks) of MCE (300 mg kg(-1) body weight) on blood ammonia, plasma urea, serum liver marker enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers in normal and experimental animals was analyzed. Hyperammonemic rats showed a significant increase in the activities of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and liver markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were decreased in the liver and brain tissues. Treatment with MCE normalized the above-mentioned changes in hyperammonemic rats by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during AC-induced hyperammonemia, and offered protection against hyperammonemia. Our results indicate that MCE exerting the antioxidant potentials and maintaining the cellular integrity of the liver tissue could offer protection against AC-induced hyperammonemia. However, the exact underlying mechanism is yet to be investigated, and examination of the efficacy of the active constituents of the M. charantia on hyperammonemia is desirable.

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Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a member of the ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family, has been used not only as antiviral, antimicrobial, and antitumor agents, but also as toxicant to protozoa, insects, and fungi. In this study, we expressed the protein in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS strain and purified it by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. A total of 85 mg of homogeneous protein was obtained from 1 l culture supernatant of Rosetta (DE3) pLysS, showing a high recovery rate of 73.9%. Protein activity assay indicated that α-MC had both N-glycosidase activity and DNA-nuclease activity, the former releasing RIP diagnostic RNA fragment (Endo's fragment) from rice rRNAs and the latter converting supercoiled circular DNA of plasmid pET-32a(+) into linear conformations in a concentration-dependent manner. Specially, we found that α-MC could inhibit the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum with IC(50) values of 6.23 and 4.15 μM, respectively. Results of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that α-MC caused extensive septum formation, loss of integrity of the cell wall, separation of the cytoplasm from the cell wall, deformation of cells with irregular budding sites, and apoptosis in F. solani. Moreover, α-MC was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an IC(50) value of 0.59 μM. The α-MC protein carries a high potential for the design of new antifungal drugs or the development of transgenic crops resistant to pathogens.

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In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.). On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 mug/kg/d) was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 mug/kg), a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice.

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MCL treatment induced G2/M phase arrest, autophagy, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial injury, and subsequently cell apoptosis in HCC cells. Activation of caspase and MAPK pathway was involved in MCL-induced apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that up-regulation of truncated Bid (tBid) upon MCL treatment. Correlation analysis revealed that Bid expression was reversely associated with the IC50 of MCL. Bid suppression using Bid siRNA, BI-6C9 (Bid inhibitor) and Z-IETD-FMK (caspase 8 inhibitor) dramatically attenuated MCL-induced cell proliferation inhibition, caspase 3 activation, ΔΨm depolarization and apoptosis. In addition, combination of MCL and sorafenib exerted stronger lethal activity towards HCC in vitro and in vivo.

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Hypoglycemic polypeptide (PA) was extracted from Momordica charantia seeds with organic acid and ethanol and purified with Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and RP-HPLC. PA was judged as plant insulin on the base of the analysis of its SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and amino acid composition.

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The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.

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Several trypsin inhibitor peptides (with 28-32 amino acid residues) belonging to the Cucurbitaceae (LA-1, LA-2, MCTI-I, CMTI-I, CMTI-III, CMTI-IV), characterized by a distinctive tertiary fold with three conserved disulphide bonds and with mostly arginine at their active centre, were modelled using the high-resolution X-ray structure of a homologous inhibitor, MCTI-II, isolated from bitter gourd. All the inhibitors were modelled in both their native and complexed state with the trypsin molecule, keeping the active site the same as was observed in the trypsin-MCTI-II complex, by homology modelling using the InsightII program. The minimized energy profile supported the binding constants (binding behaviour) of the inhibitor-trypsin complexes in the solution state. A difference accessible surface area (DASA) study of the trypsin with and without inhibitors revealed the subsites of trypsin where the inhibitors bind. It revealed that the role of mutation of these peptides through evolution is to modulate their inhibitory function depending on the biological need rather than changing the overall structural folding characteristics which are highly conserved. The minor changes of amino acids in the non-conserved regions do not influence significantly the basic conformational and interactional sequences at the trypsin binding subsites during complex formation.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing, dyeing and printing industries.

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Momordica charantia (MC) is a medicinal plant for stroke treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but its active compounds and molecular targets are unknown yet. M. charantia polysaccharide (MCP) is one of the important bioactive components in MC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through scavenging superoxide (O2(-)), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3) signaling cascades. We conducted experiments with in vivo global and focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat models and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) neural cells. The effects of MCP on apoptotic cell death and infarction volume, the bioactivities of scavenging O2(-), NO and ONOO(-), inhibiting lipid peroxidation and modulating JNK3 signaling pathway were investigated. Major results are summarized as below: (1) MCP dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death in neural cells under OGD condition in vitro and reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains in vivo; (2) MCP had directing scavenging effects on NO, O2(-) and ONOO(-) and inhibited lipid peroxidation; (3) MCP inhibited the activations of JNK3/c-Jun/Fas-L and JNK3/cytochrome C/caspases-3 signaling cascades in ischemic brains in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that MCP could be a promising neuroprotective ingredient of M. charantia and its mechanisms could be at least in part attributed to its antioxidant activities and inhibiting JNK3 signaling cascades during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future.

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Potassium, which is abundant in vegetables, is inversely related to blood pressure. Although the situation has changed somewhat in recent years, the Okinawan diet has generally included a large amount of vegetables, and until recently Okinawans had the lowest rates of mortality due to stroke and coronary heart disease in Japan. Based on the hypothesis that these low mortality rates are partly attributable to increased potassium intake resulting from the high vegetable consumption, this study examined whether increasing the consumption of typical yellow-green Okinawan vegetables increases potassium intake. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether increased consumption of these vegetables should be one of the dietary modifications recommended in public health promotion programs for Okinawans. The study employed 56 healthy, normotensive, free-living Japanese women aged 18-38 years living in Okinawa. They were randomized to a dietary intervention group (n=27) or a control group (n=29). Members of the dietary intervention group received an average weight of 371.4 g/day of a combination of the following vegetables twice weekly through an express home parcel deliver service for a period of 14 days: Goya (Momordica charantia), green papaya (Carica papaya), Handama (Gynura bicolor), Karashina (Brassica juncea), Njana (Crepidiastrum lanceolatium), Fuchiba (Artemisia vulgaris) and Fudanso (Beta vulgaris); and they consumed an average of 144.9 g/day, resulting in a 20.5% increase in their urinary potassium excretion over the baseline (p=0.045). The members of the control group were asked to avoid these vegetables, and the change in potassium excretion in this group was not significant (p=0.595). Urinary sodium and magnesium excretions, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, folic acid, triglycerides and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterols changed non-significantly in both groups. Also, post-intervention urinary potassium excretion correlated positively with vegetable consumption in both the dietary intervention (p<0.0001) and control (p=0.008) groups and with Okinawan vegetable intake in the dietary intervention group (p=0.0004).

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alpha-MMC is a unique component of momorcharin with anti-HIV activity, and markedly inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically HIV-1-infected T-lymphocytes.

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Alpha momorcharin is a protein isolated from the bitter gourd. It has a number of biological activities including induction of abortion, inhibition of tumor growth and anti-HIV. All these activities may be related to the ribosome-inhibiting activity of the protein. Repeated use of alphaMMC can elicit an antigenic response which may neutralize its biological activity. To overcome this problem, we need to know which part of the molecule is the antigenic determinant. In this study, we constructed a random fragment expression library from the alphaMMC cDNA and screened it with three anti-alphaMMC sera. A total of 9 positive clones were picked and sequenced. Based on the sequence information obtained, we were able to deduce three regions at which antibodies raised against native alphaMMC seem to interact. These regions are residues 1-14, residues 71-136 and residues 195-222. Mapping of these regions against a 3D model of alphaMMC indicates that they all are located on the surface of the molecule. As residues 71-136 are found to be in close proximity to the active site involved in ribosome inactivation, treatment with a monoclonal antibody directed to this area was shown to be effective in inactivating the inhibitory effect of alphaMMC on in vitro protein synthesis.

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In this study the ethanol extract (EEMC) of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) was tested for its modifying antibiotic activity against a MRSA strain. The growth of an MRSA (SA358) in the absence and presence of aminoglycosides was evaluated. A potentiating effect between this extract and all aminoglycosides was demonstrated. Similarly, the same effect was shown by chlorpromazine on kanamycin, gentamicin and neomycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. Extracts from M. charantia could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. This is the first report about the modifying antibiotic activity of M. charantia, constituting a new weapon against multi-resistant bacteria such as MRSA.

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In PCOS women as a whole, PV at baseline was 1.249 ± 0.049 mm(2)/s (n = 66). After 6 months of treatment with an OC containing 35 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate, PV was increased to 1.268 ± 0.065 mm(2)/s (p = 0.038). The difference between PV before and after 6 months of treatment with an OC containing 35 μg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate (Δviscosity) was 0.01864 ± 0.071452 mm(2)/s. ΔViscosity was related to ?fibrinogen (r = 0.270, p = 0.046), to Δhematocrit (r = 0.514, p = 0.09) and to Δtriglycerides (r = 0.292, p = 0.021).

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Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05).

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The aim of the study was to examine whether Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and Momordica leaves extract (MLE) might exert any chemopreventive effect in a two stage protocol in skin carcinogenesis with Swiss albino mice. The tumour incidence, tumour yield, tumour burden and cumulative no. of papillomas were found to be higher in the controls (without either extract) as compared to the MFE or MLE treated experimental groups. In a melanoma model, the mice which received fruit and leaf extracts of Momordica at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days showed increase in life span of animals and tumour volume was significantly reduced as compared to control values. In cytogenetic studies, a single application of Momordica extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight, 24 hours prior the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide, significantly prevented micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in a dose dependent manner in bone marrow cells of mice. The present study demonstrate chemopreventive potential of Momordica fruit and leaf extracts on DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis, melanoma tumour and cytogenicity.

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Association of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs): pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), gelonin, Momordica charantia inhibitor (MCI), with reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes (RSVE) was obtained without detectable loss of activities either of RIPs or of viral envelope glycoproteins. RIPs are inactive towards intact cells, but, once encapsulated in RSVE, they become cytotoxic. The concentration of RSVE-associated PAP, which causes 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by Friend erythroleukemic cells, is 0.5 ng/ml. Substances capable to inhibit the viral activities block the acquired cytotoxicity of RIPs associated to RSVE.

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Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin.

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Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities in laboratory studies, these results must be taken with caution until clinical trials are conducted to establish safety and efficacy.

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The purpose of our study was to determine the success rate of myringoplasty in adults and children and to examine whether the hearing improvement is a potential indication for surgery. We performed a 6-year prospective audit study in a cohort of patients undergoing myringoplasty at the University Teaching Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. Two hundred and eleven patients who underwent myringoplasties were included in the study. All were performed by a postaural approach using autologous temporalis fascia and underlay technique. The total success rate, in terms of graft uptake at 3-6 months, was 91.5% and an overall hearing improvement was achieved in 91.5% of cases. This was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Only weak correlation was found between hearing improvement and age (Pearson's r = 0.175, P = 0.024), and there was no significant difference in hearing improvement across gender (P = 0.164), size (P = 0.198) or site (P = 0.447) of the perforation. Myringoplasty is an operation that can improve hearing in many cases independently of age, gender and the size and site of the perforation. Patients who undergo myringoplasty should be advised whilst been consented that there is a good chance of hearing improvement.

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The effects of blanching, freezing, and frozen storage on the retention of radical-scavenging activity (RSA), total phenolics, and ascorbic acid in bitter gourd were investigated. Blanching of sliced bitter gourd resulted in considerable losses of RSA and total phenolics, and most extensively, of ascorbic acid. In the subsequent frozen storage at -18 degrees C, RSA and total phenolic content of unblanched and blanched bitter gourd underwent little change for 90 d then gradually declined, but at -40 degrees C, they practically remained unchanged throughout the entire storage period. On the contrary, ascorbic acid content of both unblanched and blanched bitter gourd decreased abruptly at the early stage in frozen storage. The results show that blanching of bitter gourd improves the retention of RSA and total phenolics during subsequent frozen storage but markedly aggravated loss of ascorbic acid. Finally, it is to be noted that RSA, total phenolics, and ascorbic acid originally contained in the raw bitter gourd were overall best retained by quick freezing followed by frozen storage at -40 degrees C without preceding blanching.

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of seeds of two varieties, namely a country and hybrid variety of Momordica charantia (MCSEt1 and MCSEt2) on oxidative stress in plasma and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of each of the seed extracts at a dosage of 150 mg/kg body weight for 30 d resulted in a significant reduction in plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid-hydroperoxides, alpha-tocopherol and significant improvement in ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and insulin. The treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid-hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and significant improvement in reduced glutathione in pancreas of drug treated diabetic rats when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. On the basis of results obtained, it may be concluded that the treatment of Momordica charantia seed varieties may effectively normalize the impaired oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced-diabetes than the glibenclamide treated groups.

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Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were identified as strong inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGP). Biochemical investigations showed that bitter gourd PIs (BGPIs) inhibited more than 80% HGP activity. Electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of two major proteins (BGPI-1 and-2) and two minor proteins (BGPI-3 and-4) having inhibitory activity against both trypsin and HGP. The major isoforms BGPI-1 and BGPI-2 have molecular mass of 3.5 and 3.0 kDa, respectively. BGPIs inhibited HGP activity of larvae fed on different host plants, on artificial diet with or without added PIs and proteinases excreted in fecal matter. Degradation of BGPI-1 by HGP showed direct correlation with accumulation of BGPI-2-like peptide, which remained stable and active against high concentrations of HGP up to 3 h. Chemical inhibitors of serine proteinases offered partial protection to BGPI-1 from degradation by HGP, suggesting that trypsin and chymotrypsin like proteinases are involved in degradation of BGPI-1. In larval feeding studies, BGPIs were found to retard growth and development of two lepidopteran pests namely Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. This is the first report showing that BGPIs mediated inhibition of insect gut proteinases directly affects fertility and fecundity of both H. armigera and S. litura. The results advocate use of BGPIs to introduce insect resistance in otherwise susceptible plants.

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karela powder dosage 2016-07-11

MCL treatment induced G2/M phase arrest, autophagy, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial injury, and subsequently cell apoptosis in HCC cells. Activation of caspase and MAPK pathway was involved in MCL-induced apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that up-regulation of truncated Bid (tBid) upon MCL treatment. Correlation analysis revealed that Bid expression was reversely associated with the IC50 of MCL. Bid suppression using Bid siRNA, BI-6C9 (Bid inhibitor) and Z-IETD-FMK (caspase 8 inhibitor) dramatically attenuated MCL-induced cell proliferation inhibition, caspase 3 activation, ΔΨm depolarization and apoptosis. In addition, combination of MCL buy karela online and sorafenib exerted stronger lethal activity towards HCC in vitro and in vivo.

karela tablets 2015-05-01

A new inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from the seeds and fruits of the Momordica charantia. This compound, MAP 30 (Momordica Anti-HIV Protein), is a basic protein of about 30 kDa. It exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of cell-free HIV-1 infection and replication as measured by: (i) quantitative focal syncytium formation on CEM-ss monolayers; (ii) viral core protein p24 expression; and (iii) viral-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in HIV-1 infected H9 cells. The doses required for 50% inhibition (ID50) in these assays were 0.83, 0.22 and 0 buy karela online .33 nM, respectively. No cytotoxic or cytostatic effects were found under the assay conditions. These data suggest that MAP 30 may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of HIV-1 infections. The sequence of the N-terminal 44 amino acids of MAP 30 has been determined.

karela herbal capsules 2016-09-09

Human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells and Hep G2-bearing mice were used as in vitro and in vivo models to assess the efficacy and safety of MAP30, a natural component from Momordica charantia, as an anticancer agent against liver cancer buy karela online . Molecular studies disclosed the contribution of both caspase-8 regulated extrinsic and caspase-9 regulated intrinsic caspase cascades in MAP30-induced cell apoptosis. The antitumor potential was also effective in Hep G2-bearing nude mice. Since bitter gourd is a staple in many Asian countries, MAP30 would serve as a novel and relatively safe agent for prophylaxis and treatment of liver cancer.

karela tablets himalaya 2016-05-27

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is useful as a potential therapeutic agent for hepatic and renal fibrosis and cardiovascular diseases through inducing proliferation of epithelial and endothelial cells. HGF inducers may also be useful as therapeutic agents for these diseases. However, there have been no reports on induction of HGF production by plant extracts or juices. An extract of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) pulp markedly induced HGF production. There was a time lag of 72 h before induction of HGF production after the extract addition. Its stimulatory effect was accompanied by upregulation of HGF gene expression. Increases in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were observed from 72 h after the extract addition. Inhibitors of MAPKs suppressed the extract-induced HGF production. The extract also stimulated cell proliferation. Both activities for induction of HGF production and cell proliferation were eluted together in a single peak with 14,000 Da on gel filtration. The results indicate that bitter melon pulp extract induced HGF production and cell proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and suggest that activation of buy karela online MAPKs is involved in the HGF induction. Our findings suggest potential usefulness of the extract for tissue regeneration and provide an insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the wound-healing property of bitter melon.

karela 1250 mg 2015-11-21

Graded concentrations (1.25-100 μg/mL) of the crude methanolic and water extracts and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and water) were buy karela online evaluated for abilities to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase and formation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in vitro. The MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) cytotoxicity test was performed on 3T3 cell line.

karela pills 2016-03-16

A water soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the aqueous extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia contains D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of buy karela online nearly 1:4. It showed splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations. Moreover, it exhibited potent antioxidant activities. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and 1D and 2D NMR studies, the structure of the repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [Formula: see text].

karela capsule 2015-07-20

Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is a cucurbitaceous vegetable native to India and Bangladesh. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), a species related to kakrol, has been shown to have pharmacological properties including antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary kakrol on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76 formula diets containing 3% freeze-dried powders of whole kakrol or bitter gourd for two weeks. Results showed significantly lowered liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed on both diets. Fecal lipid excretion increased in rats fed the kakrol diet, and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids decreased in rats fed the kakrol diet after permanent lymph cannulation. Furthermore, n-butanol extract from kakrol caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. These results indicate buy karela online that the mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism in kakrol and bitter gourd are different and that dietary kakrol reduces liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption.

karela powder online 2016-10-30

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also buy karela online to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

karela medicine 2016-03-17

A method is described which permits detection of 3hJNC' scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds in larger, perdeuterated proteins. The experiment is demonstrated for the uniformly 2H/13C/15N-enriched 30 kDa ribosome inactivating protein buy karela online MAP30. The 3hJNC' interactions are smaller than 1 Hz, but their detection in an HNCO experiment is made possible through the use of constructive interference between the 15N chemical shift anisotropy and 1H-15N dipole-dipole relaxation mechanisms in a manner similar to that of recently proposed TROSY schemes. Sensitivity of the HNCO experiment depends strongly on the 15N transverse relaxation rate of the downfield 15N multiplet component and on the amide proton T1. In perdeuterated MAP30 at 40 degrees C, the average TROSY T2 was 169 ms at 750 MHz 1H frequency, and a wide range of longitudinal relaxation rates was observed for the amide protons.

karela capsule benefits 2016-02-19

Natural occurrence of yellow mosaic disease was observed on bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Association of geminivirus with the disease was investigated through polymerase chain reaction using geminivirus-specific primers and Southern hybridization with a probe prepared from the cloned DNA of a known geminivirus. The fruits, leaves and stem of infected and healthy plants were studied for phytochemical composition. The amounts of protein were 49%, 50% and 66% higher, total carotenoids were 36%, 33% and 40% lower, vitamin C were buy karela online 23%, 48% and 50% lower, total phenols were 28%, 31% and 43% lower, and antioxidant activity were 36%, 48% and 43% lower in the severely virus infected fruits, leaves and stem, respectively, as compared with healthy plants. The loss in the quantity of these phytochemicals was also observed even in mild infected plants, which further increased with the severity of the symptoms. Similarly, ethanol and 50% ethanol soluble extractive were also 25-43% lower in the fruits, leaves and stem of infected plants as compared with the healthy plants. A 45% and 54% lower caffeic acid, and 78% and 59% lower amounts of ferulic acid in the fruits and stem, respectively, and a 25% loss of gallic acid were noticed in the leaves of the severely infected plants.

karela capsules 2017-01-21

A triterpenoid containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed (BMS) extract was found to reduce cultured 3T3-L1 cell viability. The 50% lethal concentration values were determined to be 0.78 ± 0.01 mg/mL at 24 hours, 0.69 ± 0.01 mg/mL at 48 hours, and 0.56 ± 0.02 mg/mL at 72 hours. 3T3-L1 cells were utilized as models of pre-adipocyte to adipocyte differentiation. BMS extract also caused a G(2)/M arrest in the cell cycle reducing cells by 23.9%, 37.7%, and 34.7% compared with the control after 72 hours of treatment at concentrations of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mg/mL respectively. BMS extract did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase from 3T3-L1 cells, which was unexpected. Furthermore, BMS extract reduced lipid accumulation during differentiation from pre-adipocyte to adipocyte corresponding to reduction in overall triglyceride of 32.4% after 72 buy karela online hours compared with untreated control cells. BMS is an underutilized agricultural commodity that may have potential for nutraceutical and functional food development.

karela capsules uk 2015-03-06

Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has buy karela online been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies.

karela powder dosage 2016-03-20

This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of different plant extracts in single and in combined formulation, in experimentally induced "diabetic rabbits". The extracts were obtained from seeds of Syzygium jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia and leaves of Azadirachta indica. Treatment of diabetes with plant extracts was started at 8 days after alloxan injection. Rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, each group consisting of six rabbits. Each group of rabbits was given a dose of granules containing 200 mg/kg b.w. concentrated ethanolic extract of a plant while the fourth group was given a dose of granules consisting of combined extract of all three folk plants. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Serum glucose estimation was done by glucose oxidase kit method. Anti-diabetic effect was produced after 72 h in groups 1, 2 and 3 that were administered with a dose of granules of ethanolic extract of single plant but in group 4, treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of buy karela online combined extract of all three plants, hypoglycemic effect was produced after 96 h. Hypoglycemic effects may be induced in rabbits by administration of extracts of various plant parts. The hypoglycemic effect produced by granules of single plant extract was more pronounced than antidiabetic effect produced by combining three extracts in a single formulation.

karela tablets 2017-12-27

Various morphological parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) of Momordica charantia Linn (family: Cucurbitaceae) are used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat buy karela online a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, anecdotal and ethnomedical uses of M charantia, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of M charantia whole-plant aqueous extract (MCE) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes mellitus models. Normotensive (normal), and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to probe the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Chlorpropamide was used as reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant extract caused dose-related, significant hypoglycaemia in normal (normoglycaemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Furthermore, acute intravenous administrations of MCE produced dose-dependent, significant reductions in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of normal, and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact hypoglycaemic and hypotensive mechanisms of action of the plant extract remain speculative at the moment, it is unlikely that the herb causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiovascular effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. However, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses hypoglycaemic and hypotensive properties, and therefore, lend pharmacological credence to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management and/or control of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities.

karela herbal capsules 2017-02-27

Neospora caninum is an obligate Cefixime Drug Interactions intracellular protozoan parasite that causes severe neuromuscular diseases, repeated abortion, stillbirth, and congenital infection in livestock and companion animals. The development of an effective vaccine against neosporosis in cattle is an important issue due to the significant worldwide economic impact of this disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity of four bradyzoite antigens, NcBAG1 (first described in this study), NcBSR4, NcMAG1, and NcSAG4, using an acute infection mouse model to determine synergistic effects with the tachyzoite antigen as a candidate for vaccine production. Mice were inoculated with the recombinant vaccines (r-)NcBAG1, rNcBSR4, rNcMAG1, rNcSAG4, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (adjuvant control group) in an oil-in-water emulsion with bitter gourd extract, a Th1 immune stimulator, or PBS alone as the infection control group. Mice inoculated with each vaccine developed antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and isolated splenocytes from mice produced high levels of interferon-γ when infected with the N. caninum tachyzoite. The mice inoculated with rNcBAG1, rNcMAG1, or rNcSAG4 developed slight to moderate clinical symptoms but did not succumb to infection. In contrast, rNcBSR4 and both control groups developed severe disease and some mice required euthanasia. The parasitic burden in the brain tissues of vaccinated mice was assessed by N. caninum-specific real-time PCR at 5 weeks after infection. The parasite load in rNcBAG1-, rNcMAG1-, and rNcSAG4-inoculated mice was significantly lower than that in adjuvant and infection control mice. Therefore, these antigens may be useful for the production of a N. caninum-specific vaccination protocol.

karela tablets himalaya 2017-10-30

alpha-Momorcharin, beta-momorcharin and trichosanthin increased the secretion of glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase by isolated rat hepatocytes into the culture medium. This hepatotoxic effect of the proteins appeared to be concentration-dependent. The plant proteins induced morphological changes in hepatocytes including increased formation of cytoplasmic blebs and a reduction of microvilli on plasma Zyrtec 7 Tablet membrane.

karela 1250 mg 2017-06-06

The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain high worldwide. Drug screening from natural plants is one of the potential Symmetrel Drug Interactions therapeutic approaches on HCC.

karela pills 2016-04-20

Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth; for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents; (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor, lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use Topamax Xr Dosage of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent; and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field.

karela capsule 2017-01-06

In a case-control association study involving 801 PCOS women and 266 healthy controls, hormonal determinations and ACE polymorphism genotyping were performed. The PCOS women were classified into three groups: Group A presented biochemical hyperandrogenism, combined with anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology; Group B, clinical hyperandrogenism combined with anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology; and Group C, chronic Allegra Mg anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology.

karela powder online 2017-04-30

Eight cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides called goyaglycosides-a, -b, -c, -d, -e, -f, -g, and -h and three oleanane-type triterpene saponins termed goyasaponins I, II, and III were isolated from the fresh fruit of Japanese Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) together with five known cucurbitane- Celebrex 200mg Capsules type triterpene glycosides momordicosides A, C, F1, I, and K. The structures of goyaglycosides and goyasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

karela medicine 2016-04-11

The results of this study confirmed the presence of antioxygenic compounds in both bitter gourd pulp and seed 2 Voltaren Gel . In particular, their ethanol/water extracts showed great potential as natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid peroxidation in foods.

karela capsule benefits 2016-01-17

In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, destruction of pancreatic beta-cell causes an acute shortage of Naprosyn Drug Class insulin. Increased oxidative stress is believed to be one of the main factors in the etiology and complications of diabetes. In this study we have reported hyperglycemia and glutathione-associated oxidative stress in rats one week after treatment with STZ. In our previous studies, we have reported oxidative stress-related changes in xenobiotic metabolism in tissues from STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats. Here, we demonstrate by immunohistochemistry, that glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes are differentially expressed in the liver, kidney and testis of diabetic rats. The distribution of GST isoenzymes was found to be tissue- and regio-specific. In addition, we have also shown that treatment with an extract of Momordica charantia (karela), an antidiabetic herb, modulates GST expression in diabetic rats and reverts them to the normal distribution as seen in the tissues of control rats. These results suggest that glutathione metabolism and GST distribution in the tissues of diabetic rats may play an important role in the etiology, pathology and prevention of diabetes.

karela capsules 2015-10-12

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of α-eleostearic acid and punicic acid, two isomers of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) present in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and snake gourd oil (Trichosanthes anguina), respectively, against oxidative stress, inflammatory challenge and aberration in erythrocyte morphology due to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Male albino rats were divided into four groups consisting of eight animals in each group. The first group served as control and diabetes was induced in rats in groups 2-4 by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Moreover, rats in groups 3 and 4 were treated with 0·5 % of α-eleostearic acid and 0·5 % of punicic acid of the total lipid given, respectively, by oral administration once per Voltaren Max Dose d. After administration, CLnA isomers had significantly reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and restored antioxidant and pro-inflammatory enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, NO synthase level in pancreas, blood and erythrocyte lysate. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay of plasma showed that CLnA treatment caused improvement in the FRAP value which was altered after STZ treatment due to an increased level of free radicals. Expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in blood and expression of hepatic NF-κB (p65) increased significantly after STZ treatment due to increased inflammation which was restored with the administration of CLnA isomers. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that α-eleostearic acid and punicic acid showed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity with varying effectivity.

karela capsules uk 2015-03-23

The effects of dietary bitter melon (Momordica charantia) freeze-dried powder on serum glucose level and lipid parameters of the serum and liver were studied in rats fed diets supplemented with and without cholesterol. Rats were fed the diets for 14 days containing bitter melon freeze-dried powder at the level of 0.5, 1 and 3% without an added dietary cholesterol (experiment I) and those containing bitter melon at the level of 1% with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% bile acid (experiment II). No adverse effect of dietary bitter melon powder on growth parameters and relative liver weight were noted. Dietary bitter melon resulted in a consistent decrease in serum glucose levels in rats fed cholesterol-free diets, but not in those fed cholesterol-enriched diets, although no dose-response was noted. Addition of cholesterol to the diets as compared to those without added cholesterol caused hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver. Bitter melon had little effect on serum lipid parameters, except for high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol; HDL-cholesterol levels tended to decrease by dietary cholesterol, while they were consistently elevated by dietary bitter melon both in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol, indicating an antiatherogenic activity of bitter melon. In addition, bitter melon exhibited a marked reduction in the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride levels both in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol; the reduction of triglyceride levels in the absence of dietary cholesterol was in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that bitter melon can be used as a health food.

karela powder dosage 2016-08-11

The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p=0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay.

karela tablets 2017-12-02

The American serpentine leaf mining fly, Liriomyza trifolii, whose larva feeds on more than 120 plant species is well characterized by its high degree of polyphagy. Observations on the oviposition behavior by L. trifolii demonstrated that among cucurbitaceous plants, Momordica charantia is rarely attacked by L. trifolii. The methanol extract of M. charantia leaves strongly deterred the females from ovipositing on kidney bean leaves treated at a concentration of 1 g leaf equivalent extract/ml. Analysis of the polar fraction of the methanol extract of M. charantia leaves resulted in the isolation of a novel cucurbitane glucoside, 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3,23-dihydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al, named momordicine IV, along with another known compound, momordicine II. Momordicine II and IV deterred oviposition by L. trifolii significantly when bioassays were carried out on kidney bean leaves treated at 75.6 and 20.3 microg/cm2 leaf surface, respectively. There was no synergistic effect on oviposition deterrent when the two compounds were combined in their natural abundance.

karela herbal capsules 2015-07-30

The present study evaluates the postnatal efficacy of Momordica charantia peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract via assessing the modulation in the biotransformation system enzymes of suckling neonates and lactating mice. The peel, seed or whole fruit extract of Momordica (100 microl/animal/day) independently induced a significant increase in the hepatic levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) after 14 or 21 days treatment in lactating dams (P < 0.01) and translactationally exposed neonates (P < 0.05). However, the elevation (P < 0.05) in hepatic cytochrome b5 (Cyt. b5) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt. P-450) levels was observed only in the lactating dams treated with the respective extracts of peel, seed or whole fruit of Momordica. In lactating dams and suckling neonates the modulated levels of biotransformation system enzymes suggest the potential for the translactational passage of active principle(s) and/or metabolites of Momordica.

karela tablets himalaya 2016-03-11

The association of Momordica charantia with the aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit at 6 microg/ml has shown significant up-regulatory effect, respectively, by 3.6-, 2.8- and 3.8-fold on the battery of targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K involved in glucose transport. The up-regulation of glucose uptake was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone which was approximately 2-fold over the control. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the cyclohexamide on Momordica charantia fruit extract mediated glucose uptake suggested the requirement of new protein synthesis for the enhanced glucose uptake.

karela 1250 mg 2017-08-13

The experimental data revealed that M. charantia showed significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect.