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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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Erythromycin stimulates stomach smooth muscle contraction via action on motilin receptors, but the effects of erythromycin on non-pregnant uterine smooth muscle are unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of erythromycin on non-pregnant uterine smooth muscle and to examine the possible mechanism of its action.

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The present study aimed to investigate the possible influence of several inhibitors and blockers on the vascular effect produced by the acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin to phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings from rats with a semi-solid, cafeteria-style (CAF) diet. It also aimed to examine the effects of rosuvastatin on the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase, constitutive cyclooxygenase, and inducible cyclooxygenase in aortic rings from rats with a CAF diet. From comparisons of the effect on phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings extracted from rats with two different diets (a standard and a CAF diet), it was found that 10(-9) -10(-5) -mol/L rosuvastatin produced lower concentration-dependent vasorelaxation on rings from the CAF diet group. The vasorelaxant effect was unaffected by the vehicle, but it was significantly attenuated by 10(-5) -mol/L N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 10(-2) -mol/L tetraethylammonium, 10(-3) -mol/L 4-aminopyridine, 10(-7) -mol/L apamin plus 10(-7) -mol/L charybdotoxin, 10(-5) -mol/L indomethacin, or 10(-5) -mol/L cycloheximide. Moreover, in aortic rings from rats with a CAF diet, rosuvastatin enhanced the expression of eNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, constitutive cyclooxygenase, and inducible cyclooxygenase. The acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin to phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings from rats with a CAF diet had a vasorelaxant effect. Overall, the present results suggest that the stimulation of eNOS, the opening of Ca(2+) -activated and voltage-activated K(+) channels, the stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis and enhanced protein levels of eNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, constitutive cyclooxygenase, and inducible cyclooxygenase are involved in this relaxant effect.

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The goal of this study was to determine the effect of angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonism on vasodilator responses in isolated skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan (1mg/ml) in the drinking water for 7 days and compared with untreated control rats. Changes in the diameter of isolated resistance arteries supplying the gracilis muscle were assessed with a video micrometer. Arteriolar responses to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were unaffected by losartan administration, whereas dilation to reduced Po(2) was converted into a constriction. Hypoxia-induced constriction of vessels from losartan-treated rats was inhibited by endothelium removal or indomethacin (1 microM). Blockade of the PGH(2)-thromboxane A(2) receptor with SQ-29548 (10 microM), thromboxane synthase inhibition with dazoxiben (10 microM), or the addition of the superoxide dismutase mimetic 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL, 100 microM) converted hypoxic vasoconstriction to a dilation that was blocked by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 microM). These data suggest that AT(1) receptor activation has an important role in maintaining the vascular release of prostaglandins responsible for mediating hypoxic dilation in skeletal muscle microvessels.

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Low event rate, FPS not prospectively captured.

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The ED50 values for affinities of capsaicin, resiniferatoxin were obtained in nmol/kg b.w. range, whereas the values were in the nmol/kg to micromol/kg b.w. ranges for effects on the gastric basal, stimulated (bethanechol, pentagastrin, histamine) gastric secretion, and the gastric mucosal damage-produced by different ulcerogenic agents (ethanol, HCl, aspirin, indomethacin).

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In LLC-PK1 cells exposed to CaOx, we observed increased cell permeability, no induction of ROS or lipid peroxidation, inability to produce lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS and increases in prostaglandin E2. Indomethacin used alone increased glycosaminoglycan synthesis but did not potentiate CaOx-induced effects. In MDCK cells exposed to oxalate we observed increased cell permeability, ROS production only at higher concentrations and inability to produce lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS. Indomethacin alone had no effect but increased oxalate-induced glycosaminoglycan synthesis.

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To study the effect of topical ketorolac 0.4% (Acular LS), bromfenac 0.09% (Megabrom), and nepafenac 0.1% (Nevanac) on postoperative inflammation using laser flare photometry in patients having phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) implantation.

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1. The in vivo effects of the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) amtolmetin guacyl, a pro-drug of the NSAID tolmetin, on lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in rat gastric mucosa, colon mucosa and liver, were compared with the effects of non-selective (indomethacin, diclofenac) and COX-2 selective (celecoxib) NSAIDs. 2. Indomethacin treatment led to an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and to a decrease in catalase activity and glutathione levels in gastric mucosa. In contrast, amtolmetin guacyl treatment was without effects in gastric and colon mucosa, or liver from control animals. Like amtolmetin guacyl, celecoxib had no effect on the lipid peroxidation, or on enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant defence systems in gastric mucosa. 3. It is suggested that the lack of pro-oxidant effects in vivo associated with amtolmetin guacyl treatment contribute improved gastric tolerability.

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In organ bath studies with arterial rings precontracted with phenylephrine (1 microM), before and after carotid artery occlusion, changes in isometric tension were recorded.

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A single IN ketorolac 31.5 mg dose was well tolerated and provided rapid and effective pain relief in oral surgery patients for a period up to 8 hours.

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Visfatin, also known as nicotiamide phosphoribosyltransferase or pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose serum level is increased in sepsis and cancer as well as in obesity. Here we report a pro-inflammatory role of visfatin in the brain, to mediate sickness responses including anorexia, hyperthermia and hypoactivity.

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In this paper, we describe a new process for the preparation of drug loaded nanocapsules using a membrane contactor which may be scaled up for industrial applications. Nanocapsules are prepared according to the nanoprecipitation method. The organic phase (solvent, polymer, oil, and drug) is pressed through the pores of an ultrafiltration membrane via the filtrate side. The aqueous phase (water and surfactant) circulates inside the membrane module, and sweeps away the nanocaspules forming at the pore outlets. Two model drugs are selected for the preparation of drug loaded nanocapsules: indomethacin and vitamin E. It is shown that indomethacin loaded nanocapsules with a mean diameter of 240 nm and vitamin E loaded nanocapsules with a mean diameter of 230 nm are obtained with a 150,000 daltons ultrafiltration membrane, a transmembrane pressure of 3 bar, and a crossflow rate of 1.7 m.s(- 1). High fluxes are also obtained (around 0.6 m3/h.m2), leading to the preparation of 1.8 10(- 3) m3 drug loaded nanocapsules in 8 min. The advantage of this membrane contactor compared to other processes for drug loaded nanocapsules preparation is shown to be its scale-up ability.

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To describe an apparent association between the use of ketorolac 0.5% (Acular; Allergan) for cystoid macular edema (CME) prophylaxis and impaired corneal wound healing in patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.

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Nefopam group showed less nausea than Ketorolac group within 6 h after the operation. There were no significant differences in demographic data and other complications between both groups. At 48 h after operation, satisfaction and the infused PCA volumes of Nefopam group (34.0± 19.7 ml) showed no significant differences compared to Ketorolac group (30.7± 18.4 ml, P-value= 0.46).

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Level III, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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Comparisons were made with respect to healing of the lesion without recurrence, time to radiological healing of the lesion, time to functional recovery, and complications related to treatment.

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Previous studies have demonstrated that zymosan, a cell wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induces inflammation in experimental models. However, few studies have evaluated the potential of zymosan to induce sickness behavior, a central motivational state that allows an organism to cope with infection. To determine whether zymosan administration results in sickness behavior, mice were submitted to the forced swim (FST) and open field (OFT) tests 2, 6, and 24 h after treatment with zymosan (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg). Additionally, to evaluate the possible relationship between zymosan-induced sickness behavior and prostaglandin synthesis, mice were pretreated with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and nimesulide (5 mg/kg) and the glucocorticoid drug dexamethasone (1 mg/kg). Zymosan induced time-dependent decreases in locomotor activity in the OFT, and an increase in immobility in the FST, and increased plasma levels of corticosterone at 2 h. Pretreatment with indomethacin, nimesulide, or dexamethasone blocked zymosan-induced behavioral changes in both the FST and OFT at 2 h post administration. These findings confirm previous observations that zymosan induces sickness behavior. Furthermore, our results provide new evidence that prostaglandin synthesis is necessary for this effect, as anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis attenuated zymosan-induced behavioral changes.

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Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic compounds derived from domestic and industrial sources including active components of pharmaceutical and personal care products and compounds used in agriculture, such as pesticides, or food processing such as artificial sweeteners often referred to as micropollutants. Some of these compounds or their degradation products may have detrimental effects on the environment, wildlife and humans. Acesuflame is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners to date used in foodstuffs. The main objectives of this descriptive study were to evaluate the presence of micropollutants in both the influent and effluent of a large-scale conventional biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in South-East Queensland receiving wastewater from households, hospitals and various industries.

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Criteria for diagnosis of AERD as well as desensitization protocols for oral ASA challenge and combined intranasal ketorolac and oral ASA challenge, are detailed in this article based on literature review.

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In the present study, we investigated the relation between the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and cysteinyl-leukotrienes with mucin release and the sympathetic system in submandibular glands from rats with experimental periodontitis.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal erosions and ulcers. Apoptosis is one of the mechanisms. The role of survivin, an antiapoptosis protein, in NSAID-induced gastric injury is unknown. We examined the role of survivin in NSAID-induced gastric mucosal and gastric cell injury.

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This meta-analysis indicated that prophylactic rectal indomethacin is not suitable for all patients undergoing ERCP but it is safe and effective to prevent PEP in high-risk patients. In addition, rectal indomethacin administration before ERCP is superior to its administration after ERCP for the prevention of PEP.

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Psychological stress-induced hyperthermia is a fundamental autonomic response in mammals. However, the central circuitry underlying this stress response is poorly understood. Here, we sought to identify sympathetic premotor neurons that mediate a hyperthermic response to social defeat stress, a psychological stress model. Intruder rats that were defeated by a dominant resident conspecific exhibited a rapid increase in abdominal temperature by up to 2.0  °C. In these defeated rats, we found that expression of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was increased in the rostral medullary raphe region centered in the rostral raphe pallidus and adjacent raphe magnus nuclei. In this region, Fos expression was observed in a large population of neurons expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), which are known as sympathetic premotor neurons controlling non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thermoregulatory constriction of skin blood vessels, and also in a small population of tryptophan hydroxylase-positive serotonergic neurons. Intraperitoneal injection of diazepam, an anxiolytic agent, but not indomethacin, an antipyretic, significantly reduced both the stress-induced hyperthermia and Fos expression in these medullary raphe neuronal populations. Systemic blockade of β3 -adrenoreceptors, which are abundantly expressed in BAT, also attenuated the stress-induced hyperthermia. These results suggest that psychological stress signals activate VGLUT3-expressing medullary raphe sympathetic premotor neurons, which then drive hyperthermic effector responses including BAT thermogenesis through β(3) -adrenoreceptors.

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Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook is a native plant from the Central and South Americas that contain high levels of polyphenols, antioxidant compounds involved in protection against inflammation, cancer and cardiovascular risk. A phytomedicinal preparation obtained from aerial parts of D. sellowiana is currently under clinical evaluation in Brazil against asthma, and has been associated with several other beneficial effects. This study demonstrates that a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from D. sellowiana leaves (HEDS) fully relax, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine. Moreover, administration of HEDS (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.v.) in anaesthetized rats resulted in a strong but reversible hypotension. Aortic relaxation induced by HEDS was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ. In addition, this effect was partially inhibited by indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and KT 5730 (a PKA inhibitor). The potassium channels blockade by either tetraethylammonium or charybdotoxin also resulted in a potent inhibition of HEDS-induced aortic relaxation, whereas apamine only slightly reduced it. In addition HEDS-induced relaxation was unchanged by 4-amynopiridine and glibenclamide. The selective muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine counteracted both aortic relaxation and blood pressure reduction generated by HEDS. Experiments using HPLC revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolic compounds in this extract. Taken together, our results reveal that the D. sellowiana possess substances with both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of HEDS involves activation of muscarinic receptors, stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway and opening of calcium-activated potassium channels.

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1. This study compares the role of endothelial factors in alpha-adrenoceptor contractile responses in mesenteric resistance (MRA) and superior (SMA) mesenteric arteries from ouabain-treated (8.0 microg day(-1), 5 weeks) and untreated rats. The role of the renin-angiotensin system was also evaluated. 2. Ouabain treatment increased systolic blood pressure. In addition, ouabain reduced the phenylephrine response in SMA but did not alter noradrenaline responses in MRA. 3. Endothelium removal or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (l-NAME, 100 microm) increased the responses to alpha-adrenergic agonists in both vessels. After ouabain treatment, both endothelial modulation and the l-NAME effect were increased in SMA, while only the l-NAME effect was increased in MRA. Endothelial NOS expression remained unaltered after ouabain treatment. 4. Indomethacin (10 microm) similarly reduced the noradrenaline contraction in MRA from both groups; in contrast, in SMA, indomethacin only reduced phenylephrine-induced contractions in segments from untreated rats. Co-incubation of l-NAME and indomethacin leftward shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline more in MRA from ouabain-treated rats; tetraethylammonium (2 mm) shifted the noradrenaline curves further leftward only in MRA from untreated rats. 5.Losartan treatment prevents the development of hypertension but not all vascular changes observed after ouabain treatment. 6. In conclusion, a rise in endothelial NO and impaired prostanoid participation might explain the reduction in phenylephrine-induced contraction in SMA after ouabain treatment. An increase in the modulatory effect of endothelial NO and impairment of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor effect might explain why the ouabain treatment had no effect on noradrenaline responses in MRA.

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indocin tablets 2016-10-23

We demonstrate that indomethacin significantly down-regulates the fraction buy indocin online of Mtb specific FOXP3+ T regulatory cells (ESAT-6; p = 0.004 and Ag85; p < 0.001) with a concomitant reduction of Mtb specific cytokine responses and T cell proliferation in active TB. Although active TB tend to have higher levels, there are no significant differences in COX-2 expression between unstimulated monocytes from patients with active TB compared to latent infection. Monocytes in both TB groups respond with a significant upregulation of COX-2 after in vitro stimulation.

indocin sr medication 2016-01-27

Previous studies have shown that tachykinins, the largest family of neuropeptides, affect the development of mucosal damage in the stomach and colon. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of tachykinins receptors antagonists on the development of the mucosa injury in the proximal and distal jejunum. buy indocin online

dosage of indocin 2016-05-18

Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid buy indocin online mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2α) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

indocin sr alcohol 2015-11-18

The components of the kinin system, including kinongens, kininogenases, and B(2) and B(1) receptors, are expressed and activated during inflammation. Here, we investigated the expression of the kinin B(2) receptor messenger RNA, kininogen and buy indocin online kallikrein immunoreactivity, and the ability of kinins to contract control and inflamed gallbladders in vitro.

indocin 40 mg 2016-11-28

A buy indocin online Cardiac Critical Care Unit in a university-affiliated children's hospital.

indocin 50 mg 2016-08-03

The CatWalk system was used to study gait of freely moving mice with CFA-induced buy indocin online monoarthritis and evaluate pharmacological pain relief in this model of arthritis. CFA (20 μl) was injected intra-articularly into the right hind (RH) limb ankle joint through the Achilles tendon of C57BL/6 mice.

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Muscarinic agonists stimulate the release of an inhibitory factor from the human urothelium. The factor is distinct from nitric oxide and it persists in the presence beta-adrenoceptor blockade or cyclooxygenase inhibition. buy indocin online

indocin capsule 2015-01-28

C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) are associated with inflammatory lesions, such as coronary artery disease, in which monocytes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play a major role in the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Monocytes are recruited to inflammation sites by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which may also participate in the activation of monocytes. The objective of this study was to compare the individual and combined effect of CRP and ox-LDL on human monocyte MMP-1 and the buy indocin online role of MCP-1 in this effect. Although CRP or ox-LDL failed to induce MMP-1 in control monocytes, these molecules enhanced MMP-1 production induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with a synergistic increase in MMP-1 occurring in the presence of both mediators. Enhancement of MMP-1 by CRP and ox-LDL was attributable to a differential increase in MCP-1 and prostaglandin E2(PGE2). CRP, at physiological concentrations, induced high levels of MCP-1 and relatively low levels of PGE2, whereas ox-LDL caused a significant enhancement of PGE2 with little affect on MCP-1. Accordingly, CRP- and ox-LDL-induced MMP-1 production by monocytes was inhibited by anti-MCP-1 antibodies and indomethacin, respectively. Moreover, addition of exogenous MCP-1 or PGE2 enhanced MMP-1 production by TNF-alpha- and GM-CSF-stimulated monocytes. These results show that the combination of CRP and ox-LDL can cause a synergistic enhancement of the role of monocytes in inflammation, first, by increasing MCP-1, which attracts more monocytes and directly enhances MMP-1 production by activated monocytes, and second, by elevating PGE2 production, which also leads to higher levels of MMP-1.

indocin dosage 2017-05-20

B. malayi microfilariae were injected intravenously into mice and parasitaemia was measured 24 hours later. DEC was then administered to BALB/c mice with and without pre-treatment with indomethacin or dexamethasone and the parasitaemia monitored. To investigate buy indocin online a role for inducible nitric oxide in DEC's activity, DEC and ivermectin were administered to microfilaraemic iNOS-/- mice and their background strain (129/SV). Western blot analysis was used to determine any effect of DEC on the production of COX and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins.

indocin 1 mg 2015-05-08

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a benign condition of abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. HO is frequently asymptomatic, though when it is more severe it typically manifests as decreased range of motion at a nearby joint. HO has been recognized to occur in three distinct contexts-trauma, neurologic injury, and genetic abnormalities. The etiology of HO is incompletely understood. A posited theory is that HO results from the presence of osteoprogenitor cells pathologically induced by an imbalance in local or systemic factors. Individuals at high risk for HO development frequently undergo prophylaxis to prevent HO formation. The two most commonly employed buy indocin online modalities for prophylaxis are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and radiation therapy. This review discusses HO pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis.

indocin dosage chart 2016-12-09

Two men, aged 24 and 52 years, developed neurogenic heterotopic ossifications of the hip, the first following a cervical spinal-cord injury and the second after prolonged artificial ventilation buy indocin online following bowel surgery. The stiffness caused problems when sitting and when performing general daily activities; the second patient who was ambulatory, also had problems walking. CT investigation clearly showed the localisation of the ossifications. After surgical removal of the ossifications both patients were able to sit for longer periods without low-back pain and the ambulatory function of the second patient was much improved. Indomethacin was given postoperatively and no recurrence of the ossification was seen. A number of per- and postoperative complications are associated with the surgical removal of neurogenic heterotopic ossifications of the hip. These include damage to surrounding structures and infection. However taking into account the improved range of movement and increased independence of the patient, it is a useful intervention for this debilitating condition.

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A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was made of 24 patients that were divided into 2 groups (14 received ketorolac and 10 received ketoprofen). Pain intensity was based on an buy indocin online analog visual scale and the need for opioids (tramadol).

indocin 25mg capsules 2015-02-21

Idiopathic intrauterine constriction/closure of the ductus arteriosus, which is distinct from that secondary to maternal exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as indomethacin, or structural cardiac defect, is an uncommon event that often results in severe fetal-neonatal morbidity and mortality. We reported a case buy indocin online of idiopathic fetal ductal constriction, in which the diagnosis was confirmed by documentation of an abnormal four-chamber view of the fetal heart at 38 weeks of gestation on obstetric ultrasound examination. A female infant weighing 2,816 g was born by Cesarean section, and her postnatal course was mild; transient tachypnea requiring only several days of supplemental oxygen with spontaneous regression of the abnormal echocardiographic findings by 3 months of age. The incidence of idiopathic constriction/closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus may be underestimated, particularly with a negative history of maternal drug exposure and mild postnatal clinical presentation.

indocin mg 2016-09-08

Lys-Des-Arg(9)-bradykinin concentration-dependently contracted strips of control gallbladders and its motor effect was higher in inflamed gallbladders. Lys-Des-Arg( buy indocin online 9)-bradykinin-induced contraction was not altered by pretreatment with the selective bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist, HOE140 (1 microM), the NK(1) (SR140333), NK(2) (SR48968) and NK(3) (SR142801) tachykinin receptor antagonists (all 1 microM), the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine (1 microM), and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (5 microM). In contrast, the Lys-Des-Arg(9)-bradykinin-induced motor response was significantly reduced by the selective B(1) receptor antagonist, R-715. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that B(1) receptor mRNA levels were significantly higher in cholecystitis smooth muscle specimens, when compared with that observed in control tissues.

indocin sr capsules 2017-06-05

Coronary arteries were isolated from healthy, alloxan-diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic dogs. Basal tensions, contractions induced by the prostaglandin (PG Cymbalta Dose Range ) analogue, U46619, and endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) were modified with charybdotoxin (CHTX) + apamin (APA), inhibitors of calcium-activated potassium channels, as well as with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (LNA) + indomethacin (INDO) to suppress the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and PGs. The relaxing effect of nitroprusside-sodium (SNP), an NO donor, was also determined.

indocin drug label 2016-10-30

A total of Voltaren Gel Ingredients 95 infants who had received at least one course of indomethacin or ibuprofen for closure of patent ductus arteriosus from January 2008 to December 2011 were studied.

indocin 15 mg 2017-11-10

On the basis of these Celebrex Dosing Information results, paracetamol could be considered as a promising and safe therapy for the treatment of PDA in preterm infants.

indocin generic table 2016-06-16

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Diclofenac, targeting COX have shown promise in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using various NSAIDs, Diclofenac sodium, Indomethacin, and Acetaminophen, here we determined the effects of NSAIDs on the biological properties of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Using amoebicidal assays, the results revealed that Celebrex 5 Mg Diclofenac sodium, and Indomethacin affected growth of A. castellanii. In contrast, none of the compounds tested had any effect on the viability of A. castellanii. Importantly, all NSAIDs tested abolished A. castellanii encystation. This is a significant finding as the ability of amoebae to transform into the dormant cyst form presents a significant challenge in the successful treatment of infection. The NSAIDs inhibit production of cyclo-oxegenase, which regulates the synthesis of prostaglandins suggesting that cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and prostaglandins play significant role(s) in Acanthamoeba biology. As NSAIDs are routinely used in the clinical practice, these findings may help design improved preventative strategies and/or of therapeutic value to improve prognosis, when used in combination with other anti-amoebic drugs.

indocin suppository dosage 2016-06-13

Antisecretory drugs such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2-RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( Cialis Reviews Photos NSAIDs). However, the effects of these drugs on NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcers are not fully understood. The effects of H2-RAs and PPIs on NSAID-induced gastrointestinal lesions and small intestinal motility were examined in rats. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were used. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was administered orally in fasted or fed rats, and gastrointestinal lesions were examined 24 h after indomethacin administration. Intestinal motility was measured by using a balloon method under urethane anesthesia. Indomethacin produced multiple lesions in the gastric corpus in fasted rats and in the small intestine in fed rats: 1) H2-RAs (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine) and PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole) markedly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions. 2) The drugs, except for lansoprazole, increased intestinal lesions. 3) H2-RAs augmented the increase in intestinal motility caused by indomethacin, and the effects of H2-RAs on motility and intestinal lesions were markedly inhibited by atropine. 4) Lansoprazole inhibited the formation of intestinal lesions, and the effect was prevented by both pharmacological ablation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and pretreatment with N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a selective inhibitor of nitric-oxide synthesis. The results suggest that: 1) inhibition of acid secretion by antisecretory drugs may exacerbate NSAID-induced intestinal lesions, 2) H2-RAs further aggravate lesions by increasing intestinal motility via the activation of cholinergic pathways, and 3) lansoprazole protects the intestinal mucosa against NSAID-related ulcerative stimuli.

indocin gout medicine 2017-03-16

Sixty patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopy at Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea, between March and May 2012 were randomized to receive either intravenous fentanyl and ketorolac infusion on demand by patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA group, n= Altace Blue Pill 31) or continuous wound infiltration of local ropivacaine (CWI group, n=29). Postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were assessed via a visual analog scale. The number of patients who requested rescue analgesia was recorded.

indocin reviews 2017-12-13

Resveratrol, at concentration of 70 microM caused relaxations of 34.2+/-5.7% in saphenous vein and 35.2+/-5.4% in internal mammary artery. Endothelium removal and l-NOARG (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 10(-4) M) pretreatment almost completely inhibited the relaxation to resveratrol in internal mammary artery but partially in saphenous vein rings. Indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor Tofranil 50 Mg , 10(-5) M) slightly, but not significantly enhanced the relaxation to resveratrol in both vessels. The endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were significantly improved in the presence of resveratrol of 20 microM in both grafts (E(max): 33.8+/-3.7% versus 46.8+/-4% in saphenous vein n=9; p<0.05; 54. 4+/-5.3% versus 69.3+/-5.4% in internal mammary artery, n=8, p<0.05). The relaxations to acetylcholine were fully eliminated by combination of resveratrol with l-NOARG (10(-4) M) in both vessels.

indocin generic 2016-03-06

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used as a pharmacologic treatment to relieve pain for patients with OA of the hip. However, these agents are associated with significant toxicity, particularly in the elderly population (age > 65 years).

indocin capsules 2016-08-27

Corrective strabismus surgery is associated with moderate pain after surgery. Postoperative analgesia for these patients may include topical local anesthetic agents and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this prospective randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial we compared the effect of placebo to intraoperative 0.5% topical amethocaine or 0.5% topical ketorolac on pain control after strabismus surgery in children.

indocin 25 mg 2017-04-21

The properties of smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization produced by acetylcholine (ACh) were investigated in mesenteric arteries isolated from mice. The resting membrane potential of the smooth muscle cells was about -60 mV. When ACh (10 microM) was applied for 1 min, the membrane hyperpolarized with a peak amplitude of about 5 mV which was reached in about 1 min, following which the potential slowly reverted to the resting level over about 7 min following withdrawal of ACh from the superfusate (recovery component). Exposure of the artery to 0.5 mM Ba(2+), an inhibitor of inward rectifier K-channels, depolarized the membrane by about 13 mV, increased the amplitude of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization to about 10 mV, and facilitated the visualization of the recovery component. Indomethacine (10 microM), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, inhibited the recovery component and as a consequence reduced the duration of the hyperpolarization. The ACh-induced response was not markedly altered by either N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (10 microM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production, or catalase (130 U/ml), a super oxide scavenger. Exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2), 300 microM) hyperpolarized the membrane by about 5 mV, which was abolished by catalase. These results suggest that in the mouse mesenteric artery, the ACh-induced hyperpolarization has two components, both an indomethacin-sensitive and an indomethacin-insensitive component. The former component may be produced by prostanoids, while the latter may be produced by factors other than NO or H(2)O(2). The results also suggested that the inward rectifier K-channels may be important for producing the resting membrane potential, but they may not be the main contributor to the ACh-induced hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cell membranes in the mouse mesenteric artery.

indocin cost 2016-08-09

Intensive cardiac management such as pharmacological intervention for ductal patency (indomethacin and/or mefenamic acid for closure and prostaglandin E1 for maintenance) and palliative or corrective surgery is a standard treatment for congenital heart defects. However, whether it would be a treatment option for children with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 syndrome is controversial because the efficacy on survival in patients with these trisomies has not been evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed 31 consecutive neonates with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 admitted to our neonatal ward within 6 hr of birth between 2000 and 2005. The institutional management policies differed during three distinct periods. In the first period, both pharmacological ductal intervention and cardiac surgery were withheld. In the second, pharmacological ductal intervention was offered as an option, but cardiac surgery was withheld. Both strategies were available during the third period. The median survival times of 13, 9, and 9 neonates from the first, second, and third periods were 7, 24, and 243 days, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that the patients in the third period survived significantly longer than the others. Intensive cardiac management consisting of pharmacological intervention for ductal patency and cardiac surgery was demonstrated to improve survival in patients with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 in this series. Therefore, we suggest that this approach is a treatment option for cardiac lesions associated with these trisomies. These data are helpful for clinicians and families to consider in the optimal treatment of patients with these trisomies.

indocin drug 2016-04-03

To determine whether the duration of indomethacin administration could be shortened in infants with good early constrictive response of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

indocin 150 mg 2015-01-27

In this study we assessed the efficacy of intraarticular regional analgesia on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements.

indocin drug class 2017-10-02

Mesenteric I/R potentiated the ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction by a mechanism that involves up-regulation of muscular ET(B) receptors and decrease in NO bioavailability.

indocin purchase 2017-10-31

Four randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria (n = 1422). The use of indomethacin near the time of ERCP demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in PEP (odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.71; P < 0.01), mild PEP (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.86; P = 0.01), and moderate to severe PEP (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83; P = 0.01) as compared with placebo. The number needed to treat with indomethacin to prevent 1 episode of pancreatitis is 17 patients.

indocin pill 2015-12-29

In this paper, we present novel microemulsion (ME)-based semisolid polymer gels designed for topical administration of poorly water soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Indomethacin (IND) was used as a model compound. The ME consisted of castor oil, water, Tween®80 as a surfactant and ethanol as cosurfactant. To obtain the desired consistency of the formulations Carbopol®960 was applied as a thickening agent. The aim of the study was to analyze in detail the mechanical properties of the obtained systems, with special attention paid to the features crucial for topical application. The rheological and textural experiments performed for samples with and without the incorporated drug clearly indicate that flow characteristics, viscoelastic properties and texture profiles were affected by the presence of IND. Novel semisolid formulations with IND described for the first time in this paper can be considered as an alternative for commercially available conventional topical dosage forms.