Enrolled patients (n = 192) had HbA(1c) >7% and < or =12% during previous treatment with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or low-dose Glucovance (glyburide < or =2.5 mg, metformin < or =500 mg). After a 4-week metformin run-in therapy period (doses escalated to 1,000 mg b.i.d.), patients were randomized to addition of repaglinide (n = 96) (1 mg/meal, maximum 4 mg/meal) or nateglinide (n = 96) (120 mg/meal, reduced to 60 mg if needed) to the regimen for 16 weeks. Glucose, insulin, and glucagon were assessed after a liquid test meal at baseline and week 16.
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Using nationwide administrative Danish registries, we followed all individuals without prior stroke or myocardial infarction who initiated metformin and an IS from 1997 through 2009. Rate ratios (RR) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death were compared between user groups using time-dependent multivariable Poisson regression models. The most common combination, glimepiride+metformin, was used as reference.
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A total of 56,827 patients were included, 56% male, the mean age was 61 ± 12.5 years, and median duration of prior monotherapy was 2.2 (inter quartile range 0.5-4.5) years. Crude incidence rates of mortality for combinations of ISs with metformin were; 15.4 (repaglinide), 28.1 (glipizide), 23.7 (glibenclamide), 21.1 (gliclazide), 20.7 (glimepiride), 27.7 (tolbutamide) deaths per 1000 person years. In adjusted analysis, the associated mortality risk was similar for users of gliclazide+metformin (RR=1.01 [0.88-1.15]), repaglinide+metformin (RR=0.81 [0.62-1.05]), glibenclamide+metformin (RR=0.98 [0.87-1.10]), and tolbutamide+metformin (RR=1.04 [0.85-1.28]). Users of glipizide+metformin was associated with increased all-cause mortality (RR=1.16 [1.02-1.32], p=0.02), cardiovascular death (RR=1.21 [1.01-1.46], p=0.04), and the combined endpoint (RR=1.20 [1.06-1.36, p=0.005).
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal MBF response to CPT, which can be significantly improved by euglycaemic control with glyburide and metformin. The close association between the decrease in plasma glucose concentration and the improvement in coronary vasomotor function in response to CPT suggests a direct adverse effect of raised plasma glucose concentration on diabetes-related coronary vascular disease.
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Three methods were developed for simultaneous determination of metformin hydrochloride and glyburide in an antihyperglycemic binary mixture without previous separation. In the first method, a reversed-phase HPLC column with acetonitrile-water (60 + 40, v/v) mobile phase at 0.9 mL/min flow rate was used to separate both compounds, with UV detection at 254 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 0.06--0.24 microg/mL for glyburide and 1.5-6.0 microg/mL for metformin hydrochloride. The second method depended on first- and second-derivative UV spectrometry with zero-crossing measurements. The first-derivative amplitude at 261 nm was selected for the assay of glyburide, and the second-derivative amplitude at 235 nm was selected for the assay of metformin hydrochloride. The third method depended on measuring the first derivative of the ratio-spectra at 241 nm for glyburide and 227 nm for metformin hydrochloride. For the second and third methods, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 10-55 microg/mL for glyburide and 20-200 microg/mL for metformin. The proposed methods were extensively validated and applied for the analysis of some pharmaceutical formulations containing binary mixtures of the mentioned drugs.
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To assess the efficacy and safety of adding rosiglitazone to an established regimen of glyburide/metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes who had not achieved adequate glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1C] levels >7.0% and < or =10.0%).
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The level of HbA1c that seemed to trigger glucose-lowering action was 9.0% or higher, not 8.0% as recommended by the ADA. A substantial hyperglycemic peak preceded change in therapy even in this relatively tightly controlled population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Earlier therapeutic changes, but not more frequent testing, would prevent the glycemic excursions we observed. Low mean HbA1c levels in populations do not necessarily indicate that loss of glycemic control is being rapidly addressed for most patients. More research is needed to estimate the impact of these peaks on current well-being and future complications.
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The aim of the present study was to describe the mechanism by which the combination glyburide/metformin exerts its additive hypoglycemic effects. This is a double-blind, randomized and crossover clinical trial. Patients (n = 20) were included in a run-in period of 8 weeks in which an isocaloric diet was prescribed. If they did not achieve the treatment goals (n = 15), they received glyburide, metformin or combined treatment for 10 weeks each using three possible sequences. The dosage was adjusted to reach fasting plasma glucose (FPG) < 7.7 mmol/l. Treatment periods were separated by a 6-12 week washout period. At the beginning and the end of every treatment, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were measured by means of a minimal model and an oral glucose tolerance test. All treatment periods were completed by 12 cases. The glycemic goal was reached in 1 case during metformin, in 5 during glyburide and in 10 during the combination. The greatest reduction in HbA1c was achieved during the combination (HbA1c 11 +/- 1.6 vs 9.8 +/- 1.9 vs 9.0 +/- 2.1% for metformin, glyburide and the combination, p < 0.001). Increased insulin secretion was the explanation for the additive effects of the combination (percentual change in acute insulin response during the minimal model = 5.8 vs 51.5 vs 88.2% for metformin, glyburide and the combination, p < 0.05). No change in insulin sensitivity resulted from the treatments. In conclusion, the additive hypoglycemic effects of the combination glyburide/metformin was caused by increased insulin secretion.
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All patients taking a glyburide/metformin preparation at the Carl T. Hayden VAMC were identified from pharmacy records. Patients with documented hemoglobin A values within 31 weeks prior and between 3 and 33 weeks after initiation of therapy (92 subjects) were examined.
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An 18-year-old Spanish Mustang mare was referred for evaluation of progressive weight loss and persistent hyperglycemia. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included marked hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Serum cortisol concentration was appropriately decreased following administration of dexamethasone, indicating that the horse did not have pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Serum insulin and plasma C-peptide concentrations were low, suggesting that hyperglycemia was a result of decreased secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, glucose concentration did not return to the baseline concentration until 5 hours after i.v. administration of a glucose bolus, suggesting that insulin secretion, insulin effect, or both were reduced. However, i.v. administration of insulin caused only a slight decrease in the plasma glucose concentration, giving the impression that the action of insulin was impaired. Within 5 hours after administration of a combination of glyburide and metformin, which is used to treat diabetes mellitus in humans, the glucose concentration was within reference limits. The horse was euthanized, and a postmortem examination was done. Immunohistochemical staining of sections of the pancreas revealed attenuation of the pancreatic islet beta-cell population, with beta cells that remained generally limited to the periphery of the islets. These findings indicate that, albeit rare, pancreatic beta-cell failure may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus in horses.
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After 24 weeks, therapy with glyburide/metformin plus rosiglitazone resulted in a greater reduction in HbA1C levels (-1.0%, P<0.001) compared with combination therapy that included placebo, and in a larger proportion of patients (42% vs. 14%) who attained levels <7%. The difference in fasting plasma glucose levels between groups was -48 mg/dL (P<0.001), favoring glyburide/metformin plus rosiglitazone. The adverse event profile in the rosiglitazone-treated group included mild-to-moderate edema (8%), hypoglycemia (22%), and weight gain of 3 kg. No patient experienced hypoglycemia requiring third-party assistance.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Effective treatment often requires therapy directed at both abnormalities. Patients on monotherapy might benefit from a combination agent such as glyburide/metformin, which increases insulin secretion and reduces insulin resistance.
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To determine the effect of plasma glucose lowering on coronary circulatory function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The combination treatments were more effective than either monotherapy irrespective of baseline HbA1C, age or BMI in each trial. Antihyperglycaemic effects were greater in patients with HbA1C > or = 8% at baseline, especially with the combinations. The majority of hypoglycaemic symptoms with glibenclamide-containing treatments occurred in patients with HbA1C < 8% at baseline. Neither age nor BMI had a marked effect on the efficacy of the combination treatments, and there was no increase in hypoglycaemic symptoms in older patients.
New diagnostic criteria proposed by the American Diabetes Association would triple the prevalence of GDM (∼18%). Whether the treatment of women with these milder degrees of hyperglycemia will improve pregnancy outcomes is unknown given the powerful effect of obesity alone on excess fetal growth. There are data that restricting carbohydrate in the diet by substituting fat to blunt postprandial glucose levels may worsen maternal insulin resistance and that metformin may increase offspring subcutaneous fat.
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An open-label, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter trial was conducted to compare efficacy and safety of repaglinide versus nateglinide, when used in a combination regimen with metformin for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
The adoption of the new American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria for GDM was rejected by ACOG and not endorsed by the NIH. Yet, varying criteria are used by different centers resulting in confusion for both patient care and research. Both maternal diet and agents that cross the placenta could potentially modify offspring gene expression. Better identification and treatment of mothers and fetuses at risk may have far-reaching implications for maternal and child health.
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Oral anti-diabetic combinations that address insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction (e.g. metformin and glibenclamide) represent a rational therapeutic option for patients uncontrolled on monotherapy. A 52-week, open-label extension to a double-blind study evaluated metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets (Glucovance) in 477 patients with hyperglycaemia despite sulphonylurea therapy. Reductions in HbA1C were maintained, with a mean reduction of -1.7% after 52 weeks, compared with the baseline value for the double-blind trial. Eighty-five patients receiving 4 x 500 mg/2.5 mg tablets daily displayed a marked improvement in HbA1c following up-titration to a regimen of 2 x 500 mg/2.5 mg + 3 x 500 mg/5 mg tablets. Lipid profiles improved significantly. The combination tablets were well tolerated: 11.1% of patients reported hypoglycaemic symptoms (all either mild or moderate severity). No patient withdrew or required pharmacologic intervention for hypoglycaemia. Metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets are an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for intensifying oral anti-diabetic therapy.
This exploratory double-blind, randomised, 20-week study evaluated the mechanism of action of metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets (Glucovance) vs. metformin and glibenclamide in 50 type 2 diabetes patients inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. A glycaemic target of HbA1C 7.0% was used. Final HbA(1C), fasting glucose and post-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose were similar between groups, although average doses of metformin and glibenclamide from combination tablets (708 and 3.5 mg) were lower than monotherapy doses (1500 and 6.6 mg). Second-phase insulin during a hyperglycaemic clamp increased by 93% with combination tablets, 36% with metformin and 46% with glibenclamide. The insulin response post-OGTT was more rapid with the combination tablets vs. glibenclamide. First-phase insulin responses improved modestly in all groups, possibly due to reduced glucotoxicity. Changes in insulin sensitivity were minor. Larger beta-cell responses between combination tablets and glibenclamide may reflect more rapid glibenclamide absorption.
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To evaluate the change in hemoglobin A1C (A1C) in patients with type 2 diabetes switched from coadministration of a sulfonylurea (SU), glyburide or glipizide, and metformin (SU+Met) to a single glyburide-metformin tablet.
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The FDC enhanced adherence rates by approximately 13% when compared to a 2-pill regimen.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the consequence of both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. In the progression from normal glucose tolerance to diabetes, postprandial glucose (PPG) levels often rise before fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels increase above 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L). Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased risk for macrovascular disease and that isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia is an independent factor for increased mortality. Reducing the risk for microvascular complications by improving glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels is well documented. Emerging data now support the relationship between glycemic control and macrovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies documenting postprandial hyperglycemia and the risk for increased mortality suggest that lowering PPG levels might be beneficial. Optimizing both FPG and PPG is important in achieving normal/near-normal glucose levels. Many patients with type 2 diabetes have difficulty attaining the recommended HbA(1c) goal despite normal/near-normal FPG levels; thus, pharmacologic treatment targeting PPG levels may prove beneficial.
To compare the effects of two different formulations of glibenclamide (glyburide) combined with metformin on postprandial glucose excursions, and to assess their pharmacokinetics. The formulations were a combination glibenclamide/metformin tablet (Glucovance; controlled-particle-size glibenclamide and metformin) versus glibenclamide (Micronase) and metformin (Glucophage) coadministered separately.
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The diabetic groups presented similar clinical characteristics upon recruitment. Crude mortality rate after a 7.7-year follow-up was lower in nondiabetics (14 vs. 31.6%, p<0.001). Among diabetics, 720 patients died: 260 on diet (mortality 26.3%), 324 on glyburide (34%), 25 on metformin alone (31.6%), and 111 patients (43.9%) on combined treatment (p<0.000001). Time-related mortality was almost equal for patients on metformin and on combined therapy over an intermediate follow-up period of 4 years (survival rates 0.80 and 0.79, respectively). The group on combined treatment presented the worst prognosis over the long-term follow-up, with a time-related survival rate of 0.59 after 7 years, versus 0.68 and 0.70 for glyburide and metformin, respectively. After adjustment to variables for prognosis, the use of the combined treatment was associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality of 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.96), whereas glyburide and metformin alone yielded HR 1.22 (95% CI 1.02-1.45) and HR 1.26 (95% CI 0.81-1.96), respectively.
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Single-tablet metformin-glibenclamide combination treatment is more effective than metformin or glibenclamide monotherapy, and is well tolerated in patients with hyperglycaemia inadequately controlled by diet and exercise or antidiabetic monotherapy, irrespective of their severity of hyperglycaemia at baseline, age or weight.
Final HbA(1c) values were lower for repaglinide/metformin treatment than for nateglinide/metformin (7.1 vs. 7.5%). Repaglinide/metformin therapy showed significantly greater mean reductions of HbA(1c) (-1.28 vs. -0.67%; P < 0.001) and of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (-39 vs. -21 mg/dl; P = 0.002). Self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles were significantly lower for repaglinide/metformin before breakfast, before lunch, and at 2:00 A.M. Changes in the area under the curve of postprandial glucose, insulin, or glucagon peaks after a test meal were not significantly different for the two treatment groups during this study. Median final doses were 5.0 mg/day for repaglinide and 360 mg/day for nateglinide. Safety assessments were comparable for the two regimens.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of two dosage strengths of a single-tablet metformin-glibenclamide (glyburide) combination, compared with the respective monotherapies, in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy.
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Seventy-two patient records were included after the disqualification criteria excluded 488 prospective patients. The mean age of the 72 patients was 62 years; average body mass index was 32.9 kg/m2, average baseline A1C was 8.3%, and the average time since diagnosis was 7.6 years. The mean reduction in A1C was 0.6% (P=0.002) at a mean follow-up of 196 days after the switch to glyburide-metformin tablets. Improvement in glycemic control was predominantly seen in patients with a baseline A1C >or=8% in whom a 1.3% mean reduction in A1C (P=0.0002) was achieved despite a lower mean final dose of glyburide.
Glyburide/metformin combination therapy reduced hemoglobin A levels from 0.087 to 0.083 (P < 0.06). Significant reductions were seen in those patients with initial levels higher than 0.08 (0.094 to 0.087; P < 0.01). No significant reductions were seen in those patients with initial levels lower than 0.08.
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In patients with inadequate glycemic control despite established glyburide/metformin therapy, the addition of rosiglitazone improves glycemic control, allowing more patients to achieve an HbA1C level <7% and perhaps delaying the need for insulin treatment.