A total of 16 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and liraglutide (1.2 mg/d for ≥2 weeks) were randomized (sealed envelopes), within a cross-over design, to be studied on two occasions, after an overnight fast, with (1) sitagliptin (100 mg orally) and (2) placebo (patients and care givers blinded) administered 60 minutes before a mixed meal, or vice versa. Glucose excursions (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; primary endpoint) and insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and incretin concentrations were measured. The study setting was a metabolic study unit at a specialized diabetes hospital.
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Design: Multicentre randomised, controlled trial.
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Although standard of care for treatment of pancreatic cancer is established in the first line setting, there is limited data to support standard for second line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer. This is starting to change, as new studies have shown positive effect on overall survival in the second line setting. At the recent ASCO Annual Meeting 2014, several new second-line chemotherapy regimens were presented, including ruxolitinib with capecitabine, oxaliplatin with 5-FU/leucovorin, metformin plus paclitaxel and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. These abstracts provide exciting new directions for the second line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer that has been refractory to both gemcitabine-based regimens as well as non-gemcitabine based regimens.
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This 4-week, parallel-group study randomized 190 patients with type 2 diabetes 2 : 1, canakinumab versus placebo, into the following treatment arms: metformin monotherapy, metformin + sulfonylurea, metformin + sulfonylurea + thiazolidinedione or insulin ± metformin. IGT population (n = 54) was randomized 1 : 1, canakinumab versus placebo. Primary efficacy assessment was change from baseline in insulin secretion rate (ISR) relative to glucose 0-2 h.
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A total of 139 patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (n = 69) or placebo (n = 70). Patient demographics were comparable between the groups at baseline. After 12 weeks of treatment, adjusted mean change in HbA1c was -1.1% in the vildagliptin group (baseline 8.0%) and -0.1% in the placebo group (baseline 8.0%), with a between-treatment difference of -1.0% (P < 0.001). Vildagliptin showed a similar reduction in HbA1c of -1.1% for both the subpopulations of patients receiving metformin 250 mg bid or 500 mg bid (P < 0.001 vs. baseline). Significantly more patients in the vildagliptin group achieved an HbA1c target of ≤6.5% (30.9%) and <7.0% (64.1%) compared with the placebo group (P < 0.001). The between-treatment difference in adjusted mean change in fasting plasma glucose was -1.6 mmol/L (P < 0.001) in favor of vildagliptin. Patients in the vildagliptin and placebo groups reported comparable incidences of adverse events (44.1% vs. 41.4%). No deaths or hypoglycemic events were reported in the study.
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Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with the worst prognosis. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Many risk factors have been associated with PC. Interestingly, large numbers of epidemiological studies suggest that obesity and diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes, are positively associated with increased risk of PC. Similarly, these chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, and cancer) are also a major public health concern. In the U.S. population, 50 percent are overweight, 30 percent are medically obese, and 10 percent have diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, obesity and DM have been considered as potential risk factors for cancers; however, the focus of this article is restricted to PC. Although the mechanisms responsible for the development of these chronic diseases leading to the development of PC are not fully understood, the biological importance of the activation of insulin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathways in insulin resistance mechanism and subsequent induction of compensatory hyperinsulinemia has been proposed. Therefore, targeting insulin/IGF-1 signaling with anti-diabetic drugs for lowering blood insulin levels and reversal of insulin resistance could be useful strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of PC. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the administration of anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZD) class of PPAR-γ agonists decreases the risk of cancers, suggesting that these agents might be useful anti-tumor agents for the treatment of PC. In this review article, we will discuss the potential roles of metformin and TZD anti-diabetic drugs as anti-tumor agents in the context of PC and will further discuss the complexities and the possible roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and PC.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations.
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In this review, the rationale for the use of ISDs and the evidence for their efficacy are detailed. In particular, the mechanism of action, potential for use, limitations and untoward effects of metformin and thiazolidinediones are systematically reviewed. Further, we discuss novel ISDs that may have potential clinical utility in NAFLD.
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During the DPP follow-up (mean: 3.2 years), sedentary time declined more in the lifestyle than the metformin or placebo participants (p < 0.05). For the lifestyle group, the decrease in reported mean television watching time (22 [95% CI 26, 17] min/day) was greater than in the metformin or placebo groups (p < 0.001). Combining all participants together, there was a significantly increased risk of developing diabetes with increased television watching (3.4% per hour spent watching television), after controlling for age, sex, treatment arm and leisure physical activity (p < 0.01), which was attenuated when time-dependent weight was added to the model.
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The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of Aloe extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and focuses its effect on GLUT-4 gene expression under in vitro cell-culture system. Administration of extract at the dosage of 130 mg/kg body weight per day for 4 weeks resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose and total cholesterol in streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic mice. The hypoglycemic effect was compared with metformin. The activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were brought back to near normal level after the treatment and glucose homeostasis was maintained. Lyophilized aqueous Aloe extract (1 mg/ml) upregulated the GLUT-4 mRNA synthesis in mouse embryonic NIH/3T3 cells.
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Unlike in western countries, premixed insulin is widely used as the starter insulin in Asian patients instead of basal insulin. The use of basal-bolus therapy as an intensification regimen is not common in Asia despite poor glycaemic control after starting insulin therapy. An alternative insulin intensification regimen with a similar efficacy and safety profile to basal-bolus therapy, but of higher convenience, is urgently needed. The efficacy and safety of insulin lispro mix thrice-daily was compared with basal-bolus therapy in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes who were insufficiently controlled on twice-daily premixed insulin.
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is thought to influence several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Anti-inflammatory effects of treatments used for MetS, such as metformin hydrochloride and pioglitazone hydrochloride, have been demonstrated, although clinical evidence supporting use of these treatments in MS is lacking.
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely linked. This study aimed to describe and analyze the relations between renal function and glycemic control in T2D patients with overt nephropathy.
Our findings supported that metformin exposure was associated with survival benefits in patients with pancreatic cancer and pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially among those with an advanced cancer stage.
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After 6 months of multiprofessional lifestyle intervention, 70 out of 86 adolescents without improvement in body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR were randomized into either the placebo (n=34) or the metformin group (2×500 mg/day, n=36) in addition to ongoing lifestyle intervention for another 6 months.
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Although many anti-diabetic drugs have been used to control hyperglycemia for decades, the efficacy of commonly-used oral glucose-lowering agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has yet to be clearly demonstrated.
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Hypoglycaemia and body weight gain are side effects of certain glucose-lowering drugs, e.g. sulphonylurea (SU) compounds. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often treated with multiple oral antidiabetic drugs complicating patient insight into drug safety and side effects. We aimed to elucidate the extent of patient worry about hypoglycaemia and body weight gain contra their knowledge about these two phenomena being actual side effects of SU.
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During the study period, no statistically significant change in %FMD was seen in both groups (sitagliptin, 5.6 to 5.6%; glimepiride, 5.6 to 6.0%). Secretory units of islets in transplantation, TNF-α, adiponectin and biological antioxidant potential significantly improved in the sitagliptin group, and superoxide dismutase also tended to improve in the sitagliptin group, while improvements in HbA1c levels were similar between groups. Cardiac index, blood pressure and most other metabolic parameters were not different.
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A team of primary care clinicians with expertise in evidence-based medicine performed monthly surveillance of more than 110 English-language clinical research journals during 2014, and identified 255 studies that had the potential to change how family physicians practice. Each study was critically appraised and summarized, focusing on its relevance to primary care practice, validity, and likelihood that it could change practice. A validated tool was used to obtain feedback from members of the Canadian Medical Association about the clinical relevance of each POEM (patient-oriented evidence that matters) and the benefits they expect for their practice. This article, the fourth installment in this annual series, summarizes the 20 POEMs based on original research studies judged to have the greatest impact on practice for family physicians. Key studies for this year include advice on symptomatic management and prognosis for acute respiratory infections; a novel and effective strengthening treatment for plantar fasciitis; a study showing that varenicline plus nicotine replacement is more effective than varenicline alone; a network meta-analysis concluding that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are preferred over angiotensin II receptor blockers; the clear benefits of initial therapy with metformin over other agents in patients with diabetes mellitus; and important guidance on the use of anticoagulants.
Blockade of the coinhibitory checkpoint molecule PD-1 has emerged as an effective treatment for many cancers, resulting in remarkable responses. However, despite successes in the clinic, most patients do not respond to PD-1 blockade. Metabolic dysregulation is a common phenotype in cancer, but both patients and tumors are metabolically heterogeneous. We hypothesized that the deregulated oxidative energetics of tumor cells present a metabolic barrier to antitumor immunity through the generation of a hypoxic microenvironment and that normalization of tumor hypoxia might improve response to immunotherapy. We show that the murine tumor lines B16 and MC38 differed in their ability to consume oxygen and produce hypoxic environments, which correlated with their sensitivity to checkpoint blockade. Metformin, a broadly prescribed type II diabetes treatment, inhibited oxygen consumption in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, resulting in reduced intratumoral hypoxia. Although metformin monotherapy had little therapeutic benefit in highly aggressive tumors, combination of metformin with PD-1 blockade resulted in improved intratumoral T-cell function and tumor clearance. Our data suggest tumor hypoxia acts as a barrier to immunotherapy and that remodeling the hypoxic tumor microenvironment has potential to convert patients resistant to immunotherapy into those that receive clinical benefit. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(1); 9-16. ©2016 AACR.
Adipose tissue scavenger receptors are strongly associated with insulin resistance. Pioglitazone and adiponectin regulate gene expression of SRA and LOX-1, and this may have clinical implications in arresting the untoward sequalae of insulin resistance and diabetes, including accelerated atherosclerosis.
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Postnatal estrogen replacement and a marked decrease of endogenous androgens failed to improve IR and glucose tolerance. We propose that, in females, the increment of androgens and/or lack of estrogens during fetal life might alter the mechanism of fetal programming of insulin sensitivity.
To assess the effect of various treatments, glycaemic targets and procedures for self-monitoring of blood glucose on the foetal and maternal prognosis.
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To determine the effect of metformin on the acute metabolic response to submaximal exercise, the effect of exercise on plasma metformin concentrations, and the interaction between metformin and exercise on the subsequent response to a standardized meal.
No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy.
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A substantial dose reduction of glibenclamide (25%), gliclazide (25%), glimepiride (22%), and metformin (5%) in geriatrics compared to nongeriatrics was observed. Smaller dosage formulations like 0.75 mg glibenclamide, 0.5 mg glimepiride, 20 mg gliclazide, and 250 mg metformin may be of value in geriatric diabetic practice.
This randomized controlled trial was done in the Dhaka Medical College and Hospital and the Infertility Care and Research Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 165 infertile patients with CC-resistant PCOS who attended for treatment were the target population for this study. Patients were divided into three groups: groups A and B were given metformin and group C was the control. Along with metformin, group A received CC and group B received rFSH. Group C was treated with only rFSH. Metformin was given 1500 mg daily for 4 weeks. Afterwards CC or rFSH were added for induction of ovulation along with metformin. Six ovulatory cycles were assessed. Treatment was terminated when there was no response with maximum dose of CC and rFSH or after six ovulatory cycles without pregnancy or after achieving pregnancy. A P-value of <0.5 was considered as significant.