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We reviewed available pediatric literature on second-generation antipsychotic medications to assess current evidence of efficacy and safety.
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Atypical antipsychotics are indicated for specific psychiatric conditions; however, they are frequently used for US Food and Drug Administration-nonapproved indications.
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The review now includes seven trials with a total of 479 participants. In only one trial, with 95 participants, perazine appeared superior to 'active placebo' (trimipramine) at five weeks for the outcome of 'no important global improvement' (n = 95, RR 0.43 CI 0.2 to 0.8, low quality evidence), but there was no statistically significant difference in most measures of mental state. Perazine did not induce more general adverse events than placebo but more participants received at least one dose of antiparkinson medication (n = 95, RR 4.50 CI 1.0 to 19.5, very low quality evidence).Six small trials comparing perazine with other antipsychotics, including 384 participants in total, were incompletely reported and the outcomes were presented in various ways so that meta-analysis was not possible on most occasions. In the six studies, a similar number of participants receiving perazine or comparator antipsychotics (amisulpride, haloperidol, olanzapine, ziprasidone, zotepine) left the studies early (n = 384, RR 0.97 CI 0.68 to 1.38, low quality evidence). The results on efficacy could not be meta-analysed because the authors presented their results in very different ways. No obvious differences in adverse events between perazine and other antipsychotics could be derived from the limited data. Two haloperidol comparisons did not present extrapyramidal side-effects in a way that was suitable for use in meta-analysis, but three small comparisons with the second-generation antipsychotics zotepine and amisulpride showed no higher risk of akathisia (n = 111, RR 0.31 CI 0.1 to 1.1), dyskinesia (n = 111, RR 0.47 CI 0.1 to 3.5), parkinsonism (n = 81, RR 1.21 CI 0.5 2.8) or tremor (n = 40, RR 0.80 CI 0.3 to 2.6) with perazine.
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The new generation antipsychotics are associated with a lower risk of adverse effects compared with drugs such as haloperidol. Many treatment guidelines recommend the use of new generation ('atypical') antipsychotic drugs for people with a first episode of schizophrenia.
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A 34 year old Caucasian woman with ICD-10 diagnosis of Recurrent depressive disorder with current moderate symptoms, and with a history of repeated self-injury was treated with lithium, clonazepam and ziprasidone.
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To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of ziprasidone in children, adolescents, and young adults with autism.
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To examine the effects of perazine for those with schizophrenia or related psychoses in comparison with placebo, no treatment or other antipsychotic medications.
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Discontinuing treatment may lead to exacerbation of symptoms, undermining therapeutic progress. In these studies, poor response to treatment and worsening of underlying psychiatric symptoms, and to a lesser extent, intolerability to medication were the primary contributors to treatment being discontinued. Our findings suggest that adherence may be enhanced by effective symptom control, as objectively measured and as subjectively perceived. Such strategies may improve patients' willingness to undertake long-term therapy and increase the likelihood of a better prognosis.
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Charles-Bonnet syndrome (CBS) occurs after the loss of vision or a decrease in visual ability and is characterized by visual hallucinations with insight and preserved cognitive status. In this paper, 2 cases in which vision was lost (in one patient due to hypophyseal macroadenoma and in the other due to diabetic retinopathy) are presented. The first case is a 35-year-old male referred to the psychiatry department for depressive complaints. He lost his vision due to optic atrophy following multiple surgeries for hypophyseal macroadenoma and visual hallucinations developed afterwards. Ziprasidone 80 mg/day was started and the hallucinations disappeared on the fifth day, but the medication had to be withdrawn because of severe vascular type headaches. Olanzapine 5 mg/day was subsequently used without benefit. He refused further medication and the visions gradually changed into sparkling lights and simple figures at the 7-month follow-up. The second case was a 54-year-old woman with a 20-year history of type-II diabetes mellitus. Visual hallucinations developed after bilateral visual loss due to diabetic retinopathy 4 years earlier. She responded well to treatment with quetiapine 100 mg/day and paroxetine 20 mg/day. Neither of the cases had reported their visual symptoms to their physicians; the second case was diagnosed after 4 years by active screening. Both of the cases had neuroanatomic lesions. CBS symptoms should be screened actively in patients with visual loss and physicians should be educated about diagnosing CBS. Novel antipsychotics, such as ziprasidone and quetiapine, seem to be effective alternatives for the treatment of CBS.
Atypical, but not typical, antipsychotic drugs (APDs), produce preferential increases in dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) release in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to the nucleus accumbens (NAC). The increase in DA release has been attributed, in part, to their greater serotonin (5-HT)(2A) relative to D(2) receptor occupancy, while the basis for the increase in ACh has not yet been determined. Loxapine, a dibenzoxazepine congener of clozapine, is generally considered to be a typical APD because it produces significant extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in humans, at generally recommended clinical doses (60-100 mg/day), and catalepsy in rodents, although several studies have found it to be effective at lower doses which do not produce significant EPS. Moreover, loxapine, like its congener clozapine, has higher affinity for serotonin (5-HT)(2A) than dopamine D(2) receptors, in vitro, suggesting the possibility it could be an atypical APD with clozapine-like potential.
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After eight weeks cognitive outcomes had not improved in the patients having switched from olanzapine to ziprasidone (n=11; mean dose 136 mg) nor in those having switched from ziprasidone to olanzapine (n=10; mean 16 mg), while the symptoms of patients maintaining olanzapine (n=18; mean 10.9 mg) or ziprasidone (n=18; mean 88.9 mg) treatment had not improved further.
(ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00254202.
The integration of new treatments into the market and routine clinical practice should be dependent on robustness of evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We assessed study designs of long-term studies for bipolar disorder of all second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the completeness of evidence submitted to the regulatory agency.
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Ziprasidone (ZIP) shows a low propensity for metabolic side effects but can prolong QTc time. It is unclear how these features translate into clinical reality. Charts of inpatients with schizophrenia and switched from (ZIP - , n = 27) or to ZIP (ZIP + , n = 24) were reviewed. Clinical data including documented switch reasons were anonymously analyzed. Comorbidity, body mass index (BMI) at admission, illness severity, side effects, illness duration, and length of stay were comparable in both groups. About 2/3 of ZIP+ were women (1/3 of ZIP - , P = 0.035); ZIP+ patients were younger (P = 0.017), had higher BMI values (P = 0.042), and received higher chlorpromazine equivalents before switch (P = 0.004) whereas ZIP doses were comparable (136 versus 141 mg/d). More patients in ZIP- versus ZIP+ were switched because of previous weight gain (P = 0.006) and depression (P = 0.085) whereas single reasons for ZIP- versus ZIP+ were mainly persisting positive symptoms (P = 0.089) and patients' choice (P = 0.10). The results of the naturalistic study corroborate controlled trials.
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Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic with a high ratio of 5-HT(2A) to D(2) receptor antagonism. It is also an agonist at 5-HT(1A), which has been shown in rats to increase dopamine in prefrontal cortex. The objective of this study was to probe the dopamine agonist and antagonist pharmacodynamic properties of ziprasidone in youth.
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Recent studies using large databases clearly indicate that extrapyramidal side effects, in particular akathisia, do occur with the SGAs, although the frequency is not as high as with the conventional antipsychotics. Risk factors include use of high doses, high potency SGAs, or combinations of SGAs with other psychotropic drugs, bipolar depression, palliative care settings, and comorbid substance abuse in psychosis. The dopamine hypothesis remains plausible for understanding the pathophysiology of akathisia. There is emerging evidence that mirtazapine may be useful in the treatment of acute akathisia.
A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method was developed to facilitate stability studies of extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulations of ziprasidone. The method is simple and precise within the needs of the pharmaeutical profession. The throughput time is approximately 7 minutes per sample. The method is easily adaptable for inidividual needs.
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Stable in- or outpatients (n=206) receiving RIS or OQAZ (olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, ziprasidone) were transitioned to RLAI for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the between-group treatment difference in change in PANSS total score from baseline to endpoint. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality-of-life and therapeutic alliance.
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Cognitive deficits are a core feature in schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits appear to be present at the onset of schizophrenia and persist after remission of psychotic symptoms. As cognitive deficits are associated with poor functional outcome, they form an important focus of treatment. There are relatively few head-to-head comparisons of the effects of second generation antipsychotics on cognition in recent onset schizophrenia. This is the first study to compare the effects of a short term treatment of olanzapine versus ziprasidone on cognitive functioning in recent onset schizophrenia. An earlier study conducted in chronic patients revealed an enhancement of cognition after treatment for both agents, but the extent of improvement was not significantly different between ziprasidone and olanzapine.
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Ziprasidone and olanzapine had comparable long-term efficacy; olanzapine was associated with significant weight gain and metabolic alterations.
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Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic recommended to be administered twice daily.
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Characterization of two novel benzisothiazole ring cleaved metabolites of the antipsychotic drug, ziprasidone (ZIP), in rat has been described. Metabolites designated M6 and M9 were isolated from urine and bile of the rat dosed with radiolabeled ZIP and purified by reversed phase HPLC. The chemical structures of these metabolites were assigned based on tandem mass spectrometry in combination with chemical derivatization techniques. M6 and M9 were unaffected upon treatment with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide. Reaction of M9 with aqueous TiCl3 also did not change the HPLC retention time or the CID spectrum of metabolite M9. These data excluded the possibility that these metabolites were owing to N-oxidation and/or aromatic hydroxylation. M6 and M9 were generated only when in vitro incubations of ZIP were conducted with human liver S-9 fraction in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Based on these data, metabolites M6 and M9 were identified as S-methyl-dihydro-ZIP and S-methyl-dihylro-ZIP-sulfoxide, respectively. The structure of M9 was unambiguously confirmed by comparing the LC/MS retention time and mass spectral data with synthetic standard. A mechanism for the formation of these metabolites from ZIP is proposed.
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We found some evidence in our sample that the publication of the results from CATIE had a small but statistically significant effect on prescribing habits of psychiatrists but not other physicians in our sample population. However, larger changes occurred in prescribing behavior that were largely unrelated to the CATIE trial. We propose a hypothesis to explain the direction of observed changes.
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The present study determined whether a two-choice drug discrimination procedure with CLZ could be established in C57BL/6 mice and whether this procedure could distinguish between atypical and typical APDs.
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Hyperprolactinaemia is a frequent but often neglected side effect of typical, but also of many atypical antipsychotics such as amisulpiride, risperidone or ziprasidone. Besides galactorrhoea, potential consequences are suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction, infertility and in women also irregularities of the menstrual cycle and amenorrhoea. Potential long term consequences are mainly osteopenia and osteoporosis with an enhanced risk of fractures. Hyperprolactinaemia, if not clearly caused by a prolactin inducing antipsychotic, should always be thoroughly investigated. Ideally, prolactin should be measured before starting a patient on a new antipsychotic. Furthermore, before neuroleptic treatment is begun, and also in regular intervals after that, patients should be asked about potential clinical signs of hyperprolactinaemia. Hyperprolactinaemia which is clearly due to antipsychotics but without clinical symptoms only requires regular controls of bone mineral density. However, if clinical symptoms occur, switching to a prolactin sparing antipsychotic may be necessary. In these cases fertility is often regained and the women concerned have to be informed about the enhanced risk of pregnancy and counselled regarding contraception. If switching is not possible, estradiol has to be substituted in women. Also in men with hypogonadism hormonesubstitution (with testosterone) is usually indicated. Generally hyperprolactinaemia in psychiatric patients should be taken more seriously in the future.
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The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is approximately 0.7% and incidence rates vary between 7.7 and 43.0 per 100,000; about 75% of people have relapses and continued disability, and one third fail to respond to standard treatment. Positive symptoms include auditory hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder. Negative symptoms (demotivation, self-neglect, and reduced emotion) have not been consistently improved by any treatment.