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Epivir (Lamivudine)

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Epivir is an antiviral medication that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in your body. Epivir is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. Epivir is used to treat chronic hepatitis B. Epivir works by blocking the ability of the hepatitis B virus to multiply and infect new liver cells.

Other names for this medication:

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Valtrex, Zovirax, Famvir, Symmetrel, Rebetol, Sustiva, Combivir, Retrovir, Zerit, Lamprene, Baraclude, Epivir-HBV, Hepsera, Videx, Viread, Ziagen, Retrovir, Zerit, Emtriva, Hivid, Tyzeka, Videx EC


Also known as:  Lamivudine.


Epivir is used to treat HIV, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epivir is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. Epivir is used to treat chronic hepatitis B.

Epivir works by blocking the ability of the hepatitis B virus to multiply and infect new liver cells.

Epivir is also known as Lamivudine, Lamivir, Zeffix, Heptovir.

Generic Name of Epivir is Lamivudine.

Brand names of Epivir are Epivir, Epivir HBR.


Epivir is available in tablets and suspension which should be taken orally.

Epivir can be taken with or without food.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.


If you overdose Epivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Epivir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Be careful with Epivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Epivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Epivir if you are allergic to Epivir components.

Do not use Epivir together with Combivir (medication that contains a combination of lamivudine and zidovudine).

Be careful with Epivir if you have used a medicine similar to Epivir in the past such as abacavir (Ziagen), didanosine (Videx), stavudine (Zerit), tenofovir (Viread), zalcitabine (Hivid) or zidovudine (Retrovir).

Be careful with Epivir if you have kidney disease, liver disease, history of pancreatitis.

Use latex condom while having sex.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

epivir dosage

Four children with a median age of 10.3 years (range 6.5-11.2 years) were included in the study. Their clinical immune categories were: A1 (n=2), A2 (n=1), and B3 (n=1). Treatment of all four patients was with zidovudine (AZT)+lamivudine (3TC)+ritonavir (RTV). At the end of the first STI, VL was a median 214000 copies/ml (range 27400-616000), corresponding to 5.3 log(10) (range 4.4-5.8). At the end of the second STI, VL was a median 72400 copies/ml (range 17800-126000) or 4.7 log(10) (range 4.2-5.1), which corresponds to a rebound 0.6 log(10) lower than the first. At the end of the third STI, VL was a median 28200 copies/ml (range 5370-140000) or 4.45 log(10) (range 3.7-5.1), a rebound 0.85 log(10) lower than the first. All rebounds were followed by a decrease in the VL to undetectable levels during the treatment periods. CD8+ T lymphocyte counts increased during viral rebounds and an initial decrease in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts was followed by a tendency to increase even exceeding CD8+ T cell counts. Only one event of transitory severe immunosuppression occurred. There were no symptoms related to the HIV infection.

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A prospective study was conducted on 57 pregnant women to investigate the effect of antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on the carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy. The women were divided into three groups: ZDV Group, 20 HIV-1 infected women taking ZDV; TT Group, 25 patients on triple antiretroviral treatment (ZDV + 3TC + NFV); and Control Group, 12 pregnant women. Blood samples were obtained during the first visit for the determination of fasting plasma glycemia, when the patients were also submitted to a 75 g oral glucose test (OGTT-75g). These procedures were performed four times along pregnancy.

epivir 300 mg

Lamivudine (LAM) resistance is common on lamivudine monotherapy for chronic hepatitis B. This study examined the safety and efficacy of telbivudine (LDT) given with adefovir (ADV) versus ADV monotherapy in patients with chronic, lamivudine-resistant HBV infection.

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This article provides an extensive review of the evidence on the combination of ABC 600 mg and 3TC 300 mg. Specifically, it discusses the chemistry-- including the phrarmacodynamics, resistance to treatment, pharmacokinetics and metabolism--and formulations available. It also looks at clinical efficacy, including safety and tolerability.

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The aim of this study was to assess the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents on hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative and anti-hepatitis B core (HBc)-positive patients (HBV occult carriers) with rheumatic diseases.

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Fifty enrolled patients with CHB were evenly divided into 2 groups: a group treated with of lamivudine (LAM) (100 mg/day) plus adefovir (ADV) (10 mg/day) combination, and a group treated with entecavir (ETV) (0.5 mg/day). Serum levels of ALT, AST, creatinine, bilirubin, HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV viral load, and genotypic resistance were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks. HBV DNA levels were determined by real-time PCR and HBsAg and HBeAg by chemiluminescence. Serum levels of ALT, AST, creatinine, and bilirubin were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 12.0 software.

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We determined the frequency with which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures convert from positive to negative in subjects enrolled in a substudy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 320, which compared the efficacy of treatment with a combination of indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine (indinavir arm) to that of a combination of zidovudine and lamivudine (dual-nucleoside arm). All subjects included for study had positive baseline HIV cultures. Cultures were performed in real time with 10(7) fresh patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using the ACTG consensus method. We found lower rates of positive HIV cultures in the indinavir treatment arm than in the dual-nucleoside treatment arm (64 versus 96% at week 24, P < 0.001). Within the indinavir arm of the study, we found that positive cultures were less likely to occur in samples with a plasma HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level of <500 copies/ml than in those with a level of >or=500 copies/ml (44 versus 90%, P < 0.001). In addition, HIV cultures from samples with HIV-1 RNA levels of >or=500 copies/ml turned positive 8.5 days earlier, on average, than those from samples with levels of <500 copies/ml (P < 0.001). However, 38% of samples with plasma RNA levels of <50 copies/ml still were positive for HIV by culture. Thus, the rates of HIV isolation by standard culture procedures decrease as the plasma viral load decreases below 1,000 copies/ml; however, HIV isolates were still obtained from a substantial proportion of subjects with RNA levels of <50 copies/ml. The delay in the time required for HIV cultures to turn positive should be considered when attempting to obtain an HIV isolate from patients with suppression of plasma viral load.

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To investigate the variability of the main immunodominant motifs of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core gene by ultra-deep-pyrosequencing (UDPS).

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To determine the concentrations of nevirapine (NVP), lamivudine (3TC) and stavudine (D4T) in seminal and blood plasma in HIV-1-infected men.

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Chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nucleoside analogs (NAs) are popularly used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections; however, the anti-HBV effect is attenuated by drug-resistant viral mutations selected during long-term antiviral therapy. The timely analysis of drug-resistance mutations is essential in order to adjust treatment regimes. In this study, a T1699C substitution was introduced into the x gene of pHBV1.3 to generate an additional XhoI site, termed pHBV1.3‑XhoI, which is a nonsense mutation and does not influence protein expression, HBV replication ability, or NA susceptibility. Based on co-transfection with weak or non-replicative HBV plasmids and pHBV1.3-XhoI or pHBV1.3 and -XhoI-P-null plasmids into hepatocellular carcinoma cells, PCR was used to amplify 1176‑bp segments of T/C1699 using the isolated HBV encapsulated DNA as a template, modified by XhoI digestion and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis. Different bands composed of different virions were used to distinguish the replication capacities of the plasmids. Our results demonstrated no significant effects when different virions co-existed. A novel resistance test method was developed by co-transfection with pHBV1.3-XhoI and -rtL180M/M204V and treatment with various NA concentrations. Different bands composed of pHBV1.3-XhoI or -rtL180M/M204V were used to distinguish NA susceptibility. The bands composed of pHBV1.3 were more sharply reduced by lamivudine (LMV) than -rtL180M/M204V. The data demonstrate that the method established in our study may be used for the analysis of drug-resistant phenotypes at the cellular level.

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The patient was suffering from post-hepatitis liver cirrhosis, CHILD stage B, with underlying chronic hepatitis B and C coinfection.

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Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

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We retrospectively studied 62 patients (49 males; median age 54 years) with chronic HBV-related liver disease who were treated with lamivudine and who had at least 1-year on-treatment follow-up. Patients were subdivided according to the lamivudine dosage: 25 patients were treated with lamivudine 300 mg qd for two weeks, then shifted to 100mg qd (high-dose group) and 37 patients were treated with the standard dose of 100mg qd (standard-dose group).

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Chemotherapy can cause hepatitis flare-up through viral reactivation in patients who have had contact with hepatitis viruses. Few data are available on the genotype of the reactivated viruses.

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We describe a 39-year-old man with hepatitis B virus-(HBV) related chronic hepatitis who presented with nephrotic syndrome and decompensated cirrhosis. A kidney biopsy revealed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) which was thought to be related to the HBV infection. Because interferon-alpha therapy was generally not recommended in patients with advanced liver disease, we chose lamivudine as an alternate treatment for the HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). After 3-month treatment with oral lamivudine, resolution of the renal disease dramatically occurred together with improvement in liver function. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HBV-associated MPGN successfully treated with oral lamivudine therapy. The possible role of lamivudine in the treatment of HBV-associated GN is discussed.

epivir pediatric dosing

Genotyping of 50 consecutive specimens each from blood donors and VCT clients during 2005-2006 showed no mutations associated with HIVDR in the reverse transcriptase or protease regions of the HIV pol gene. These results are categorized by the WHO HIV drug resistance threshold survey method as representing a low prevalence (<5%) of transmitted HIV drug resistance.

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This study was to evaluate the antiviral efficacy and safety in nucleoside naive Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with entecavir (ETV) or lamivadine (LVD).

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Long-term administration of i.m. HBIG saves up to 60% of the usual costs for i.v. prophylaxis of HBV reinfection in patients after OLT. In combination with lamivudine, long-term i.m. HBIG therapy is as efficient as i.v. HBIG treatment, but its lower costs clearly favour its use in preventing HBV reinfection after OLT.

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in this pilot study, abacavir/lamivudine plus raltegravir was effective and generally well-tolerated over 48 weeks with modest changes in fasting lipids.

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About half of the patients had switched to tenofovir+ zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir for simplification purposes or toxicity while the other half had experienced virologic failure. 80/122 (66%) responded. Median viral load decreased to 78 copies/ml at week 48; median CD4 count increased to 321 cells/mm(3). Of the 42 virologic failures, only 3 patients failed after week 24. 24/35 patients who had been on a non-suppressive zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir-only regimen at baseline and added tenofovir to intensify, responded. 41/53 patients who switched from any nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-only regimen improved or maintained suppression. Genotypes were available for 85/122 patients. The only predictor of virologic failure was the combination 41L+210W+215Y/F mutational pattern. 16 of the patients who failed on tenofovir+ zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir therapy selected new primary nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations that they previously did not have. 48/85 (56%) patients with genotype tests had at least 3 (3-10; median 4) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-associated mutations in the past.

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The evolution of a sexually transmitted multiresistant HIV-1 in a linked transmission chain was followed for 33 months to assess its potential to persist in the absence of treatment. The multiresistant HIV reverted slowly to wild type in reverse transcriptase (positions 44, 67, 74, 118) rendering the virus only susceptible to lamivudine/emtricitabine. Persistence of the replication-competent resistant HIV increases its potential to spread further and strengthens the importance of resistance testing in newly infected patients.

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The efficacy of anti-viral therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is lost upon the emergence of resistant virus. Using >500 patient HBV isolates from several entecavir clinical trials, we show that phenotypic susceptibility correlates with genotypic resistance and patient virologic responses.

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TDF susceptibilities of lamivudine-resistant clones (rtL180M/M204V) and lamivudine plus entecavir-resistant clones (rtL180M/S202G/M204V) were similar to wild type clones in vitro. However, lamivudine plus adefovir-resistant clones (rtA181T/N236T) acquired tolerance to TDF, and the rtN236T mutation was considered to be a causal substitution for TDF resistance. Furthermore, genotypic differences in TDF susceptibility were also observed between genotypes A and C in vitro, and the differences could be confirmed in vivo (p = 0.023).

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To examine T-cell repertoire modifications, the evolution of T-helper (TH)1/TH2 cytokine imbalance and modifications in chemokine receptor expression when the viral load is decreased by 2-3 log10 copies/ml under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

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A total of 78 patients with compensated CHB (Group A) were maintained on either adefovir 10 mg daily (n = 38) or placebo (n = 40) while continuing lamivudine. An additional 38 patients with decompensated cirrhosis or post liver transplantation (Group B) received lamivudine plus adefovir. The primary endpoint was HBV DNA response at year 2.

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The purpose of the study is to analyse the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its incidence of reactivation among multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated in the era of novel therapy in an endemic Asian setting.

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In this 48-week, prospective, open-label, randomized study, patients were either switched to once-daily LPV/r, tenofovir (TDF), and lamivudine (3TC) (QD arm) or remained on their existing regimen (control arm). The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of patients maintaining virologic suppression following 48 weeks of treatment.

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Monitoring of renal function becomes increasingly important in the aging population of HIV-1 infected patients. We compared Cockroft & Gault (C&G), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Cystatin C- and 24 h urine-based estimated GFR (eGFR) with the gold standard, measured GFR (mGFR) using [125I]-iothalamate.

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epivir generic launch 2016-07-06

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence following liver transplantation (LTx) has been controllable primarily with the use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and lamivudine (LAM). However, HBV resistance to LAM and/or HBIg has become an increasing problem prompting the use of newer antiviral agents. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between therapy, HBV breakthrough, and allograft / patient survival in HBV-positive liver transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients that were transplanted for HBV from June 1994 to May 2003. A total of 92 patients, positive for either hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) pretransplant, received LAM monotherapy or HBIg (6 months) plus LAM therapy post-liver transplant. HBV breakthrough post-LTx was noted in 14 patients. All patients had detectable HBV DNA prior to liver transplantation; none of the patients that were HBV DNA negative prior to transplant had detectable HBV DNA posttransplant. Of these 14, 9 patients (64%) were switched from LAM to adefovir dipivoxil (ADF) and 5 patients (36%) to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TNV). In conclusion, pre-LTx HBV viremia should be considered in planning post-LTx prophylaxis. Trials to evaluate oral antiviral agents in combination with or without buy epivir online HBIg therapy are needed.

epivir 100 mg 2015-03-15

Nitazoxanide (NTZ), a thiazolide anti-infective, is active against anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, and a range of viruses in cell culture models, and is currently in phase II clinical development for treating chronic hepatitis C. In this report, we characterize the activities of NTZ and its active metabolite, tizoxanide (TIZ), along with other thiazolides against buy epivir online hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in standard antiviral assays. NTZ and TIZ exhibited potent inhibition of both HBV and HCV replication. NTZ was equally effective at inhibiting replication of lamivudine (LMV) and adefovir dipovoxil (ADV)-resistant HBV mutants and against 2'-C-methyl cytidine (2'CmeC) and telaprevir (VX-950)-resistant HCV mutants. NTZ displayed synergistic interactions with LMV or ADV against HBV, and with recombinant interferon alpha-2b (IFN) or 2'CmeC against HCV. Pre-treatment of HCV replicon-containing cells with NTZ potentiated the effect of subsequent treatment with NTZ plus IFN, but not NTZ plus 2'CmeC. NTZ induced reductions in several HBV proteins (HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAg) produced by 2.2.15 cells, but did not affect HBV RNA transcription. NTZ, TIZ, and other thiazolides are promising new antiviral agents that may enhance current or future anti-hepatitis therapies.

epivir drug class 2017-08-06

A prospective buy epivir online observational study.

epivir dialysis dosing 2016-12-29

These results argue for buy epivir online a phenotypic and genotypic cross resistance between stavudine and zidovudine. Modest increases of IC50 and IC50 for stavudine had an important impact on the virological response during the trial and plead for a new definition of the threshold value for stavudine phenotypic index.

epivir liquid dosage 2016-03-26

With passive immunoprophylaxis reinfection rate was 33%, 43% and 44% after 1, 3 and 5 years respectively. Without antiviral treatment 52% of patients died within the first year after reinfection. Antiviral therapy with lamivudine or famciclovir improved the one year survival after reinfection to 79%. Suppression of viral replication was more effective with lamivudine. Under lamivudine 26 patients (76%) became HBV-DNA negative, 9 patients HBsAg negative (26%). In contrast no patient became HBsAg negative during famciclovir therapy. Lamivudine was effective also after famciclovir breakthrough in 94% of patients. In case of lamivudine resistant reinfection viral replication could be suppressed with an antiviral combination therapy up to negative HBV-DNA in the hybridization assay. Severe side effects were not observed during any of the antiviral therapies. The graft survival after retransplantation for hepatitis B reinfection was 42% and 25% after one and buy epivir online 3 years.

buy epivir hbv 2015-09-11

This study showed the efficacy of the buy epivir online 'long-term' anti-viral maintenance along with the combination therapy in genotype D predominant chronic hepatitis B patients. A low clinical resistance rate to lamivudine was achieved.

epivir drug category 2015-09-14

15 studies were included and substantial heterogeneity was noted in the inclusion/exclusion criteria and controls. Pooled data showed no benefit of lamivudine (LAM) vs. untreated controls for transplant-free survival in patients with spontaneous AE of CHB (OR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.50-1.92; P = 0.956)), hepatic decompensation (OR = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.47-1.88; P = 0.862)) and liver failure owing to AE (OR = 2.30 (95% CI, 0.35-15.37; P = 0.387)) at 3 months. Entecavir achieved even higher short-term mortality than LAM. NAs led to rates of ALT normalization, undetectable HBV DNA, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion and drug resistance at 1 year in 88%, 61%, 46%, 35% and 5%. Pooled data also showed benefit favoring LAM buy epivir online vs. untreated controls for ALT normalization (OR = 1.98 (95% CI, 1.03-3.80; P = 0.039)) and undetectable HBV DNA (OR = 38.50 (95% CI, 7.68-192.99; P<0.001)) at 3 months. All NAs were relatively safe and well tolerated.

generic epivir solution 2017-01-13

The use of progestogen-only contraceptives may buy epivir online cause a change in bleeding pattern, which is a common cause of discontinuation of these methods. Co-administration with some antiretroviral therapies (ART) changes the bioavailability of the etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing contraceptive implant, possibly affecting the bleeding pattern. Bleeding patterns were evaluated in HIV-positive users of the ENG implant co-administered with two common ART regimens.

epivir tab 2017-11-27

A method employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clinically relevant levels of zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) in human serum. The method incorporates a fully automated ultrafiltration sample preparation step that replaces the solid-phase extraction step typically used for HPLC with UV detection. The calibration range of the dual-analyte LC-MS/MS method is 2.5-2,500 and 2.5-5,000 ng ml-1 for AZT and 3TC, respectively, using 0.25 ml of human serum. The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 ng ml- buy epivir online 1 for each analyte, with a chromatographic run time of approximately 6 min. Overall accuracy, expressed as bias, and inter- and intra-assay precision are < +/- 7 and < 10% for AZT, and < +/- 5 and < 12.1% for 3TC over the full concentration ranges. A cross-validation study demonstrated that the LC-MS/MS method afforded equivalent results to established methods consisting of a radioimmuno-assay for AZT and an HPLC-UV method for 3TC. Moreover, the LC-MS/MS was more sensitive, allowed markedly higher-throughput, and required smaller sample volumes (for 3TC only). The validated method has been used to support post-marketing clinical studies for Combivir a combination tablet containing AZT and 3TC.

epivir pediatric dosing 2017-10-03

The patients in both groups were matched in terms of age, sex and laboratory results at baseline. After years of therapy, the Child-Pugh-Turcotte scores and laboratory values buy epivir online of the patients receiving lamivudine were remarkably improved compared to the patients in the control group. The mortality rate and the incidence of cirrhosis-related complications were much lower in the lamivudine group than in the control group. Genotypic resistance tyrosine, methionine, aspartate, aspartate mutations developed in 26.7 percent of the patients during 3-year lamivudine treatment, and cirrhosis-related death and the hepatocellular carcinoma were more likely to occur in patients with these mutations than in the other patients who were treated with lamivudine.

epivir 50 mg 2017-05-02

Fifty-four consecutive adult Japanese patients with HBV-related cirrhosis were enrolled and continuously treated with lamivudine, daily for 6-35 months (median, 25 months). Twelve of the 54 patients were hepatitis B envelope antigen buy epivir online (HBeAg)-positive. The clinical courses of 21 of the patients were evaluated using the Child-Pugh-Turcott (CPT) score.

epivir 150mg tablet 2015-04-08

Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 41 AIDS patients whom failing combination antiretroviral therapy, and were amplified by nested PCR; then the buy epivir online amplified fragments were sequenced and analyzed.

epivir renal dosing 2016-02-02

HIV-infected, zidovudine-experienced patients originally randomized to receive indinavir, zidovudine, and buy epivir online lamivudine had HIV RNA levels and CD4 cell counts assessed over 6 years. Information was collected by questionnaire from subjects who discontinued the study regimen before 6 years. Both on-study and post-study responses were assessed.

cost of epivir 2015-02-24

The FDC pediatric formulation of lamivudine, nevirapine, and stavudine was bioequivalent buy epivir online to the individual liquid formulations in these fasting, healthy Indian men.

buy epivir 2015-04-16

CHER was an open-label randomised controlled trial of HIV-infected asymptomatic infants younger than 12 weeks in two South African trial sites with a percentage of CD4-positive T lymphocytes (CD4%) of 25% or higher. 377 infants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: deferred ART (ART-Def), immediate ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W), or immediate ART for 96 weeks (ART-96W), with subsequent treatment interruption. The randomisation schedule was stratified by clinical site with permuted blocks of random sizes to balance the numbers of infants allocated to each group. Criteria for ART initiation in the ART-Def group and re-initiation after interruption in the other groups were CD4% less than 25% in infancy; otherwise, the criteria were CD4% less than 20% or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention severe stage B or stage C disease. Combination therapy of lopinavir-ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine was the first-line treatment regimen at ART initiation and re-initiation. The primary endpoint was time to failure of first-line ART (immunological, clinical, or virological) or death. Comparisons were Valtrex Loading Dose done by intention-to-treat analysis, with use of time-to-event methods. This trial is registered with, number NCT00102960.

epivir hbv tablets 2017-05-14

Reducing hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication to minimal levels is emerging as a key therapeutic goal for chronic hepatitis Arcoxia Tablet Adalah B.

epivir mg 2015-05-11

The objectives of this study were to characterize age-related Zovirax 100 Mg changes in lamivudine pharmacokinetics in children and evaluate lamivudine exposure, followed by dose recommendations for subgroups in which target steady state area under the daily plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h ) is not reached.

epivir overdose 2017-11-17

TDF/ddI/EFV as initial therapy appears to have diminished efficacy in subjects with CD4 < 200 x 10 cells/l and viral load > 100,000 copies/ml. Treatment failure with resistance was not attributable to baseline resistance, efavirenz exposure or poor Amaryl Brand Name adherence.

buy epivir online 2015-10-03

Case-control study nested in a multicentre Famvir 250mg Tablets cohort of HIV-infected adults. Cases were patients that developed lipoatrophy and controls those who did not.

epivir suspension 2015-06-03

To study Lamictal Starting Dose the effect of Lamivudine on chronic hepatitis B patients with chemotherapy or immunosuppressive agents therapy, and research the drug resistance.

epivir solution generic 2015-12-06

In hepatitis B virus ( Propecia Reviews HBV) monoinfection, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are linearly correlated with HBV DNA levels and lamivudine resistance. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HBV co-infection, little is known about the association between ALT, HBV DNA, and lamivudine resistance. We assessed HBV DNA, lamivudine resistance and ALT levels in 45 time points in 11 patients with HIV/HBV co-infection during lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy. High HBV DNA levels (>10(6) copies/mL) and lamivudine resistance developed in 45% and 91% of patients, respectively. However, ALT levels were not elevated in the setting of high HBV DNA levels (mean ALT, 48 IU/mL) or lamivudine resistance (mean ALT, 44 IU/mL). HBV viraemia and lamivudine resistance during extended lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy are common in HIV/HBV co-infection, occurring in the absence of significant ALT elevations. In HIV/HBV co-infection, measurement of HBV DNA and HBV resistance mutations may identify HBV virological failure before biochemical changes and should be routinely used in the management of HIV/HBV co-infection.

epivir dosage 2017-07-09

Optimal adherence is essential for successful antiretroviral therapy. We analyzed the relation between minimum plasma drug concentration (Cmin) and total drug exposure over 24 hr (AUC24) with virologic failure for therapy-adherent patients in the nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV) groups of the double nonnucleoside study (2NN), which compared the efficacy of NVP and/or EFV together with stavudine and lamivudine. The objective was to find cutoff values of the Cmin and AUC24 below which the risk of virologic failure increased. The relation between Cmin and AUC24 with virologic failure (never a plasma viral load [pVL] < 50 copies/ml or a rebound to two consecutive pVL > 50 copies/ml) was analyzed with proportional hazard analyses. Data were censored at end of study or change of allocated treatment. The risk of virologic failure with NVP (n = 511) started to increase at a Cmin < 3.1 mg/L (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.97), but there was no cutoff value below which a statistically significant increased risk occurred. Neither was such a cutoff point identified for the AUC24. The risk of virologic failure with EFV (n = 312) was significantly increased at a Cmin < 1.1 mg/L (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.08-3.54) and an AUC24 < 40 mg x hr x L1 (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07-3.54). Both cutoff values represent the median values for adherent patients. These associations were driven by patients from Thailand. Adjusting for geographical region made the association between Cmin and AUC24 with virologic failure statistically nonsignificant. The sensitivity of the Cmin values was too low (29% for NVP, 64% for EFV) to be an adequate predictor for virologic failure. We conclude that identifying the Cmin value for the sole purpose of predicting virologic failure in patients who report to be adherent to NVP or EFV is Aricept Medication questionable because of the absence of a concentration-response relation (NVP) or the low sensitivity for such a cutoff value (NVP and EFV).

epivir tablets 2015-11-27

Fixed dose antiretroviral combinations (FDC) may improve therapy adherence with reduced pill burden. Abacavir and lamivudine are well-established nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors available as a once-daily FDC. Abacavir is currently considered an alternative treatment option in most established treatment guidelines based on associations with cardiovascular events and lesser efficacy in patients with higher baseline Paxil Recommended Dosage viremia.

epivir cost 2015-06-09

One hundred patients who presented to our Faculty of Medicine Hospital Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Department and had not received any antiviral treatment were recruited. The INNO-LiPA method was applied to investigate primary lamivudine resistance in patients.

epivir 25 mg 2016-11-08

We summarize the clinical history and laboratory results following the introduction of tenofovir among 6 patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) who presented with severe liver disease while receiving lamivudine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. In all cases, the introduction of tenofovir led to a sustained undetectable HBV and HIV loads, with marked clinical and laboratory improvement in liver function. We provide supporting evidence for the role of tenofovir in the management of advanced HBV infection in HIV-positive patients after the development of lamivudine resistance.

epivir storage 2015-09-19

This study addresses the dynamic of viral load rebound and immune system changes in a cohort of eight consecutive HIV-1-infected patients in very early stages [all the patients were taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART} and were recruited in the coordinating center from a larger study] who decided to discontinue HAART after 1 year of treatment and effective virologic response. The safety of this procedure and the outcome with reintroduction of the same treatment was also investigated.

epivir medication 2015-05-18

To investigate the efficacy of long-term lamivudine (3TC) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy in 3TC-resistant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients, we analysed 28 3TC-resistant patients treated with the combination therapy during 47 months (range, 9-75). At 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, the rates of virological response with undetectable HBV DNA (≤ 2.6 log copies/mL) were 56, 80, 86, and 92%, respectively. Among 17 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients, HBeAg disappeared in 24% at 12 months, 25% at 24 months, 62% at 36 months, and 88% at 48 months. When HBV genotypes were compared, patients with genotype B achieved virological response significantly more rapidly than those with genotype C (P=0.0496). One patient developed virological breakthrough after 54 months, and sequence analysis of HBV obtained from the patient was performed. An rtA200V mutation was present in the majority of HBV clones, in addition to the 3TC-resistant mutations of rtL180M+M204V. The rtN236T ADV-resistant mutation was observed in only 25% clones. In vitro analysis showed that the rtA200V mutation recovered the impaired replication capacity of the clone with the rtL180M+M204V mutations and induced resistance to ADV. Moreover, rtT184S and rtS202C, which are known entecavir-resistant mutations, emerged in some rtL180M+M204V clones without rtA200V or rtN236T. In conclusion, 3TC+ADV combination therapy was effective for most 3TC-resistant patients, especially with genotype B HBV, but the risk of emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains with long-term therapy should be considered. The mutation rtA200V with rtL180M+M204V may be sufficient for failure of 3TC+ADV therapy.

epivir hbv dosage 2016-08-19

Ten HIV-seropositive subjects who were either antiretroviral-naive or minimally experienced with short-term single-or dual-nucleoside therapy provided informed consent and were enrolled. All subjects received didanosine (400 mg) 30 to 60 minutes before a meal followed by indinavir (1200 mg), ritonavir (400 mg), and lamivudine (300 mg) concurrent with the aforementioned meal.