Bromocriptine (0.5 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.03 mg/kg) exert moderate aphrodisiac effect in sexually sluggish rats. This effect appears rapidly and reaches its peak within 24 h. Amphetamine (2 mg/kg) acts similarly but with a more rapid onset and offset of the effect. A single dose of (-)deprenyl, a selective inhibitor of MAO-B, exerts a much more potent effect in this test.
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The advance of Parkinson's disease has been suspected to be an outcome of oxidative stresses related to the metabolism of dopamine. Several recent studies have tested whether deprenyl (selegiline) or alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) might attenuate the progression of Parkinson's disease. Although preliminary results of an 800-patient controlled clinical trial (DATATOP) suggested in 1989 that neuroprotection might be achieved with deprenyl, more recent analysis has questioned this conclusion. The apparent protective effect of deprenyl is lost after 1 year of treatment, and the drug's symptomatic antiparkinsonian effects confound an understanding of actions on the underlying disease. In the DATATOP trial, no neuroprotection was achieved with alpha-tocopherol. Methods developed in the deprenyl trials and newly discovered CSF markers of Parkinson's disease may be useful tools for future investigations of neuroprotective strategies against Parkinson's disease.
The atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine has been proposed for treatment of dopaminergic psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). We report on a 68-year-old patient who developed a severe akinetic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, accompanied by additional paranoid symptoms, following olanzapine treatment of optic hallucinosis in PD. Olanzapine may also induce clinically relevant extrapyramidal side effects in PD patients.
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A series of homoisoflavonoids [(E)-3-benzylidenechroman-4-ones 1a-w, 3-benzyl-4H-chromen-4-ones 2a-g, and 3-benzylchroman-4-ones 3a-e] have been synthesized and tested in vitro as inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase isoforms A and B (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). Most of the compounds were found to be potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors. In general, the (E)-3-benzylidenechroman-4-ones 1a-w showed activities in the nano- or micromolar range coupled with high selectivity against hMAO-B. The reduction of the exocyclic double bond results in compounds 3a-e selective against isoform B and active in the micromolar range. In contrast, the endocyclic migration of the double bond (compounds 2a-g) generally produces the loss of the inhibitory activity or a marked reduction in potency. (E)-3-(4-(Dimethylamino)benzylidene)chroman-4-one (1l) and (E)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)chroman-4-one (1h) were the most interesting compounds of the entire series of inhibitors, showing hMAO-B affinity better than the selective inhibitor selegiline. Molecular modeling studies have been carried out to explain the selectivity of the most active homoisoflavonoids 1h and 1l.
Mice were treated with pioglitazone (20 mg kg(-1) b.i.d. (twice a day), p.o., for 7 days), prior and post or post-MPTP (30 mg kg(-1) s.c.) treatment. Mice were then assessed for motor impairments on a beam-walking apparatus and for reductions in TH immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra and depletions in striatal dopamine. The effects of pioglitazone on striatal MPP+ levels and MAO-B activity were also assessed.
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A dose-ranging study of selegiline was performed in patients with Parkinson's disease to determine the minimal dosage of the drug able to inhibit > or = 95% of platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Different doses of selegiline (5 or 10 mg daily, 10 or 20 mg weekly) were studied in four groups of six patients with Parkinson's disease. Platelet MAO activity was measured before and after 1 month's treatment with selegiline. The doses of 5 or 10 mg daily and 20 mg (i.e., 10 mg x 2) weekly induced a complete inhibition of platelet MAO-B activity from day 7 to day 28 (96.0-99.5%). In contrast, platelet MAO-B inhibition was only 75.9% of the basal value after a dosage of 10 mg weekly. These results demonstrate that 20 mg weekly is the minimal dosage of selegiline able to induce a maximal and long-lasting inhibition of platelet MAO-B activity in patients with parkinsonism. Further clinical trials are needed to investigate the clinical efficacy of this dose.
The circulating L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the drug of choice in the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD), is efficiently extracted by kidney and converted to dopamine, known to control several renal functions. As: (i) in addition to liver, kidney is an important source of glucose in mammals and (ii) the action of this drug on renal gluconeogenesis has not yet been studied, the aim of the present investigation was to estimate the influence of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine metabolism on glucose formation in isolated kidney-cortex tubules incubated with various gluconeogenic substrates. The data indicate that a rapid intracellular degradation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and tyramine (at 100 and 200 microM concentrations) is accompanied by 25-40% decrease in glucose production from pyruvate, alanine + glycerol + octanoate and dihydroxyacetone due to augmented generation of hydrogen peroxide via monoamine oxidase B, resulting in a decline of glutathione redox state by 40%. Moreover, following inhibition of monoamine oxidase B by deprenyl or substitution of pyruvate by aspartate + glycerol + octanoate both L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and tyramine affect neither the rate of gluconeogenesis nor glutathione redox state. In view of: (i) L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine- and tyramine-induced changes in intracellular levels of gluconeogenic intermediates, and (ii) a significant decline of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity by 500 microM oxidized glutathione, it is likely that L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine- and tyramine-evoked disturbances in the glutathione redox state might diminish flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and in consequence decrease glucose formation in renal tubules, suggesting a new potential side-action of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine treatment.
We used superfusion chambers to investigate the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in dopamine (DA) release elicited by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor selegiline in the rat caudate-putamen in vitro. Selegiline (R[-]-deprenyl], but not the S[+] enantiomer, concentration-dependently induced increases in extracellular concentrations of DA, with a maximal increase to 185% in comparison to basal outflow at 0.1 mM selegiline. Since in our experimental conditions exclusive MAO inhibition does not lead to an enhancement of extracellular DA levels, the effect of selegiline on DA levels seems not to be related to MAO inhibition. Butanedione (0.1 mM), a specific KATP channel blocker, also significantly enhanced extracellular DA levels in the rat caudate-putamen to approx. 260%. Selegiline only led to an additional increase of DA outflow, when added to submaximal concentrations of butanedione or tolbutamide, implying that selegiline is acting on identical sites. When the KATP channel opener cromakalim was added to the incubation medium, basal as well as butanedione-enhanced DA levels markedly decreased to about 40% when compared to baseline values. Selegiline-activated DA release was also antagonized by cromakalim. The selegiline effect was neither modulated by preincubation with the uptake inhibitor nomifensine nor by the DA agonist quinpirole and antagonist sulpiride. In conclusion these results suggest that selegiline is able to modulate KATP channels in the caudate-putamen of the rat in vitro resulting in an enhancement of striatal DA release.
Deprenyl combined with levodopa and a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor is of therapeutic value in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This conclusion is substantiated by the improvement of akinesia, on-off phases, fluctuations of disability and rigidity. Levodopa doses can be reduced. The onset of adverse reactions is later and side-effects are even milder when compared to those with combined levodopa treatment. The most significant effect of deprenyl, however, is its ability to prolong the life expectancy of parkinsonian patients.
The plasma pharmacokinetics of levodopa were studied in eight healthy young subjects following an i.v. infusion of 50 mg over 5 min. Subjects were studied on two occasions in random order following treatment with carbidopa; on one occasion they were pretreated with selegiline (four doses of 10 mg over the preceding 3 days) and on the other with a placebo. The mean plasma concentration-time curves on each occasion were essentially superimposable and there were no significant differences in any calculated pharmacokinetic parameter. Selegiline does not significantly alter the distribution or elimination of levodopa from plasma.
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(-)Deprenyl, a MAO-B inhibitor that is also known to be effective for symptoms of Parkinson's disease, when injected subcutaneously (sc) in male Fischer-344 rats at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg per day (3 times a week) from 18 months of age, significantly increased the remaining life expectancy. The average life span after 24 months was 34% greater in treated rats than in saline-treated control animals. Furthermore, a short-term (3 wk) continuous sc infusion of deprenyl significantly increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase but not of glutathione peroxidase in selective brain regions such as s. nigra, striatum, and cerebral cortex, but not in hippocampus or cerebellum, or the liver. The optimal dose for increasing these activities, however, differed greatly depending on the sex and age of animals, with a 10-fold lower value for young female than male rats. Interestingly, aging caused an increase and a decrease in the optimal dose in female and male rats, respectively. In addition, treatment for a longer term tended to reduce the optimal dosage in the same animal group. The results clearly demonstrate that deprenyl increases antioxidant enzyme activities in selective brain regions. If this effect of deprenyl is causally related to its life-prolonging effect, the dosage to be used for any life span study would be a critical factor, with the dosage differing widely depending on sex, age of animal, and mode and duration of drug administration.
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In a double blind randomized crossover trial lasting 6 months selegiline, a selective MAO-B inhibitor, was tested against placebo for activity on verbal memory performances in Alzheimer-type dementia (DAT). Verbal memory was assessed with the Rey-Auditory-Verbal Learning Test at the start of treatment, at the time scheduled for crossover (90 days) and at the end of the trial (180 days). The results suggest that selegiline possesses significant activity on some memory parameters, which seems to depend on an improvement both in information processing abilities and in learning strategies at the moment of acquisition.
Although STS was well tolerated, the overall results indicated that STS with BRBI was not more effective than placebo plus BRBI for smoking cessation (p = .58).
Since convincing experimental and clinical evidence speaks in favor for the conclusion that the catecholaminergic activity enhancer (CAE) effect of (-)-deprenyl is responsible for the significantly delayed need for levodopa therapy in untreated patients with PD (Knoll, 2012) and rasagiline is devoid of the CAE effect, this might explain why "...based on current evidence, rasagiline cannot be said to definitely have a disease-modifying effect" [Robottom, 2011].
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Long-term administration of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (-)-deprenyl (0.5 mg/Kg) for up to 20 months significantly increased mortality in the male Wistar rat, whereas the dopamine agonist pergolide (0.4 mg/Kg) and the antioxidant diethyldithiocarbamate (400 mg/Kg) had no significant effect on mortality. The increased mortality was not related to dietary intake or body weight of the rats. This is of interest in the light of recent evidence that (-)-deprenyl increases mortality in humans.
L-Deprenyl, a specific MAO-B inhibitor, has been reported to improve learning/memory in some cognitive tests in aged rats. The present study investigated whether L-deprenyl could alleviate the spatial learning deficit induced by muscarinic blockade and aging in OFA rats. Scopolamine (0.25 mg/kg) impaired the acquisition of a water maze task in adult rats and increased their swimming speeds. L-Deprenyl (0.25 mg/kg, 14 days) had no effect on water maze performance in saline treated adult rats, but markedly alleviated the learning deficit induced by scopolamine and increased the time and distance of swimming in the training quadrant when the platform was removed (spatial probe trial). L-Deprenyl partly reduced the effect of scopolamine on speed of swimming. Nevertheless, administration of l-deprenyl (0.25 mg/kg, 14 days) had no effect on spatial learning/memory in aged rats. We suggest that the l-deprenyl-scopolamine interaction in the water maze test may be considered as a premise for further investigations of l-deprenyl as cognition enhancer.
Istradefylline was generally well tolerated and reduced "off" time as assessed by home diaries. Severity of dyskinesia was unchanged, but "on" time with dyskinesia increased.
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Controlled inhibition of brain acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases (AChE and BChE, respectively) and of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) may slow neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It was postulated that certain carbamate esters would inhibit AChE and BChE with the concomitant release in the brain of the OH-derivatives of rasagiline or selegiline that can serve as inhibitors of MAO-B and as antioxidants. We conducted a detailed in vitro kinetic study on two series of novel N-methyl, N-alkyl carbamates and compared them with rivastigmine, a known anti-Alzheimer drug. The rates of carbamylation (k(i)) and decarbamylation (k(r)) of recombinant human AChE were mainly determined by the size of the N-alkyl substituent and to a lesser extent by the nature of the leaving group. k(i) was highest when the alkyl was methyl, hexyl, cyclohexyl, or an aromatic substituent and lowest when it was ethyl. This suggested that k(i) depends on a delicate balance between the length of the residue and its degree of freedom of rotation. By contrast, presumably because of its wider gorge, inhibition of human BChE was less influenced by the size of the alkyl group and more dependent on the structure of the leaving group. The data show how the degree of enzyme inhibition can be manipulated by structural changes in the N-methyl, N-alkyl carbamates and the corresponding leaving group to achieve therapeutic levels of brain AChE, BChE, and MAO-B inhibition.
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Ethanol significantly increases levels of GAPDH, especially nuclear GAPDH, and MAO B in neuronal cells as well as in human and rat brains. Nuclear GAPDH interacts with the transcriptional activator, transforming growth factor-beta-inducible early gene 2 (TIEG2), and augments TIEG2-mediated MAO B transactivation, which results in cell damage in neuronal cells exposed to EtOH. Knockdown expression of GAPDH or treatment with MAO B inhibitors selegiline (deprenyl) and rasagiline (Azilect) can block this cascade.
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The novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) drug, rasagiline (N-propargyl-1-(R)-aminoindan), is a second generation of irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B follows selegiline. In light of the recent large clinical study (phase III ADAGIO) reporting benefits in PD patients, it has been suggested that rasagiline could be the first PD treatment to receive the label neuroprotective "disease-modifying" drug. Indeed, rasagiline has been shown to have a broad neuroprotective activity against a variety of neurotoxins in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases and in cultured neuronal cells. In the present study, we have investigated the status of various molecular and biochemical markers in the rat midbrain following chronic treatments with rasagiline and selegiline, using proteomic and genomic analyses. Our findings demonstrated significant molecular changes induced by both drugs, at the protein and transcriptional levels, associated with neuronal differentiation, cell survival and death pathways, metabolism/oxidation stress, signaling system, and biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, which may be reflected in the clinical studies.
Stress detrimentally affects the brain and body and can lead to or be accompanied by depression. Although stress and depression may contribute to each other, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the effects is unclear. However, there is a correlation between stress and an increase in glucocorticoid secretion which causes a subsequent increase in monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity during stress. Consequently, MAO inhibitors have been used as traditional antidepressant drugs. Cellular treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (a cellular stressor), has been reported to markedly increase both MAO A and MAO B catalytic activities, as well as apoptosis. This study compares the neuroprotective abilities of M30 (a new generation inhibitor of both MAO A and MAO B) with rasagiline (Azilect(®), another new MAO B inhibitor) and selegiline (Deprenyl(®), a traditional MAO B inhibitor) in the prevention of dexamethasone-induced brain cell death and MAO activity in human neuroblastoma cells, SH-SY5Y. M30 demonstrated the highest inhibitory effect on MAO A; however, M30 showed the lowest inhibitory effect on MAO B enzymatic activity in comparison to rasagiline and selegiline. Although, M30 exhibited the greatest neuroprotective effect by decreasing cell death rates and apoptotic DNA damage compared to rasagiline and selegiline, these neuroprotective effects of M30 were, overall, similar to rasagiline. Summarily, M30 has a generally greater impact on neuroprotection than the MAO B inhibitors, selegiline and rasagiline. Our results suggest that M30 may have great potential in alleviating disorders involving increases in both MAO A and MAO B, such as stress-induced disorders.
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Administration of radiolabelled deprenyl to rats resulted in the urinary elimination of a (14)C-labelled N(epsilon)-monomethyl-lysine. An increased level of N(epsilon)-monomethyl-lysine was found following an oral dose of another drug, also containing an N-methyl group. The urine sample was treated with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride and then subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the radioactive fraction was identified as N(epsilon)-monomethyl-lysine by using HPLC-MS in electrospray mode. Identification of N(epsilon)-monomethyl-lysine in the radioactive fraction gives experimental proof of transmethylation from a well-known drug to an endogenous compound.