Gen-citalopram appeared to be bioequivalent to Celexa, whereas Novo-venlafaxine XR was not bioequivalent to Effexor XR. Consequently, the Novo-venlafaxine formulation released its active ingredient more rapidly and outside the acceptable norm.
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Цель исследования — сравнительная оценка изменений функционального состояния головного мозга методом количественной электроэнцефалографии (ЭЭГ) при комбинированной антидепрессивной терапии (венлафаксин и церебролизин) и монотерапии венлафаксином больных депрессией пожилого возраста. Материал и методы. В исследование были включены 40 больных в возрасте 60—79 лет (средний — 67,1±5,7 года), которые были рандомизированы на две группы. Больные 1-й группы в течение 4 нед получали венлафаксин в дозе 75—150 мг/сут. Больные 2-й группы наряду с венлафаксином в течение 4 нед получали терапию церебролизином (всего 20 капельных инфузий по 20,0 мл в 100 мл изотонического раствора NaCl внутривенно). Результаты и заключение. В обеих группах пациентов к концу курса терапии отмечено достоверное улучшение состояния по клиническим оценкам и по показателям шкал HAMD-17, CGI-S, CGI-I и MMSE. По данным количественной ЭЭГ, применение комбинированной терапии венлафаксином и церебролизином у пациентов 2-й группы привело к более выраженному улучшению функционального состояния головного мозга (в виде увеличения спектральной мощности и нормализации частоты теменно-затылочного альфа-ритма), по сравнению с больными 1-й группы, получавшими монотерапию тем же антидепрессантом.
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Potential cardiovascular side effects from venlafaxine-XR must be considered when prescribing this medication, especially in geriatric patients, who often present with comorbid medical conditions.
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Of the 377 patients entering the study, 370 were included in a safety analysis and 349 in an efficacy analysis. Adjusted mean scores at 8 weeks (last-observation-carried-forward analysis) were significantly lower for one or more of the venlafaxine XR groups in four of four primary and three of four secondary outcome measures than for the placebo group. These included a change of 1.7 (versus 1.3) from baseline on CGI severity item scores and a final score of 2.2 (versus 2.6) on the CGI global improvement item. All doses of venlafaxine XR were well tolerated.
This single- and multiple-dose, nonrandomized, inpatient study was conducted to determine the effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetic profiles of the antidepressant venlafaxine and its equally active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine. The subjects were 18 elderly (age 60-80 yrs) and 18 young (age 21-44 yrs) subjects, 9 men and 9 women per age group. They received a single 50-mg venlafaxine dose followed by 50-mg doses every 8 hours for 5 days. No significant differences in venlafaxine single-dose pharmacokinetics were seen between age groups, but the steady-state half-life increased 24% in the elderly. For O-desmethylvenlafaxine, single doses had a significantly lower apparent clearance in the elderly (0.29 vs 0.38 L/hr/kg), longer half-life (13.2 vs 10.3 hrs), and 14% greater steady-state half-life. For the composite (venlafaxine+O-desmethylvenlafaxine), there was a nonsignificant 16% increase in elderly steady-state area under the curve (AUC* = AUC+activity factor AUCm), and AUC* was linear between doses and age groups. We conclude that venlafaxine dosage adjustments for age or gender are not necessary based on pharmacokinetics.
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Determine the point prevalence of phenoconversion to cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) poor metabolizer status in clinical practice.
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There was a small sample size, age discordance between patients and controls, lack of a follow-up LP in controls, absence of dexamethasone suppression testing, and fluctuating sample sizes among various measures.
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We conducted a population-based case-control study among 2908 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2003 to 2006, and 2927 control women from Wisconsin. Associations between antidepressant use and breast cancer risk were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.
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We report two patients who developed a severe discontinuation (withdrawal) reaction following stoppage of paroxetine and venlafaxine, respectively. Neurological symptoms were prominent and neither patient could walk unaided. Both patients feared they had suffered a 'stroke' and arranged an emergency medical consultation. One patient was correctly diagnosed, the antidepressant was recommenced and symptoms resolved within 24 h. Failure to recognize the reaction resulted in the other patient being referred to a neurologist, undergoing a computed tomography brain scan and an electroencephalogram and remaining symptomatic for over 8 weeks. Relevant pharmacological issues are discussed. The cases illustrate the importance of patients and clinicians being familiar with antidepressant discontinuation symptoms.
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Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at baseline, week 4 and 8; 325 women (96%) provided ISI data and 312 women (92%) provided PSQI data at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) hot flash frequency was 8.1/day (5.3), mean ISI was 11.1 (6.0), and mean PSQI was 7.5 (3.4). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in ISI at week 8 was -4.1 points (-5.3 to -3.0) with estradiol, -5.0 points (-6.1 to -3.9) with venlafaxine, and -3.0 points (-3.8 to -2.3) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.09 for estradiol and 0.007 for venlafaxine). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in PSQI at week 8 was -2.2 points (-2.8 to -1.6) with estradiol, -2.3 points (-2.9 to -1.6) with venlafaxine, and -1.2 points (-1.7 to -0.8) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.04 for estradiol and 0.06 for venlafaxine).
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A decision-tree model for the treatment of major depressive disorder was constructed using a Delphi panel. The tree was populated with clinical success rates from a pooled analysis of fluoxetine compared with venlafaxine and a clinical trial of amitriptyline compared with venlafaxine using remission as the key endpoint. Where there was insufficient data from clinical trials, the Delphi panel was used. Costs within the tree were taken from contemporary UK sources. Six-monthly costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were then estimated.
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We conducted a multinational pharmacoeconomic evaluation comparing the immediate release form of a new class of serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), venlafaxine IR to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in the treatment of acute major depressive disorder (MDD) in 10 countries (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela). We designed a decision analytic model assessing the acute phase of MDD treatment within a 6-month time horizon. Six decision tree models were customized with country-specific estimates from a clinical management analysis, meta-analytic rates from two published meta-analyses, and a resource valuation of treatment costs representing the inpatient and outpatient settings within each country. The meta-analyses provided the clinical rates of success defined as a 50% reduction in depression scores on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) or the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Treatment regimen costs were determined from standard lists, fee schedules, and communication with local health economists in each country. The meta-analytic rates were applied to the decision analytic model to calculate the expected cost and expected outcomes for each antidepressant comparator. Cost-effectiveness was determined using the expected values for both a successful outcome, and a composite measure of outcome termed symptom-free days. A policy analysis was conducted to examine the health system budget impact in each country of increasing the utilization of the most effective antidepressant found in our study.
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Occasional case reports describe urinary incontinence in patients taking the selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant venlafaxine.
Lithium was more effective than phenelzine in elderly patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, while tolerance of both treatments was remarkably good in this group of elderly inpatients with many comorbid medical disorders.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic disorder that is associated with debilitating psychic and somatic symptoms. Venlafaxine extended-release (XR) capsules have been shown to be effective in short-term treatment of patients with GAD without major depressive disorder (MDD), but long-term data are needed to establish whether this agent confers persistent benefits.
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Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.
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It was concluded that MAO activity is acutely affected by pharmacologically different antidepressants at relatively high drug concentrations; this effect is inhibitory. There are differences both in inhibitory potency and in mechanism of inhibition between both several drugs and the two MAO isoforms. While MAO inhibition is not primary biochemical effect related to their therapeutic action, it can be supposed that decrease of MAO activity may be concerned in some effects of these drugs on serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission.
While selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), approximately 40% of patients fail to respond to SSRIs. Venlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that might be effective in the treatment of OCD, even among those who have failed previous SSRI trials.
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The aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and venlafaxine (150-225 mg/day) is effective and safe for treatment-resistant unipolar depression (TRD).
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Neuronal plasticity is associated with depression, probably as a result of modified expression of proteins important for cellular resiliency. It is therefore important to establish if and how antidepressant drugs may be able to regulate these mechanisms in order to achieve relevant clinical effects.
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In this study, the efficacy of duloxetine in switched patients was comparable to that observed in patients initiating duloxetine therapy. Immediate switching from an SSRI or venlafaxine to duloxetine (60 mg QD) was well tolerated.
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Genetically driven variations in the level of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 metabolic activity have been shown to significantly affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of medications that are substrates of this enzyme.
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Private health insurance plays a large role in the U.S. health system, including for many individuals with depression. Private insurers have been actively trying to influence pharmaceutical utilization and costs, particularly for newer and costlier medications. The approaches that insurers use may have important effects on patients' access to antidepressant medications.