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We compared the tolerability and clinical efficacy of tolterodine with those of oxybutynin in patients with an overactive bladder using an upward oxybutynin dose titration strategy analogous to that used in routine clinical practice in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
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Micturition diary variables: number of micturitions per 24 hours, number of urge incontinence episodes per 24 hours, mean urine volume voided per micturition. Safety variables: adverse events, study discontinuation rate.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nighttime dosing with tolterodine extended release (TER) in men with overactive bladder (OAB) and nocturia.
There has been some controversy over whether the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) is carried out by one enzyme or two and whether this cytochrome P450 enzyme is found in the mitochondrial or microsomal fractions of liver. The pig is currently the only species in which both the microsomal 25-hydroxylase (CYP2D25) and the mitochondrial 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) have been cloned and characterized. In this paper, the roles of the two enzymes in 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) are examined in primary cultures of hepatocytes. Inhibition experiments indicated that tolterodine and 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one were selective inhibitors of the CYP2D25- and CYP27A-mediated 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3), respectively. Addition of each inhibitor to primary hepatocytes decreased the total 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) to about the same extent. No inhibition of other hydroxylase activities tested was found. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate down-regulated the expression of both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1 as well as the 25-hydroxylase activity of the hepatocytes. The results implicate that both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1 contribute to the 25-hydroxylation in hepatocytes and are important in the bioactivation of vitamin D(3).
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Analysis of the primary efficacy outcome did not reveal a statistically significant effect of treatment. However, secondary analyses demonstrated that tolterodine was well tolerated among 5 to 10-year-old children with diurnal incontinence. Exploratory analyses also showed that children weighing 35 kg or less with detrusor overactivity characterized by incontinence and/or frequent voiding benefited most from tolterodine treatment, suggesting that a weight adjusted dosing regimen may be required for optimal response among older and heavier children.
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Patients with urinary frequency (eight or more micturitions per 24 hours) and urge incontinence (five or more episodes per week) were randomized to oral treatment with tolterodine extended release 4 mg once daily (n=398) or placebo (n=374) for 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed by use of patient perception evaluations.
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ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00688688.
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Data from 293 patients were obtained from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Japan of oxybutynin and tolterodine in patients with symptoms of an overactive bladder. The KHQ has two single-item and six multiple-item domains. To construct the short form of the KHQ one item was selected from the each of multiple-item domains, based on standardized structural coefficients estimated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a previous study. These six items include the domains: 'daily activities from role limitation', 'travel from physical limitation', 'social life from social limitation', 'family life from personal relationship', 'depressed from emotion' and 'tired from sleep and energy'. Based on the six selected items a series of psychometric analyses were conducted.
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Aged > or = 18 years, noninstitutionalized; initial therapy with tolterodine, oxybutynin, flavoxate, or emepronium.
Oxybutynin displayed extensive CNS penetration, with brain:plasma ratios (B:P), unbound brain:unbound plasma ratios (Kp,free) and CSF:free plasma ratios each >1. Tolterodine (B:P = 2.95, Kp,free = 0.23 and CSF:free plasma = 0.16) and solifenacin (B:P = 3.04, Kp,free = 0.28 and CSF:free plasma = 1.41) showed significant CNS penetration but with some restriction from CNS as indicated by Kp,free values significantly <1. 5-HMT, darifenacin and trospium displayed much lower B:P (0.03-0.16), Kp,free (0.01-0.04) and CSF:free plasma (0.004-0.06), consistent with poor CNS penetration. Permeability in RRCK cells was low for trospium (0.63 × 10(-6) cm s(-1) ), moderate for 5-HMT (11.7 × 10(-6) cm s(-1) ) and high for darifenacin, solifenacin, tolterodine and oxybutynin (21.5-38.2 × 10(-6) cm s(-1) ). In MDCK-MDR1 cells 5-HMT, darifenacin and trospium, were P-gp substrates, whereas oxybutynin, solifenacin and tolterodine were not P-gp substrates.
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The volume voided per micturition increased in the solifenacin group (n = 21) (P = 0.04). The strong desire to void and pad-test result improved in the tolterodine group (n = 21; P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). There were no between-group differences in changes of any urodynamic data, voiding diary values or adverse events after treatment; however, changes of heart rate differed between the two groups (P = 0.0004), especially at visit 2 (solifenacin vs. tolterodine, -4.3 vs. 3.8, P = 0.02) and visit 3 (-3.2 vs. 4.8, P = 0.03).
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To assess the effect of antimuscarinic treatment with tolterodine combined with behavioural modification as a first-line treatment, before invasive investigation, in children with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction but no obvious anatomical or neurogenic cause.
At week 12, solifenacin and tolterodine demonstrated equal efficacy in reducing the number of micturition (-2.56 ±3.31 vs. -2.44 ± 4.56, p = 0.58), urgency (-1.70 ± 3.07 vs. -1.15 ± 2.68, p =0.37) and incontinence (-2.79 ± 2.82 vs. -4.67 ± 9.29, p =0.28) episodes per 24 hours. There was no difference in improvement of the quality of life. The patient and physician assessments of treatment benefit were not statistically different for solifenacin and tolterodine (p = 0.23 and p = 0.52, respectively), with the majority showing benefits in both groups. The incidence of major adverse events, including dry mouth (18.0%vs. 8.3%, p = 0.31) and constipation (12.8%vs. 2.8%, p = 0.20) was not significantly different. Compared with baseline, the severity of dry mouth did not increase in either group.
In this prospective study, 40 women with severe overactive bladder according to the 7-day voiding diary without any prior treatment completed the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and were randomised into anti-muscarinic-alone and combination treatment groups. Twenty women received daily 4 mgs of tolterodine orally and in 20 women Stoller afferent neuro-stimulation (SANS) therapy was performed concomitantly for 12 weeks to the same anti-muscarinic regimen. After 12 weeks of therapy, two of the patients drop out of the study and remaining patients filled out the IIQ-7 questionnaire and the 7-day voiding diary again. Pretreatment and post-treatment QoL scores and the 7-day voiding diaries were compared. Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon and two sided significance tests were used.
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The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. Peff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10(-4) cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III.
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Of 606 patients screened, 441 received study medication (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [13.8] years; 88.9% white; 88.2% female). Diary-documented urgency changed from a mean of 6.0 episodes/24 hours at prewashout to 2.6 episodes/24 hours at study end, a mean decrease of 3.4 episodes/24 hours (95% CI, -3.8 to -3.0; P < 0.001). The frequency of all other diary variables was also significantly reduced from prewashout to study end (P < 0.001). The mean PPBC score changed from 4.2 points at prewashout to 3.0 points at study end, a mean improvement of 1.2 points (95% CI, -1.3 to -1.1; P < 0.001). Changes in all OAB-q scales and domains (symptom bother, coping, concern, sleep, social interaction, and total HRQL) from prewashout and postwashout to study end were also statistically significant (P < 0.001). Treatment-emergent AEs were mainly mild or moderate (237/261 [90.8%]) and led to few discontinuations (16/441 [3.6%]). Treatment-emergent AEs included anticholinergic AEs such as dry mouth (77 [17.5%]), constipation (51 [11.6%]), and blurred vision (10 [2.3%]).
Bladder discomfort secondary to an indwelling urinary catheter is distressing to patients. In the present study, we observed that tolterodine (2 mg), a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist administered 1 h before surgery, reduced both the incidence and severity of bladder discomfort secondary to bladder catheterization.
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Significant within-group improvement in OAB-q symptom bother was noted in both the intravaginal estradiol and tolterodine groups for OAB symptoms, with no difference between groups. Greater improvement from 12-week single therapy to 24 and 52 weeks of combined therapy was noted in the group originally assigned to intravaginal estradiol. The role of combined medical therapy for OAB symptoms needs further investigation.
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Women in group 1 (n=129) were prescribed tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg once daily; women in group 2 (n=100) were prescribed both tolterodine ER 4 mg and concomitant oestriol cream application once daily.
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To compare the efficacy of tolterodine plus simplified bladder training (BT) with tolterodine alone in patients with an overactive bladder.
The follow-up consisted of regular visits and urodynamic evaluation at least once a year. The patients or their parents were interviewed to evaluate voiding behavior, as well as factors leading to lower patient compliance and deterioration in urodynamic parameters.
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Assess changes in resource utilization, work and activity impairment, and health utility among OAB patients continuing to have urgency symptoms with tolterodine ER 4 mg and willing to try solifenacin 5/10 mg.
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Tolterodine ER treatment was associated with improvements in multiple OAB- and incontinence-specific PROs in a sexually active, relatively young, and racially diverse population of women. The findings provide clinicians with new insights into the impact of OAB and its treatment on HRQL in this population, which has been underrepresented in previous OAB studies. Study limitations include a potential underestimation of the impact of OAB symptoms resulting from the exclusion of women who may not be sexually active because of their urinary symptoms.
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This is the first report that the urine excreted after oral ingestion of trospium (20 mg, twice daily) has a significant inhibitory effect in a rat model of detrusor overactivity. This suggests that antimuscarinic agents have a local bladder effect during the bladder-storage phase in addition to the smooth muscle-mediated voiding phase.
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Quality of life studies indicate that overactive bladder (OAB) has a greater negative impact on everyday life than other serious conditions such as diabetes. The detrimental effect of OAB on female sexual health is more prominent than urinary incontinence. We know that tolterodine immediate release (IR) has a beneficial effect on urinary symptoms in OAB.