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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

cytoxan drug insert

The tumor weight in treatment I, II, and III groups was significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). The tumor weight in treatment III group was significantly lower than that in treatment I and II groups (P < 0.05). The anti-tumor rate in treatment II and III groups was significantly higher than that in treatment I group (P < 0.05). Bcl-2 expression in the tumor tissues of treatment I, II, and III groups was significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05), while Bax expression was significantly higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05). Bcl-2 expression in the tumor tissues of treatment I and II groups was significantly higher than that in treatment III group (P < 0.05), while Bax expression was significantly lower than that in treatment III group (P < 0.05). CD4(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) in treatment I, II, and III groups were significantly higher than those in the model group (P < 0.05). CD4(+) in treatment III group was significantly higher than that in treatment I and II groups (P < 0.05), while CD4(+)/CD8(+) was significantly higher than that in treatment II group (P < 0.05). The comparison of CD8(+) among each group was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). NK cell activity in treatment I, II, and III groups was significantly higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05). NK cell activity in treatment III group was significantly higher than that in treatment I and II groups (P < 0.05).

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We retrospectively assessed 57 patients affected by intermediate or high-risk MCL in complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) after 3 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin [hydroxydaunorubicin], vincristine [Oncovin], prednisolone) plus 3 cycles of R-DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine [Ara-C], cisplatin [platinum]) followed by ASCT and additional consolidation treatment with (90)Y-IT in 28 cases. All patients underwent 2 years of rituximab maintenance.

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In the present study, we evaluated the ophthalmologic outcomes of 24 patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for the treatment of non-conjunctival ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (MALT) lymphoma. Ophthalmologic outcomes were assessed in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy from March 2004 until May 2010. Outcomes were determined according to common symptoms following chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, which consisted of decreased visual acuity, dry eye symptoms, retinopathy, optic neuropathy, increased intraocular pressure, and blepharitis. Nine patients received chemotherapy alone, eight patients received radiotherapy alone, and seven patients received chemotherapy with additional radiotherapy (chemoradiation therapy). Patients treated by chemotherapy alone showed better ophthalmologic outcome scores (mean score, 1.56) than those treated by radiation alone or chemoradiation therapy (mean score, 4.01). In conclusion, the treatment of ocular adnexal lymphoma including radiotherapy showed poor ophthalmologic outcomes due to radiation-induced complications. Recently, many new treatment options have emerged, such as immunotherapy or radioimmunotherapy. In the future study, to select a better treatment modality with fewer complications, well-designed prospective trials with ophthalmologic outcomes are needed.

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Twenty-nine patients (3 men and 26 women) fulfilled the inclusion criteria (median age at the diagnosis of SLE: 30 yrs, range 16-57). Myocarditis was the first sign of SLE in 17/29 cases (58.6%). Troponin was elevated in 20/25 cases. Electrocardiogram results were abnormal in 25/28 cases. Echocardiography revealed low (≤ 45%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; 19/29, 66%) and pericardium effusion (20/29, 69%). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed delayed gadolinium enhancement in 9/13 patients (69%). Patients were treated with corticosteroids (n = 28), cyclophosphamide (CYC; n = 16), intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 8), and/or mycophenolate mofetil (n = 2). The median followup was 37 months. One month after the beginning of the treatment, 10/23 patients (43%) who had undergone echocardiography had an LVEF ≥ 55%. At the end of followup, 21/26 patients (81%) exhibited an LVEF ≥ 55%. Three patients died during followup, and 2 died from LM.

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Service provision is unlikely to change greatly. As uncertainties remain, further research is needed regarding the use of bortezomib- and thalidomide-containing combination regimens. Head-to-head trials of bortezomib- and thalidomide-containing combination regimes are required, including assessments of patient HRQoL in response to treatment.

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Evidence on adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with breast cancer is poor. We tested whether weekly docetaxel is more effective than standard chemotherapy.

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High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100-300 mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK · MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein-acrolein adducts in the heart. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed likely prominent modification of albumin, kallikrein-1-related peptidase, myoglobin and transgelin-2 by acrolein in the hearts of CY-treated mice. Treatment with acrolein (low dose, 1-5 mg/kg) also led to increased heart-to-body weight ratio and myocardial contractility changes. Acrolein induced similar hypotension in GSTP-null and WT mice. GSTP-null mice also were more susceptible than WT mice to mortality associated with high-dose acrolein (10-20 mg/kg). Collectively, these results suggest that CY cardiotoxicity is regulated, in part, by GSTP, which prevents CY toxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Thus, humans with low cardiac GSTP levels or polymorphic forms of GSTP with low acrolein-metabolizing capacity may be more sensitive to CY toxicity.

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Lenalidomide with R-CHOP21 is effective and safe in elderly patients with untreated DLBCL.

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The patient responded remarkably well to rituximab and had no disease recurrence at 24 months' follow up.

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Between 2002 and 2008, the study enrolled women with operable breast cancer and zero to three positive nodes. Patients were randomly assigned to either four or six cycles of either AC or T. Study stratifiers were estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and menopausal status. After 2003, all treatment was administered in dose-dense fashion. The primary efficacy end point was relapse-free survival (RFS).

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The analytical range was linear between 3.5 to 300ng/mL for CP, 4 to 300ng/mL for DOC and DOXO and 2 to 300ng/mL for 5-FU. The present method offers a high sensitivity, with detection limits of 1.0ng/mL for CP, DOXO and DOC and 0.5ng/mL for 5-FU. The selectivity, accuracy (relative standard error between 82.3 and 113.9%) and precision (relative standard deviation between 1.2 and 14.2%) make the method suitable for the routine determination of these drugs to estimate the occupational exposure of personnel handling.

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The effects of bestatin on humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and restoration of the response impaired by a single cyclophosphamide dose (350 mg/kg) were tested on mice. Bestatin (at doses of 10, 1, and 0.1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 5 or 10 times. The pharmacological immunosuppression was induced by a single i.p. injection of cyclophosphamide (350 mg/kg) administered 24 h before the first bestatin dose. The mice were immunized i.p. with SRBC 24 h after the last dose of bestatin. It was found that multiple administration of bestatin at all three doses potentiated the humoral response to SRBC in non-treated mice, resulting in an increased number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME)-resistant anti-SRBC antibodies. However, five times administration of bestatin at the doses under investigation caused further decreases in total anti-SRBC hemagglutinins. A single injection of cyclophosphamide (350 mg/kg) suppressed humoral response of mice to the antigen. Administration of bestatin after pharmacological immunosuppression partially prevented the suppressive action of cyclophosphamide in the in vivo model of the humoral immune response to SRBC. The protective action of bestatin was both dose- and schedule-dependent. Ten times' exposure to a bestatin dose of 0.1 mg/kg after a high cyclophosphamide dose partially reduced the suppressive effect of this drug on humoral response of SRBC-immunized mice, increasing PFC on days 4 and 7 after immunization, which coincided with restored ability of the lymphocytes to produce the 2-ME-resistant hemagglutinins on day 7 and the total anti-SRBC hemagglutinins on day 14 after priming.

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The hen's egg test for analysis of micronucleus formation (HET-MN) was developed several years ago to provide an alternative test system to the in vivo micronucleus test. In order to assess its applicability and robustness, a study was carried out at the University of Osnabrueck (lab A) and at the laboratories of Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (lab B). Following transfer of the method to lab B, a range of test substances that had been pre-tested at lab A, were tested at Henkel: the genotoxins cyclophosphamide, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, methotrexate, acrylamide, azorubin, N-nitroso-dimethylamine and the non-genotoxins, orange G and isopropyl myristate. In a second phase, additional compounds with known in vivo properties were examined in both labs: the non-genotoxin, ampicillin, the "irrelevant" positives, isophorone and 2,4-dichlorophenol ("irrelevant" means positive in standard in vitro tests, but negative in vivo), the clastogen p-chloroaniline, and the aneugens carbendazim and vinorelbine. All substances were correctly predicted in both labs with respect to their in vivo genotoxic properties, indicating that the HET-MN may have an improved predictivity compared with current standard in vitro test systems. The results support the promising role of the HET-MN assay as a supplement to existing test batteries.

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Prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on serum albumin concentration and the absolute peripheral lymphocyte count, has been used to predict survival in various tumors. Whether PNI can predict prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 253 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL in the present study. The PNI was calculated as: albumin (g/L) + 5 × total lymphocyte count × 10(9)/L. All patients were divided in low and high groups according to the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Low PNI was associated with more unfavorable clinical features (p < 0.05). Patients with low PNI tended to have worse event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) (EFS, p = 0.001; OS, p < 0.001). For patients treated with R-CHOP, PNI proved to be predictive for survival (EFS, p = 0.001; OS, p < 0.001), while no significant effect was found in DLBCL patients who received CHOP chemotherapy (EFS, p = 0.496; OS, p = 0.125). Multivariate analysis showed that low PNI is an independent adverse predictor of OS and EFS, especially in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNI is an effective prognostic factor in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP.

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Oral rucaparib can be safely combined with a clinically relevant dose of carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumours (Trial registration ID: NCT01009190).

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Thirty-two women were followed over consecutive chemotherapy infusions, with 289 assessments conducted altogether (mean, 9.0 assessments/subject). Current depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and mental health service use were recorded during each assessment. A linear mixed effects model was used to identify factors associated with depression. Patients also ranked depression treatment preferences. We referred patients with more severe depression for treatment.

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Mefloquine (MQ) is a potent effective antimalarial drug against multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It has been proved that MQ can be given safely during the second and third trimesters. However, there is very limited information on the drug safety during the first trimester. The aim of the present work was to investigate the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of MQ during critical periods of early development. Wistar rats were orally administered with a single dose of MQ (45 mg/kg bwt or 187 mg/kg bwt) on the 1st, 6th or 13th days of pregnancy. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) was chosen as a positive control. On the 21st day of gestation, standard parameters of reproductive performance and fetal examination were estimated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione reductase activity and glutathione (GSH) content were evaluated in placenta and liver homogenates of mothers and fetuses. The results indicated that MQ did not adversely affect the number of implantation, resorption, litter size and fetal body weight and length. Only groups treated with MQ on the 1st day of gestation exhibited significant decrease in fetal body weight. Examination of fetuses for external, visceral and skeletal changes showed minimal variations involving extension of lateral brain ventricles and renal pelvis and signs of delayed ossification. These variations were accompanied with significant elevation of MDA level and reduction of GSH content of fetal liver. Prenatal exposure to MQ at early pregnancy did not cause any embryolethal or teratogenic effect. It could slightly exacerbate minor variations.

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The gastrointestinal tract is a relatively common involvement site in lymphoma and, in such cases, intestinal perforation is a concern before and during chemotherapy. The prediction of intestinal perforation prior to chemotherapy is difficult, and there is no standard strategy to minimize the frequency of severely adverse gastrointestinal events in lymphoma cases.

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Premenopausal patients with breast cancer and more than 10 positive axillary nodes (BC>10) have a poor prognosis: In these patients the best adjuvant therapy (CT) has not yet been established.

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Recently, haploidentical transplantations have been performed with unmanipulated BM or PBSC. This approach is becoming more widely adopted with the use of PTCY. However, there is limited evidence about this approach in children. We present 15 children who received 16 haploidentical HSCT with unmanipulated BM or PBSC using PTCY for GVHD prophylaxis. Post-transplant CY(50 mg/kg IV) was given on the third and fifth day, and CsA or tacrolimus with MMF or MP was also used for GVHD prophylaxis. All patients engrafted at a median of 16 and 18 days for neutrophil and thrombocyte recovery, respectively. Grades II-III acute GVHD developed in seven patients, and mild chronic GVHD was found in two patients. Two patients died within the first 100 days due to sepsis (TRM 12.5%). Eleven patients are currently alive, with a median follow-up of 12 months (range 6-22 months). The 12-month OS and DFS were 75 ± 10.8% and 68.8 ± 11.6%, respectively. Our results with these high-risk patients are encouraging for haploidentical HSCT in pediatric patients. Future studies should continue to assess haploidentical HSCT, including comparison of other modalities, in a primary pediatric population.

cytoxan mesna dosing

Chemotherapy in modern oncology is one of the main methods of treatment, along with surgery and radiotherapy techniques. More than 60% of patients receiving chemotherapy at different stages of treatment. Recently, modern chemotherapy has become more urgent personal approach to the choice of drugs and their doses, aimed at reducing the toxicity of chemotherapy. Complications of chemotherapy significantly degrade the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with malignant tumors, because they require lower doses of anticancer drug, or lengthening the intervals between cycles of chemotherapy, which affects treatment outcomes and quality of life.

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cytoxan mesna dosing 2016-06-04

Our patient was a 22-year-old white woman who met the American Thoracic Society criteria for refractory asthma that had remained poorly controlled for 5 years despite progressive escalation to step 6 treatment as recommended by National Institutes of Health-National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines, including high-dose oral corticosteroids, high-dose inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and monthly omalizumab. Separate trials with azithromycin therapy and roflumilast did not improve her asthma control, nor did bronchial thermoplasty help. Additional consultations with two other university health systems left the patient with few treatment options for asthma, which included cyclophosphamide. Instead, the patient underwent a LINX® procedure after failure of maximal medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease with the additional buy cytoxan online aim of improving asthma control. After she underwent LINX® treatment, her asthma improved dramatically and was no longer refractory. She had normal exhaled nitric oxide levels and loss of peripheral eosinophilia after LINX® treatment. Prednisone was discontinued without loss of asthma control. The only immediate adverse effects due to the LINX® procedure were bloating, nausea, and vomiting.

cytoxan renal dosing 2016-02-18

Since grey zone lymphoma (GZL) was originally included in the 2008 World Health Organization classification as a B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), new biological and clinical knowledge have been learned. It is important to highlight that diagnosis of this entity is complex and involvement by haematopathologists with expertise in this disease is recommended. It is recognized now that patients with GZL may present clinically with buy cytoxan online primary mediastinal localization or systemic disease without mediastinal involvement. Regardless of clinical presentation, patients with GZL have relatively high relapse rates, especially compared with primary mediastinal DLBCL or cHL. Interestingly, relapsed/refractory GZL patients appear to be salvaged fairly successfully, especially with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Off of a clinical trial, we recommend R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oncovin, prednisolone) or dose-adjusted EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisolone, oncovin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, rituximab) for frontline treatment of GZL. Additionally, we advocate use of consolidative radiotherapy for localized and/or bulky disease. For patients with relapsed/refractory GZL, salvage chemotherapy followed by consolidative autologous HSCT should be considered. Finally, continued biological and pathologic examination of this unique disease entity is warranted as well as exploration towards the integration of targeted therapeutic agents (e.g., brentuximab vedotin, programmed cell death 1inhibitors, B-cell receptor inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, etc.) into the treatment paradigm of GZL.

cytoxan dosage 2015-06-26

Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes irreversibly oxidize aldehydes generated from metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, food, smoke, additives, and xenobiotic drugs. Cyclophosphamide is one such xenobiotic used in cancer therapies. Upon activation, cyclophosphamide forms an intermediate, aldophosphamide, which can be detoxified to carboxyphosphamide by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), especially ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1. Consequently, selective inhibition of ALDH3A1 could increase chemosensitivity toward cyclophosphamide in ALDH3A1 expressing tumors. Here, we report detailed kinetics and structural characterization of a highly buy cytoxan online selective submicromolar inhibitor of ALDH3A1, 1-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole (CB7, IC50 of 0.2 μM). CB7 does not inhibit ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, or ALDH2 activity. Structural, kinetics, and mutagenesis studies show that CB7 binds to the aldehyde binding pocket of ALDH3A1. ALDH3A1-expressing lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines are sensitized toward mafosfamide (MF) treatment in the presence analogues of CB7, whereas primary lung fibroblasts lacking ALDH3A1 expression, are not.

cytoxan iv dosage 2017-05-30

To analyze CD5 expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and to explore its relationship with buy cytoxan online the clinicopathological characteristics.

cytoxan tablet dosage 2017-01-13

To assess the ability of daily oral simvastatin administration to reduce the negative urodynamic changes associated with cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced cystitis buy cytoxan online and to prevent bladder inflammation. Patients undergoing CP chemotherapy frequently develop cystitis, leading to urinary dysfunction and hemorrhage. Recent studies have suggested statins possess anti-inflammatory properties and might be uroprotective.

cytoxan suspension 2017-07-04

To explore the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early buy cytoxan online evaluation of microvacularization in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma treated by R-CHOP.

buy cytoxan online 2017-09-15

The occurrence of Ewing sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is an extremely rare event in long-term cancer survivors. In addition, the occurrence of Ewing sarcoma in the adrenal gland is highly unusual. In this case report, we treated a 20-year-old male patient with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone, and methotrexate and cytarabine chemotherapy following a diagnosis of Stage IV Burkitt lymphoma. Following complete remission, he had been maintained for 2 years without evidence of disease. However, a regular follow-up computed tomography scan found a left adrenal gland mass and a biopsy revealed positive membrane-localized mic-2 expression (CD99) and the presence buy cytoxan online of the translocation of the EWSR1 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Ewing sarcoma occurring in the adrenal gland of a patient who was treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone/methotrexate and cytarabine chemotherapy for Burkitt lymphoma.

cytoxan pill dosage 2015-03-22

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the tissue distribution and antitumor activity of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) nanosuspension compared with 2-ME solution both in vitro and in vivo. 2-ME nanosuspension was made by nanoprecipitation-high-frequency ultrasonication method with the particle size of 168.4 ± 3.2 nm and the zeta potential of -29.79 ± 1.89 mV. The overall targeting efficiency (TE(Q)) of 2-ME nanosuspension was improved from 28.71 to 51.95% in the lung of rats. MTT assay showed that 2-ME nanosuspension could significantly enhance the in vitro cytotoxicity against lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells compared with the 2-ME solution, the IC(50) at 72 h was reduced from 6.35 µM for 2-ME solution to 3.56 µM for 2-ME nanosuspension. The antitumor activity in vivo was buy cytoxan online investigated in C57BL/6 mice bearing LLC, and the results indicated that 2-ME nanosuspension not only exhibited significant suppression of the tumor growth when compared with that of positive group or cyclophosphamide group at the same dose, but also enhanced the spleen indices. Overall, 2-ME nanosuspension could mainly deliver the drug to lungs and made the drug accumulate in the lungs, so 2-ME nanosuspension has a possible lung cancer therapeutic potential.

cytoxan drug label 2016-09-11

The relationship between doxorubicin concentration and the acute NT-proBNP response was successfully described with a population PK-PD model. This model will serve as a valuable framework for future studies to identify clinical factors associated with the acute response to doxorubicin. Future studies are warranted to examine the relationship between this acute response and subsequent heart failure buy cytoxan online . Should such a relationship be established, this model could provide useful information on patients' susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced long-term cardiotoxicity.

cytoxan dosing 2017-11-03

Data was mined from 139 eligible NSCLC patient records. buy cytoxan online Comparisons were made between 65 patients treated from January 2011 to March 2013 with palliative RT (20-30 Gray in 5-10 fractions) alone, versus 74 patients treated from April 2013 to December 2014 with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (50 mg once daily from day of initiation of RT until at least the day of disease progression). Response was assessed after 1-month post-RT by computed tomography. Patients with complete or partial response were recorded as responders. For the determination of progression free survival (PFS), progression would be declared in case of increase in size of lesions, development of new lesions, or development of effusions. The proportions of responders were compared with the Fisher exact test, and the PFS curves were compared with the log-rank test.

cytoxan storage 2017-06-21

We performed a retrospective chart review of buy cytoxan online all patients with a diagnosis of NMO/NMOSD, supported by a positive NMO-IgG testing, who were treated with methotrexate. A paired sample 2 tailed t test was used to assess the annualized relapse rate during 18 months pre treatment with methotrexate to annualized relapse rate 18 months post treatment with methotrexate.

cytoxan 25mg tablets 2015-02-21

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in source waters is increasing. Although UV advanced oxidation is known to be an effective barrier against micropollutants, degradation rates are only available for limited amounts of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the degradation of a large group of pharmaceuticals has been studied in this research for the UV/H2O2 process under different conditions, including pharmaceuticals of which the degradation by UV/H2O2 was never reported before (e.g., metformin, paroxetine, pindolol, sotalol, venlafaxine, etc.). Monochromatic low pressure (LP) and polychromatic medium pressure (MP) lamps were used for three different water matrices. In order to have well defined hydraulic conditions buy cytoxan online , all experiments were conducted in a collimated beam apparatus. Degradation rates for the pharmaceuticals were determined. For those compounds used in this research that are also reported in literature, measured degradation results are in good agreement with literature data. Pharmaceutical degradation for only photolysis with LP lamps is small, which is increased by using a MP lamp. Most of the pharmaceuticals are well removed when applying both UV (either LP or MP) and H2O2. However, differences in degradation rates between pharmaceuticals can be large. For example, ketoprofen, prednisolone, pindolol are very well removed by UV/H2O2, whereas metformin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide are very little removed by UV/H2O2.

cytoxan drug information 2017-02-13

Cutaneous metastasis occurs in about 29% of buy cytoxan online breast cancer patients and has a deep impact on patient quality of life.

cytoxan oral dosing 2017-03-03

An unfavorable TMD during the first 6 weeks after chemotherapy is associated with a poorer buy cytoxan online outcome in patients with relapsed disseminated NSGCTs.

cytoxan lupus dose 2016-04-07

Three sequential HS studies have been conducted Motrin Max Dose from 1991 to 2009. HS treatment strategy has consisted of maximal surgical resection followed by five cycles of intensive induction followed by consolidation myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue (AuHCR). Irradiation was given following recovery from consolidation based on the patient's age and evidence of residual disease.

cytoxan mg 2017-07-31

Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is characterized by a high chance of cure, and cured patients have a long disease-free life-expectancy; however, prognosis is severe in the case of relapsed or refractory disease. The initial use of the Elavil 200 Mg most effective chemoimmunotherapy regimen is therefore crucial. Understanding who will benefit from postinduction radiotherapy is also of paramount importance; positron emission tomography may be a reliable guide for physicians in determining which patients will require consolidation. New drugs with mechanisms of action including the most relevant biologic features of the tumor may allow better disease control.

cytoxan iv dosing 2017-07-30

Maturin acetate (MA) is Desyrel 50mg Review one of main constituents in Psacalium peltatum. The cytotoxic effects of MA on tumorigenic cells were evaluated using the MTT assay. The in vitro immunostimulatory effects of maturin acetate (MA) were evaluated on the viability of murine splenocytes and macrophages, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The effects of MA on the production of nitrous oxide, pinocytosis and lysosomal enzyme activity were assayed in murine macrophages RAW 264.7. The effects of MA on the NK cell activity were also assayed. The in vivo immunostimulatory activities of MA were evaluated on BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide (CY). MA lacks cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells (IC50>200 μM). In the absence of LPS, MA 10 μM or higher stimulated significantly (P≤0.05), compared to untreated cells (-LPS), the viability of murine macrophages and splenocytes. In the absence of LPS, MA 10 μM or higher stimulated significantly (P≤0.05), compared to untreated cells (-LPS), the lysosomal enzyme activity and pinocytosis. In immunosuppressed mice, MA increases significantly (P≤0.05), compared to CY-treated mice, the production of IL-2 and IL-15 and IFN-γ. In conclusion, MA exerts immunostimulatory activities in vitro and in vivo.

cytoxan drug category 2017-11-19

Twenty-nine patients with refractory relapsed osteosarcomas received 33 treatment lines of TTs. The median age at the beginning of treatment was 19 years (range 9-72). The median number of previous lines of chemotherapy was 3 (range 1-8). Before inclusion, 3 patients were in second complete remission, 26 were in progression for metastatic relapse. Twenty-three patients received sirolimus (in combination with cyclophosphamide for 18); 5, sunitinib; 4, sorafenib; and one, pazopanib. Stable disease was observed for 45.5% of patients (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [20-52.8]). The median Progression-Free Survival (PFS) was 3 months (95% CI [2-5.4]) for patients treated by Moduretic Buy Online sirolimus and 1.8 months (95% CI [1.3-2.8]) for patients receiving multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors; 6-month PFS 15%. The median Overall Survival (OS) was 6.8 months (95% CI [4.7-12.1]), and one-year OS was 24%. In a multivariate analysis, PFS was superior for patients receiving sirolimus compared to other TTs (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.7, 95% CI [1.05-7.1]). No toxic death was reported. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 27 and 6% of cases respectively.

cytoxan 75 mg 2016-07-14

This randomised trial was done at 36 centres in the USA and Puerto Rico. Women with operable HER2-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) with a biased coin minimisation algorithm, stratified for age, tumour size, and hormone receptor status. Neither patients nor investigators (except for a cardiac safety review panel) were masked to treatment assignment. Patients randomly assigned to sequential treatment received fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2), epirubicin 75 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) (FEC-75) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle for four cycles followed by paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) and trastuzumab 2 mg/kg (after a 4 mg/kg loading dose) once per week for 12 weeks, while those randomly assigned to the concurrent treatment group received paclitaxel and trastuzumab once per week for Buy Vermox 12 weeks followed by four cycles of FEC-75 (on day 1 of each 21-day cycle) and once-weekly trastuzumab, in the same doses as the sequential group. Surgery, including evaluation of the axilla, was done within 6 weeks of completion of neoadjuvant treatment. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who had a pathological complete response in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with, number NCT00513292.

cytoxan 100 mg 2016-03-09

Data from consecutive breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with 4-6 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) or three cycles of FEC and docetaxel were retrospectively recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess risk of FN during 3 Paracetamol Overdose FEC chemotherapy cycles.

cytoxan generic 2017-03-28

We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis results in oxidative stress and contributes to urinary bladder dysfunction. We determined (1) the expression of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inflammatory modulators, neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (Sub P), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that contribute to the inflammatory process in the urinary tract and (2) the functional role of oxidative stress in urinary bladder dysfunction with an antioxidant, Tempol, (1 mM in drinking water) combined with conscious cystometry. In CYP-treated (4 hr or 48 hr; 150 mg/kg, i.p.) rats, ROS/RNS and 3-NT significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased in urinary bladder. CYP treatment increased ATP, Sub P, and CGRP expression in the urinary bladder and cystometric fluid. In CYP-treated rats, Tempol significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased bladder capacity and reduced voiding frequency compared to CYP- Ventolin Daily Dosage treated rats without Tempol. Tempol significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced ATP expression, 3-NT, and ROS/RNS expression in the urinary tract of CYP-treated rats. These studies demonstrate that reducing oxidative stress in CYP-induced cystitis improves urinary bladder function and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

cytoxan capsules 2016-06-20

A marginal interaction between sex and the type of alkylating agent was observed for event-free survival in Seroquel Overdose 1200mg the Euro-EWING99-R1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in Ewing sarcoma. To further evaluate this interaction, we performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of RCTs assessing cyclophosphamide versus ifosfamide in any type of cancer.

cytoxan high dose 2016-04-19

14-3-3σ is a tumor suppressor gene induced by p53 in response to DNA damage and reportedly associated with resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 14-3-3σ expression is also associated with resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of paclitaxel followed by 5-FU/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (P-FEC) in human breast cancer patients. A total of 123 primary breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P-FEC) were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry of 14-3-3σ and p53 as well as direct sequencing of TP53 were performed using the tumor biopsy samples obtained prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-eight of the tumors (31%) were positive for 14-3-3σ. There was no significant association between 14-3-3σ expression and TP53 mutation or p53 expression. However, 14-3-3σ expression showed a significantly (P=0.009) negative association with pathological complete response (pCR) to P-FEC, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that only 14-3-3σ (P=0.015) and estrogen receptor (P=0.021) were significantly and independently associated with pCR. The combination of 14-3-3σ expression and TP53 mutation status had an additive negative effect on pCR, i.e., pCR rates were 45.5% for 14-3-3σ negative/TP53 mutant tumors, 24.6% for 14-3-3σ negative/TP53 wild tumors, 23.1 Flonase Generic Price % for 14-3-3σ positive/TP53 mutant tumors, and 0% for 14-3-3σ positive/TP53 wild tumors. These results demonstrate that 14-3-3σ expression is significantly associated with resistance to P-FEC and this association is independent of other biological markers. The combination of 14-3-3σ expression and TP53 mutation status has an additively negative effect on the response to P-FEC.

cytoxan dose calculator 2016-11-08

Consecutive consenting patients with refractory lupus nephritis despite steroids plus either cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate or azathioprine were enrolled in this ethics-approved, open-label, prospective study. After baseline assessment, patients received one intravenous infusion of 375  Casodex Reviews mg/m(2) rituximab. Clinical, biochemical and serological (DsDNA, complement) responses to this dose were analysed. Complete renal response (CR) was defined as normalisation of creatinine, albumin, proteinuria and urinary RBCs and partial response (PR) as ≥50% improvement in at least one parameter, without deterioration in others. B-cell depletion was defined as peripheral CD19 lymphocyte count ≤0.05 × 10(9) /L.

cytoxan 1000 mg 2016-09-01

Sixty-six transplant eligible MM patients treated by the Kyoto Clinical Hematology Study Group between 2006 and 2011 were investigated. Conventional induction chemotherapy, including vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) and high-dose dexamethasone (HDD), was used as first-line induction therapy in all patients, seven (10.6%) of whom attained a very good partial response (VGPR Lopid And Alcohol ). Of the 59 patients who did not attain VGPR with VAD or HDD, 33 were given BD as second-line induction therapy prior to HDT/ASCT.

cytoxan drug interactions 2015-05-08

Marked downregulation of deoxycytidine-kinase (DCK) mRNA and protein expression was identified as the single most important molecular event associated with araC-resistance in all tested MCL cell lines and in 50% primary MCL samples. All R clones were highly (20-1000x) cross-resistant to all tested nucleoside analogs including gemcitabine, fludarabine and cladribine. In vitro sensitivity of R clones to other classes of clinically used anti-MCL agents including genotoxic drugs (cisplatin, doxorubicin, bendamustine) and targeted agents (bortezomib, temsirolimus, rituximab) remained unaffected, or was even increased (ibrutinib). Experimental therapy of immunodeficient mice confirmed the anticipated loss of anti-tumor activity (as determined by overall survival) of the nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and fludarabine in mice transplanted with R clone compared to mice transplanted with CTRL cells, while the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin, temsirolimus, bortezomib, bendamustine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab remained comparable between the two cohorts.

cytoxan chemotherapy drug 2017-12-12

Clinical, laboratory, EMG, and histopathologic results and response to immunomodulation are reported in 6 Australian patients with previous statin exposure and antibodies targeting HMGCR.

chemotherapy drug cytoxan 2015-01-06

The incidence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin <10 g/dL) remained considerably high in patients with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy. The risk of anemia was greater in patients with distant metastasis.