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A previously described model was used in which oxygen cycling (5 days hyperoxia and 5 days hypoxia) induced retinal alterations in newborn mice. An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril), or angiotensin receptor antagonists AT1 (losartan) or AT2 (PD123319) were administered subcutaneously for 5 days after the hyperoxia exposure. According to histologic methods, the endothelial cell count within the anterior part of the ganglion cell layer was used for the evaluation of the compound effect.
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Contralateral non-ischemic kidneys displayed increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) in association with increased tubular cell proliferation. Gene expression for the macrophage chemokine osteopontin (OPN) was similarly increased along with substantial macrophage infiltration. In the heart, expression of OPN and macrophage numbers were increased. All of these changes, in both the heart and kidney were attenuated by losartan.
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To investigate the effect of enalapril, losartan, and surgical coronary revascularisation on endothelial function, and the role of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism.
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In patients considered ineligible for heart transplantation because of high PVR, bosentan therapy significantly reduced PVR. These data suggest that therapy with endothelin-receptor blockers might be useful to identify a subgroup of patients with high PVR who can benefit from heart transplantation.
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These studies indicate that the predominant mechanism of hypertension, at least in the acute phase, after acute nitric oxide synthase blockade with L-NAME is associated with a marked increase in ETA/ETB receptor activation rather than with increases in alpha 1, AT1 and V1/V2 receptor activation. It remains to be determined whether endothelin participates also in the chronic phase of nitric oxide-deficient hypertension.
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Blood pressures were reduced similarly in the two treatment groups. After 3 years, MFVR was increased (3.7 versus 3.2 mmHg x min x 100, P < 0.05) and M/IG decreased (8.6 versus 12.1 l/kg x mmol x min, P < 0.05) in patients treated with atenolol, whereas MFVR and M/IG were unchanged (3.5 versus 3.5 mmHg x min x 100 and 12.6 versus 11.1 l/kg x mmol x min, both P = NS) in patients treated with losartan. As compared to atenolol, losartan treatment was associated with less increase in MFVR (4.3 versus 27%, P < 0.05) and less decrease in M/IG (24 versus -14%, P < 0.01). The relative change in M/IG was inversely associated with the relative change in MFVR (r = -0.16, P < 0.05) independently of the relative change in body mass index (r = -0.29, P < 0.001).
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Hearts isolated from male transgenic ((mREN-2)27) hypertensive (TGH) rats, and their normotensive controls (Hannover Sprague-Dawley; SD rats), were perfused at constant flow using the Langendorff technique, and were subjected to either ischaemic preconditioning (3 x 4 min ischaemia) or continuous perfusion. Global ischaemia was then induced for 30 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion, during which time mechanical performance was assessed (left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), heart rate, and end-diastolic pressure).
ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) improve insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes, possibly mediated by inhibition of bradykinin (BK) degradation. The vasopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat (OMA) raises BK to a greater extent than ACEIs by dual enzyme inhibition, whereas its insulin-sensitizing effects and mechanisms have not been investigated.
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(1) The kidney tissue injury in the chronic AAN model group was apparent, compared to the normal structure in the normal control group, and the Cozaar group showed relieved injury. (2) The expression of caspase-3 in the model group was elevated, while expressions of BMP-7 and CD34 were decreased (p < 0.05). Cozaar lessened caspase-3 expression (p < 0.05) and promoted BMP-7 and CD34 expressions (p < 0.05). (3) Real-time PCR demonstrated a downregulation of Ang-1, Tie-2, BMP-7, and VEGF mRNA (p < 0.05) and an upregulation of Ang-2 mRNA (p < 0.01) in the renocortex, while Cozaar upregulated the expression of Ang-1, Tie-2, BMP-7, and VEGF mRNA (p < 0.05).
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Persistence or development of new ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy is associated with an increased risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction after 3 years' follow-up. These findings provide insight into a possible mechanism by which changes in ECG LVH are associated with the changing risk of developing heart failure.
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The contractile actions of the proteinase-activated receptor-2-activating peptides (PAR2APs), SLIGRL-NH2 (SL-NH2), SLIGKV-NH2 (KV-NH2), trans-cinnamoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (tc-NH2), and the PAR1-AP. TFLLR-NH2 (TF-NH2) as well as trypsin and thrombin were studied in endothelium-denuded and intact human umbilical vein (HUV) ring preparations. In HUV rings with, but not without an intact endothelium, PAR2APs caused a concentration-dependent contractile response, whereas LSIGRL-NH2 trypsin and PAR1APs were inactive. The contractile response was not affected by the endothelin ETA receptor antagonist, BQ123, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, the leukotriene synthesis inhibitor, MK886, or the epoxygenase/P450 inhibitor, SKF-525A. Other pharmacological antagonists (prazosin, Losartan") were similarly inactive. The order of potencies of the PAR2APs to cause a contraction in the endothelium-intact preparation was: SL-NH2 > > KV-NH2 > or = tc-NH2. Using an endothelium-free rat aorta ring as a reporter tissue, surrounded with endothelium-intact HUV as a donor tissue in a 'sandwich assay,' we also monitored the ability of SL-NH2, TF-NH2, trypsin and thrombin to release either contractile (EDCF) or relaxant (EDRF) factors. In the 'sandwich assay' done in the presence of L-NAME (0.1 mM), the endothelium-intact HUV tissue (but not endothelium-denuded HUV) released a contractile factor (EDCF) in response to SL-NH2 (50 microM) but not to trypsin or LSIGRL-NH2. The SL-NH2-mediated release/action of the EDCF was not affected by BQ123, indomethacin, MK886 or SKF-525A. In the 'sandwich assay', trypsin (4-10 nM), SL-NH2, KV-NH2 and tc-NH2 caused the release of a relaxant activity (EDRF) from the endothelium-intact (but not the denuded) HUV preparation. The release of EDRF was blocked by 0.1 mM (omega)nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME). Neither thrombin (10 u ml(-1), 100 nM) nor TF-NH2 (50 microM) were active in this EDRF-release assay. The relative potencies of the PAR2 agonists for causing the release of EDRF in the HUV sandwich assay were: trypsin> >SL-NH2> >tc-NH2>KV-NH2. This order of potencies differed from the one observed for the same agonists in the HUV contraction assay (above) and in an intracellular calcium signalling assay, conducted with cloned human PAR2 that was expressed in cultured rat kidney KNRK cells: trypsin > > SL-NH2 = tc-NH2 > KV-NH2. We conclude that PAR2APs (but not PAR1APs) via a receptor distinct from PAR2, can cause a contractile response in endothelium-intact HUV tissue via the release of a diffusable EDCF, that is different from previously recognized smooth muscle agonists (e.g. prostanoid metabolites, endothelin, noradrenaline, angiotensin-II, acetylcholine).
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Proteinuria may cause a worsening of accompanying renal disease or even lead to glomerulosclerosis. There is no data about the effect of carvedilol on patients with proteinuric (>0.5 g/day) glomerulonephritis. This study aimed to compare the effects of carvedilol with ramipril and losartan in patients with proteinuric glomerulonephritis.
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A 77-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of nausea and vomiting. Her medical history included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, and coronary artery disease. Her home medications included aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, digoxin, metoprolol, losartan, simvastatin, isosorbide dinitrate, furosemide, and spironolactone. Initial physical examination showed blood pressure of 170/80 mm Hg with a heart rate of 69 beats per minute, otherwise unremarkable. Initial laboratory workup was significant for INR of 3.6, with slightly elevated troponin I and creatinine of 0.06 ng/mL and 1.4 mg/dL, respectively. The patient was admitted to the medicine floor. However, a few hours later, her atrial fibrillation went into rapid ventricular response, associated with hypotension. Cardiac enzymes began to trend up along with worsening of her renal function tests and hepatic enzymes. Her INR remained supratherapeutic despite holding coumadin and giving vitamin K. The patient was transferred to the medical intensive care unit for closer monitoring. During day 1 of the medical intensive care unit stay, losartan, simvastatin, and diuretics were held, whereas aspirin, clopidogrel, and isosorbide dinitrate were continued. In the following 2 days, there was worsening of tissue perfusion, and laboratory workup showed AST 514 IU/L, ALT 391 IU/L, INR >9, creatinine 3.8 mg/dL, and troponin I 0.19 ng/mL; therefore, digoxin was also held. Once the patient achieved hemodynamic stability, she was started on hydralazine. On day 4, renal function, cardiac, and hepatic enzymes improved significantly. However, 24 hours later, transaminases began to trend up again reaching a maximum of AST and ALT of 359 and 525 IU/L, respectively. Other possible causes were ruled out because her viral hepatitis markers, antihistone antibody, antinuclear antibody, and anti-double-stranded DNA were all negative. After thorough review of all medications, hydralazine was held with subsequent improvement in transaminases. The patient was seen a month later after her discharge, and all her laboratory workup improved to baseline.
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The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase could improve hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of losartan or amlodipine alone or combined with simvastatin on hepatic steatosis degree, and on insulin sensitivity in normocholesterolemic, hypertensive patients with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis.
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With the application of early reperfusion therapy after acute MI, the incidence and importance of nontransmural infarction is increasing. In a rat model with nontransmural infarction, we evaluated 1) the changes of LV dimension, LV interstitial fibrosis and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA expression and 2) the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist treatment. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion, and five days after the operation the animals were randomized to untreated (n = 19), captopril-treated (n = 15) and losartan-treated (n = 14) groups. Twenty-six days after MI, echocardiographic examination revealed a remarkable dilatation of LV. Captopril or losartan treatment reduced the extent of LV cavity dilatation. Collagen volume fractions in noninfarcted septum as well as in peri-infarct area decreased with captopril or losartan treatment, compared to those of the untreated rats. In noninfarcted septum of untreated rats, TGF-beta1 mRNA expression increased more than two fold (P < 0.05 vs. pre-MI) 5 and 10 days after MI. Captopril or losartan treatment suppressed the acute induction of TGF-beta1 mRNA expressions. These results indicate that ACE inhibitor or AT1 receptor antagonist treatment after nontransmural infarction 1) attenuates LV remodeling as in transmural infarction and 2) decreases interstitial fibrosis at least partly by blocking the acute induction of TGF-beta1 mRNA expression.
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It is suggested that the losartan significantly inhibits generation of the AT1R-AA.
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The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the resveratrol with gliclazide and losartan in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
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One hundred and sixteen participants received an enalapril regimen while 84 were on a losartan regimen.
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CYP2C9 is one of the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the metabolism of losartan and human CYP2C9 and rat CYP2C11 activity in vitro.
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In the VA NEPHRON-D Study, we randomized 1148 veterans receiving outpatient care with type 2 diabetes mellitus, eGFR of between 30 and 89.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and urinary albumin excretion of at least 300 μg/mg creatinine (or a urinary total protein of at least 0.5 mg/mg creatinine) to either combination therapy with losartan and lisinopril or monotherapy with losartan. We identified hospitalized AKI events and their outcomes during a median follow-up of 2.2 years through systematic reporting of serious adverse events.
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Rapidly aging Ercc1d/- mice display an activated intrarenal RAS, as evidenced by the increased fluorescence detected with the ReninSense 680™ probe. This increased RAS activity may contribute to the disturbed kidney pathology in these mice. The increased intrarenal activity detected with the ReninSense 680™ probe in male vs. female mice, as well as after losartan treatment, are in full agreement with the literature, and thus not only validate the specificity of the probe, but also support its use for longitudinal imaging of altered RAS signaling in aging.
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To test the hypothesis that endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) interact in modulating the sympathetic nervous system in conscious rats, as they do in the endothelium, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) given losartan and compared before and during intravenous infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA (0.25 mg/kg/min). The slope of the relation between RSNA and MAP to blood pressure reduction was increased in the presence of L-NMMA (from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 2.8 +/- 0.2), suggesting that endogenous NO suppresses the reflex increase in RSNA. Since NO inhibits ET production in the endothelium, we speculated that the increase in MAP-RSNA slope was due partly to an unmasking of ET, and thus recorded MAP, heart rate, and RSNA during intravenous infusions of both L-NMMA and the ET-type-A-receptor antagonist BQ-485 (0.10 mg/kg/min). The slope decreased significantly in SHR when BQ-485 was added (1.5 +/- 0.2), but not in WKY, implying that unmasked ET enhanced the sympathetic increase via ETA receptors in hypertensive rats. An ETB-receptor antagonist potentiated the sympathetic response only in WKY rats. These results suggest that NO suppressed the reflex increase in RSNA to blood pressure reduction, while ET uncovered by L-NMMA enhanced the sympatho-activation, indicating an interaction between ET and NO in modulating the sympathetic nervous system in conscious hypertensive animals in vivo. In contrast, the interaction was not observed in normotensive rats.
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Aggressive antihypertensive treatments may be more beneficial in improving erectile function in aged SHR, via an effect that appears to be tissue specific, and not based on changes in blood pressure.
There are many methods to screen for abnormal amounts of proteinuria to identify patients at risk for progression of renal disease, but which method best predicts renal risk is unknown. Here, we analyzed a subset of 701 patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy participating in the Reduction of Endpoints in Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial to compare the ability of urinary protein excretion (UPE) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) from a 24-hour urine collection and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and the albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) from a first-morning void in predicting renal events. The primary outcome measure was the time to a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. During follow-up, 202 events occurred. The hazard ratios for the risk of a renal outcome (95% CIs) associated with 1-SD increment in the log-transformed measures were 3.16 (2.60 to 3.86) for UAE, 3.02 (2.53 to 3.62) for UPE, 3.23 (2.67 to 3.91) for UAC, and 4.36 (3.50 to 5.45) for ACR. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for ACR compared with the other measures. In conclusion, measurement of the albumin:creatinine ratio in a first-morning void is the superior method to predict renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.
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Ang II induced migration of SHR-AFs was markedly increased in a dose-dependent manner when compared with WKY-AFs. Addition of the Ang II receptor type-1 (AT1-R) antagonist Losartan and P38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 suppressed Ang II-induced migration of SHR-AFs. Ang II could induce P38 MAPK phosphorylation in SHR-AFs in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of P38 MAPK was suppressed by Losartan and SB202190.