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HR decreased in all groups after carvedilol treatment, but was still highest in the youngest group despite the same treatment doses. Time and frequency domain variables improved. The response of time domain variables (the standard deviation of all normal sinus to normal sinus [NN] intervals and the standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all 5-minute or 30-minute segments) to carvedilol therapy significantly decreased with increasing age. Ventricular reverse remodeling induced by carvedilol therapy significantly decreased with increasing age. Increases in time domain variables and a low-frequency domain moderately correlated with left ventricular reverse remodeling.
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Thirty-seven patients in NYHA functional class III-IV with LV ejection fraction < 45% and a mean age of 76 +/- 6 years were prospectively studied. They received carvedilol which was associated with conventional therapy for CHF (ACE-inhibitors + diuretics + digitalis). The changes over time in clinical and echocardiographic variables (evaluated at baseline and every 6 months) were compared with those of 23 patients treated with the sole conventional therapy.
The value of early therapy with beta-blocking agents in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing reperfusion is not yet well established. Newer beta-blocking agents such as carvedilol offer potential advantages in the setting of ischemia and reperfusion injury.
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We analysed data from consecutive patients with stable CHF admitted to our department for prognostic evaluation. Patients underwent coronary angiography, echo-cardiography, radionuclide angiography and a cardiopulmonary exercise test.
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The stress-related catecholamine hormones and the α- and β-adrenergic receptors (α- and β-AR) may affect carcinogenesis. The β-AR GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist carvedilol can induce β-AR-mediated transactivation of the EGFR. The initial purpose of this study was to determine whether carvedilol, through activation of EGFR, can promote cancer. Carvedilol failed to promote anchorage-independent growth of JB6 P(+) cells, a skin cell model used to study tumor promotion. However, at nontoxic concentrations, carvedilol dose dependently inhibited EGF-induced malignant transformation of JB6 P(+) cells, suggesting that carvedilol has chemopreventive activity against skin cancer. Such effect was not observed for the β-AR agonist isoproterenol and the β-AR antagonist atenolol. Gene expression, receptor binding, and functional studies indicate that JB6 P(+) cells only express β2-ARs. Carvedilol, but not atenolol, inhibited EGF-mediated activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. A topical 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin hyperplasia model in SENCAR mice was utilized to determine the in vivo cancer preventative activity of carvedilol. Both topical and oral carvedilol treatment inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia (P < 0.05) and reduced H-ras mutations; topical treatment being the most potent. However, in models of established cancer, carvedilol had modest to no inhibitory effect on tumor growth of human lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, these results suggest that the cardiovascular drug carvedilol may be repurposed for skin cancer chemoprevention, but may not be an effective treatment of established tumors. More broadly, this study suggests that β-ARs may serve as a novel target for cancer prevention.
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Despite treatment with beta-blockers, heart failure remains associated with a marked reduction in well-being and survival. Loss of quality-adjusted life-years through death and poor well-being seemed of similar magnitude over four years, and both were much larger than the loss that could be attributed to hospitalization.
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A total of 102 patients (63 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 58.3 ± 6.6 years were included. Among these patients, 42.2% had Child Class A, 31.9% had Class B, and 26.6% had Child Class C liver disease. The mean baseline hepatic venous pressure gradient was 16.75 ± 2.12 mmHg, and after dose optimization and reassessment of hepatic venous pressure gradient at 3 months, the mean reduction in the hepatic venous pressure gradient was 5.5 ± 1.7 mmHg and 2.8 ± 1.6 mmHg among responders and nonresponders respectively. The mean dose of carvedilol was higher in nonresponders (19.2 ± 5.7 mg) than responders (18.75 ± 5.1 mg). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The univariate analysis determined that the absence of adverse events, the absence of ascites, and low baseline cardiac output were significantly associated with chronic response, whereas, the etiology, Child class, variceal size (large vs small), and gender were not. On multivariate analysis, the absence of any adverse event was determined to be an independent predictor of chronic response (OR 11.3, 95% CI; 1.9-67.8).
For subjects aged 60 years at HF onset, the expected years of life are 4.53 years for those treated with conventional therapy alone, 5.70 years for those who receive conventional therapy plus metoprolol, and 6.21 years for those who receive conventional therapy plus carvedilol. The expected costs (in 1999 Canadian dollars) are $8,989, $13,833, and $18,114, respectively. This yields incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for metoprolol relative to conventional therapy alone of $4,140 per life-year gained, and for carvedilol relative to metoprolol, the ICER is $8,394 per life-year gained.
Thirty three patients (6 females, 27 males) who had not received beta blocker treatment previously and whose left ventricular ejection fraction was below 40% were included in this study. LA volumes were measured echocardiographically just before the time of mitral valve opening (V (max)), onset of atrial systole (p-wave at the electrocardiography = V (p)) and mitral valve closure (V (min)) according to the biplane area length method at baseline and in the 3rd month after the administration of beta blockers. NT-proBNP level was measured at the beginning and in the third month of beta blocker treatment. The first group was given carvedilol 6.25 mg/day, the second group was given 12.5 mg/day metoprolol succinate and it was increased to the tolerable maximal dose.
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Carvedilol, a multiple action neurohumoral antagonist, has been reported recently to significantly reduce mortality in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. In addition to being a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, one of the unique aspects of the biological effects of carvedilol is that it is also a potent antioxidant with antimitogenic properties. As there is a significant correlation between plasma immunoreactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and the severity of CHF, the present study was designed to determine the effects of carvedilol on ET-1 biosynthesis in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HCAECs were treated with carvedilol 15 min prior to the addition of serum and ET-1 levels were measured in the cell culture conditioned medium 24 h later. Carvedilol (10 microM) significantly inhibited basal ET-1 production in HCAECs by 62 +/- 8%. Carvedilol produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of serum-mediated stimulation of ET-1 biosynthesis with an IC50 = 1.2 microM. PreproET-1 mRNA expression was also inhibited by carvedilol. Other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, such as propranolol (10 microM) or celiprolol (10 microM), did not effect ET-1 biosynthesis. Furthermore, the antioxidant probucol (10 microM) did not effect ET-1 production. Immunohistochemical analysis of HCAECs demonstrated that resting HCAECs have expression of ET-1 and can be inhibited by carvedilol. The results of the present study demonstrate that serum stimulation of HCAECs produced an increase in ET-1 expression, and carvedilol treatment caused a marked decrease in stimulated ET-1 expression as compared to serum-treated HCAECs. These data indicate that carvedilol directly inhibits the biosynthesis of ET-1 in HCAECs, and this effect may contribute to its vasodilating and antiproliferative actions. Furthermore, these effects may contribute to the ability of carvedilol to improve clinical outcome in CHF patients.
This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of the %VO2R versus %HRR relationship for aerobic effort relative intensity assessment in CHF patients.
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Overall, MERIT-HF demonstrated a hazard ratio of 0.66 for total mortality and 0.81 for mortality plus all-cause hospitalization. The hazard ratio of the first secondary end point of mortality plus hospitalization for heart failure was 0.69. The results were remarkably consistent for both primary outcomes and the first secondary outcome across all predefined subgroups as well as for nearly all post hoc subgroups. The results of the post hoc US subgroup showed a mortality hazard ratio of 1.05. However, the US results regarding both the second primary combined outcome of total mortality plus all-cause hospitalization and of the first secondary combined outcome of total mortality plus heart failure hospitalization were in concordance with the overall results of MERIT-HF. Tests of country by treatment interaction (14 countries) revealed a nonsignificant P value of.22 for total mortality. The mortality hazard ratio for US patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV was 0.80, and it was 2.24 for patients in NYHA class II, which is not consistent with causality by biologic gradient. We have not been able to identify any confounding factor in baseline characteristics, baseline treatment, or treatment during follow-up that could account for any treatment by country interaction. Thus we attribute the US subgroup mortality hazard ratio to be due to chance.
We included eight studies examining the blood pressure lowering efficacy of carvedilol and labetalol in 1493 hypertensive patients. Five of the included studies were parallel design; three were cross-over design. The two largest included studies were unpublished carvedilol studies. The estimates of BP lowering effect (systolic BP/diastolic BP millimeters of mercury; SPB/DBP mm Hg) were -4 mm Hg (95% confidence intervals (CI) -6 to -2)/-3 mm Hg (95% CI -4 to -2) for carvedilol (>1000 subjects) and -10 mm Hg (95% CI -14 to -7)/-7 mm Hg (95% CI -9 to -5) for labetalol (110 subjects). The effect of labetalol is likely to be exaggerated due to high risk of bias. Carvedilol, within the recommended dose range, did not show a significant dose response effect for SBP or DBP. Carvedilol had little or no effect on pulse pressure (-1 mm Hg) and did not change BP variability. Overall, once and twice the starting dose of carvedilol and labetalol lowered BP by -6 mm Hg (95% CI -7 to -4) /-4 mm Hg (95% CI -4 to -3) (low quality evidence) and lowered heart rate by five beats per minute (95% CI -6 to -4) (low quality evidence). Five studies (N = 1412) reported withdrawal due to adverse effects; the risk ratio was 0.88 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.42) (moderate quality evidence).
In this prospective, randomized, multicenter trial, 117 patients were assigned to 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 20 mg (n = 38, 36, and 43) carvedilol groups according to the target dose. β1-AAb was positive in 51 patients (44%, P) and negative in 66 (56%, N). The percentage increase of left ventricular ejection fraction over 56 weeks (ΔLVEF) was larger in P than in N (P = .050) and in the high-titer group (H) than in the low-titer group (L; P = .04). Left ventricular (LV) volume decreased to a greater extent in H than in L over 56 weeks. β1-AAb titer was significantly correlated with ΔLVEF and the percentage change of LV volume and was an independent predictor of them. No difference was seen in the composite end point (all-cause mortality and hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases or heart failure). However, in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, it was more common in the 2.5 mg group than in the other groups in N, and it was similar among the 3 groups in P.
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The major causes of HF were ischemic heart disease, hypertensive cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. The New York Heart Association classification in group 2013 was significantly higher than those in group 2000 and group 2008. There was no difference in the level of brain natriuretic peptide at admission between group 2008 and group 2013. Tolvaptan began to be administered in group 2013. The median dose of furosemide just before the use of tolvaptan was 40 mg/day. At discharge, group 2013 showed higher rates of β-blocker and aldosterone antagonist. There was no difference in the frequency of loop diuretics. The dose of carvedilol at discharge was only 6.2 ± 4.0 mg/day. Antiarrhythmic drugs and β-blocker were used more frequently in HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) than in HF with preserved EF.
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The cellular mechanisms by which hypertension enhances atherosclerosis are still not known in detail. Recently, evidence has been obtained that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pressure-induced atherosclerosis. We examined the effects of pressure on oxidative stress in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Application of increased pressure (+100 mmHg) with He gas for 48 h increased oxidative stress of measured by flow cytometry by 71% and F2-isopretane by 77%. Increased pressure also increased the activities of phospholipase D (PLD), and particulate protein kinase C (PKC). The PLD inhibitor suramin 100 micromol/l, 1-butanol 40 mmol/l, and the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine 1 micromol/l and calphostin C 100 nmol/l and completely blocked the increase in oxidative stress induced by pressure. Carvedilol 1 micromol/l but not propranolol 1 micromol/l blocked pressure-induced increases in oxidative stress in cultured SMCs. These findings suggest that pressure increases oxidative stress and that carvedilol significantly inhibits pressure-induced increase in oxidative stress in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells.
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In-vitro permeation studies were performed by Franz diffusion cells. The results followed Higuchi kinetics, and mechanism of release was diffusion mediated. On the basis of the in-vitro and physicochemical parameters of carvedilol patches, the code F-1(PVP: Ethyl Cellulose = 4:1) was chosen for the study of in-vivo, ex-vivo, histocompatibility study, and pharmacological study. The bioavailability studies in rats indicated that the carvedilol-loaded transdermal patches provided steady-state plasma concentration and improved bioavailability of 72% in comparison to oral administration. The ex-vivo permeation study in rat's skin indicated that the flux and permeability co-efficient of optimized F-1 patch was 30.08 ± 0.7 μg/cm(2)/h and 0.416 ± 0.05 μg/cm(2)/h, respectively, which was more as compared to plain carvedilol. The histocompatibility study of the F-1 patch on the rat's skin after 24 h ex-vivo study gave less pathological changes as compared to other. The antihypertensive activity of the patch in comparison with oral administration was studied using N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertensive rats. It was observed that the optimized patch (F-1) significantly controlled hypertension (p < 0.05).
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The effects of beta blockade on ischemic cardiac dysfunction seem to depend on the different properties of the beta-blockers and the doses used. Among the beta-blockers tested, carvedilol provided potent cardioprotection for compromised ischemic but viable myocardium rather than for infarcted myocardium.
To examine the relationships among ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure load (proportion of elevated blood pressure values over 24-h recording) and indices of hypertensive heart disease (left ventricular mass and left ventricular function) in untreated hypertensive patients. A secondary aim was to evaluate the usefulness of ambulatory blood pressure load in assessing the long-term effects of antihypertensive drug therapy.
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For cardioprotective agents for which pooling was impossible, no definitive conclusions can be made about their efficacy. Dexrazoxane prevents heart damage and no evidence for a difference in response rate or survival between the dexrazoxane and control group was identified. Only for an abnormal white blood cell count at nadir a clearly significant difference in favour of the control group was identified. We conclude that if the risk of cardiac damage is expected to be high, it might be justified to use dexrazoxane in patients with cancer treated with anthracyclines. However, for each individual patient clinicians should weigh the cardioprotective effect of dexrazoxane against the possible risk of adverse effects.
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VO(2) peak seems to maintain prognostic value in HF patients BB therapy. The present study also provides new evidence that optimal threshold value for VO(2) peak in the BB era is 12.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1).
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Beta-blockers improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), but their different pleiotropic properties may influence their cardiovascular effects. This open-label study compared the effects of long-term treatment with nebivolol versus carvedilol on LV ejection fraction (LVEF), in hypertensive CHF patients. Secondary end points were to assess the effect of the 2 beta-blockers on exercise capacity and clinical outcome.
Doses of beta-blockers being prescribed to predominantly elderly veterans with heart failure were much lower than proven doses. Whether efforts to increase doses can improve the effectiveness of beta-blocker therapy warrants further study. At the prescribed doses, CR metoprolol was associated with better survival than carvedilol, although unmeasured confounding variables might explain the observed difference in survival.
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This trial is a single-center study that aims to evaluate the impact of nebivolol on LV diastolic function. The results of the study will provide information about the optimal choice of a β-Blocker in the management of patients after diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The results will be available by 2017.
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Pharmacogenetics can be used as a tool for stratified pharmacological therapy in cardiovascular medicine. We investigated whether a predefined combination of the Arg389Gly polymorphism in the adrenergic β(1) -receptor gene (ADRB1) and the Gln27Glu polymorphism in the adrenergic β(2) -receptor gene (ADRB2) could predict survival in carvedilol- and metoprolol-treated chronic heart failure (HF) patients.
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Studies are scant on the effects of short-term carvedilol treatment as an adjuvant to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The objective of this study was to find the effects of short-term treatment of carvedilol on patients with ischemic LV systolic dysfunction (defined as LV ejection fraction (LVEF)