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To determine the antiarrhythmic efficacy of beta-blockers (beta-B) and verapamil (V) in exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia (Ex-VT), nine patients with reproducible Ex-VT (in two consecutive exercise tests) were studied by means of electrophysiologic study (EPS) in basal conditions and serial exercise testing after beta-B (metoprolol 25 mg tid to 100 mg qid; oxprenolol 40 mg tid) and/or V (80-160 mg tid). Ejection fraction was normal in four cases and depressed in five. Of these nine patients, four developed Ex-VT during chronic amiodarone treatment, which was continued. During EPS, VT was induced at a critical atrial pacing rate in one case, and with the extrastimulus technique in four. Ventricular tachycardia was not inducible with either technique in four patients. Five of the six patients on beta-B and none of the seven on V developed Ex-VT, although they achieved the same or higher work-loads as compared to the basal exercise tests. In the case with rate-dependent VT, beta-B and V prevented VT at work-loads, sinus rates and double products significantly higher than those obtained in basal conditions. In the others, maximal heart rate and double product were lower on beta-B and showed a wide variability on V. V and beta-B appeared to be highly effective in preventing Ex-VT, in patients with normal heart as well as in those with greatly depressed ejection fraction. Both of the drugs appeared to suppress re-entry or triggered activity in the patient with rate-dependent Ex-VT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Our results demonstrate that objective tests such as systolic peak velocities in the thyroid arteries and CPD are reliable parameters for differentiating between the two types of AAT.
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The prevalence of arrhythmia in the population is increasing as more people survive for longer with cardiovascular disease. It was once thought that antiarrhythmic therapy could save life, however, it is now evident that antiarrhythmic therapy should be administrated with the purpose of symptomatic relief. Since many patients experience a decrease in physical performance as well as a diminished quality of life during arrhythmia there is still a need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The development of new antiarrhythmic agents has changed the focus from class I to class III agents since it became evident that with class I drug therapy the prevalence of mortality is considerably higher. This review focuses on the benefits and risks of known and newer class III antiarrhythmic agents. The benefits discussed include the ability to maintain sinus rhythm in persistent atrial fibrillation patients, and reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia.
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Atrial fibrillation ablation guided by electroanatomical mapping has shown good efficacy. The increase in left atrium size was associated with atrial fibrillation recurrence.
International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium database.
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This case report describes a patient with a sustained monomorphic VT after surgical repair of a tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In combination with the three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system, CARTO, and conventional mapping techniques the VT was identified as a macro-reentrant tachycardia circling around the border between pulmonary graft and right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). A y-shaped ablation line crossing this zone was created. The VT terminated during RF application and was not inducible again. This case underlines the use of a combined conventional and three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping technique can be helpful for catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in TOF patients.
No significant change in QTc interval was observed in patients receiving either iodixanol or ioxilan during angiography. Iodixanol appeared to improve short-term renal function in patients with heart failure and should be further investigated.
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Cultured human keratinocytes converted T4 to T3 by type II iodothyronine deiodination. Homogenates of keratinocytes cultured from neonatal foreskin or adult arm skin had similar mean T4 5'-deiodinating activities. Conversion of T4 to T3 by intact cells was demonstrable in cultures from neonatal and adult donors. Only phenolic ring deiodination occurred in the cultured cells and their homogenates, the apparent Michaelis constant for T4 was 12 nmol/L, and T4 and rT3 each inhibited 5'-deiodination of the other. T4 5'-deiodination was unaffected by addition to the assay mixture of 1 mumol/L T3, but was inhibited less than 10% by 1 mmol/L 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, 50% by 270 nmol/L iopanoic acid, 50% by 9.4 mumol/L 3,5-diiodo- 3',5'-dimethyl-L-thyronine, and 33% by 42 mumol/L amiodarone. When keratinocytes were cultured for 3-4 days in medium containing iodothyronine-free fetal calf serum, the T4 5'-deiodination rates in homogenates doubled; this increase was prevented by restoring a physiological free T4 concentration, but not by a supraphysiological T3 concentration. Homogenates of fresh whole skin or fetal cadaveric epidermis did not convert T4 to T3 in measureable amounts, although one epidermal homogenate had low level T3 typrosyl-ring deiodinating activity. These results suggest that human epidermal type II iodothyronine deiodination in man might conceivably contribute to the intracellular T3 content of the skin and even to serum T3 concentrations, especially in hypothyroidism.
One-hundred and sixty patients who had similar demographic properties were randomly grouped as group I, that preoperatively received combined drug therapy (n=40), group II preoperatively used digitalis (n=40), group III atenolol (n=40), and group IV was the control group (n=40).
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Patients with AIT type 2 were randomized to receive prednisone 30 mg/d (group A, n = 12), sodium perchlorate 500 mg twice daily (group B, n = 14), or prednisone plus perchlorate (group C, n = 10); all patients continued amiodarone and were also treated with methimazole 30 mg/d. Follow-up was 2 yr.
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To report a case of septic shock and community-acquired pneumonia in a patient with psoriatic arthritis receiving treatment with etanercept. PATIENT DETAILS: A 65-year-old woman diagnosed as having psoriatic arthritis had received treatment with etanercept. Chest X-ray studies were normal and the tuberculin skin test was negative. Two months after etanercept therapy, the patient presented to our emergency department with fever, cough, chest pain and generalized weakness. Chest radiography revealed a right pulmonary infiltrate. Her condition rapidly deteriorated and she went into shock with a further drop in her blood pressure, tachycardia and tachypnea. She was intubated, mechanically ventilated and was treated with fluids, cardioversion and amiodarone. Empiric therapy with levofloxacin, amikacin and cefepime were initiated. In the urinalysis, the result of a rapid test for Streptococcus pneumoniae was positive. Etanercept treatment was suspended due to a possible adverse reaction associated with this drug. At the start of therapy her clinical condition improved slowly. On Day 28, the patient was afebrile and she was discharged from the intensive care unit.
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Recent multicenter studies have shown that the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is superior compared to antiarrhythmic agents after sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with congestive heart failure. Further ICD studies have to be performed for primary prevention of SCD in patients with heart failure. Primary prevention studies of SCD with Amiodarone or new class III agents (e.g., Dofetilide) were not able to lower cardiac mortality in these patients. How much the new method of biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block will reduce cardiac mortality has to be proven in future prospective trials.
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We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a university anticoagulation clinic to evaluate the influence of ethnicity on warfarin dose. Inclusion criteria included age > or = 18 years, target international normalized ratio (INR) 2-3, and warfarin management within the clinic for > or = 3 months with a minimum of 5 clinic visits. We collected clinical and demographic data including age, gender, weight, ethnicity, disease states, concomitant medications, indication, weekly warfarin dosage, and INR. To assess potential confounders, multivariate, repeated-measures regression analysis was used to identify and adjust for variables that may influence the maintenance dose of warfarin.
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The combination of amiodarone and metoprolol produces better effect than amiodarone or metoprolol alone in the treatment of CHF complicated by ventricular arrhythmia.
A total of 224 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation underwent electrical cardioversion with biphasic (Bi, n=112) or monophasic (Mo, n=112) shock waveform in a randomized fashion. The position of hand-held paddle electrodes was randomly selected in both groups to be anterior-lateral and anterior-posterior. Energies used were 100-150-200-300-360 J (Bi) or 100-200-300-360 J (Mo). If monophasic shock of 360 J was ineffective, we used biphasic shock of 360 J. Early recurrent atrial fibrillation (ERAF) was defined as a relapse of atrial fibrillation within 2 min after a successful cardioversion, acute recurrent - within 24 h.
For CHF patients with ICDs, syncope was associated with appropriate ICD activations. Syncope was associated with increased mortality risk in SCD-HeFT regardless of treatment arm (placebo, amiodarone, or ICD).
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The MEDLINE database was searched for English-language material, including reports of clinical trials and in vivo studies, review articles, and abstracts presented at national symposia, that was published between 1985 and 1996. Bibliographies of textbooks and articles were also examined.
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The short-term administration of amiodarone under the conditions of the present study does not seem to affect respiratory function.
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Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) in infancy is one of the serious arrhythmias which can be fatal. Typical features of JET include rapid and irregular heart beats with atrioventricular dissociation. Two cases of JET are reported: Case 1 was a 35-week-gestational age newborn who was found to have hydropsy and fetal tachycardia at the 21st week of gestational age. Antiarrhythmic agents including digoxin, propranolol and verapamil were administered to his mother to treat the fetal arrhythmia without success. JET was recognized at birth which was spontaneously converted into a sinus rhythm at 1 month of age. The maternal history revealed that two previous pregnancies ended in hydrops fetalis, and one of these was documented to have fetal tachycardia. Case 2 was a 6-month-old male infant with JET and congestive heart failure. After failure of various antiarrhythmic agents, amiodarone finally slowed down his heart rate and controlled his congestive heart failure.
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Long QT syndrome is characterized by electrocardiographic appearance of long QT intervals and propensity to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Aggressive anticipatory clinical management is required for a good outcome, especially in the symptomatic neonate. We present a neonate with a compound mutation with refractory ventricular tachycardia that necessitated multimodal pharmacotherapy with lidocaine, esmolol, and amiodarone along with ventricular pacing. Despite normal serum lidocaine levels, complex pharmacokinetic interactions resulted in presumed neurotoxicity due to lidocaine. This report discusses the implications and challenges of management of a neonate with compound long mutations.
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Superfrequent TLAS is a highly effective and non-invasive modality in the treatment of paroxysmal AF. It promotes recovery of SR. In some patients TLAS induces AFi which is more controllable by medication as regards the heart rate. Cordarone contributes to the response to TLAS in patients with paroxysmal AF.
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To report the potential clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between sirolimus and dronedarone.