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The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the appropriate use of commonly prescribed fluoroquinolones, including appropriate indication, dose, dose adjustment in renal impairment, and duration of treatment. The secondary objective was to investigate the dysglycemic effect of fluoroquinolone use (hypoglycemia and/or hyperglycemia) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
Uncomplicated cystitis in females is among the most frequent infections in community.
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Non-randomized, non-comparative, retrospective study. Ocular bacterial isolates (n = 619) from Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology were tested for their susceptibilities to gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin in vitro by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.
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Spotted fever group rickettsioses are an interesting group of infections, which are increasing in incidence worldwide.
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All 15 included children had moderate to severe disease with refractory disease course to multiple immunosuppressants (mean age 13.6±5.1years, median disease duration 2 (IQR 0.8-3.2) years, 11 females (73%), and 13 (87%) extensive disease; 14 (93%) were corticosteroid-dependent or resistant, and 12 (80%) refractory to anti-TNF therapy). The cocktail was definitely effective in 7 of the 15 included children (47%) who entered complete clinical remission (PUCAI<10) without additional interventions. Questionable or partial short-term response was noted in another 3 (20%), totaling 67% of patients.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across species, genes conferring antimicrobial resistance were observed with the following frequencies: blaTEM, 40.7%; blaCMY-2, 15.2%; blaCTX-M, 11.5%; sul2, 27.2%; sul1, 14.4%; tet(A), 5.4%; tet(L), 5.4%; tet(M), 5.0%; tet(E), 3.7%; tet(C), 3.3%; tet(S), 2.5%; and tet(K), 0.8%. Various antimicrobial resistance genes were found in new carriers: blaTEM in Lactococcus garvieae, Myroides odoratimimus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sciuri, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Acinetobacter ursingii, Sphingobacterium sp., and Oceanobacillus sp.; blaCMY-2 in Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Myroides phaeus; tet(L) in M. caseolyticus; sul1 in Vibrio cincinnatiensis; sul2 in Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and V. cincinnatiensis; and the class 1 integron and gene cassette aadA2 in V. cincinnatiensis. Approximately 6.6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor- encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of aerobic bacteria from pork as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies.
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To evaluate the delivery of PFD by soft contact lens (SCL) in vivo, we screened the most suitable lens material for PFD among various commercially available SCL materials in vitro.
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150 samples of fresh feces from calves were collected and C. difficile was isolated from feces of calves using bacterial culture methods. DNA was extracted by a genomic DNA purification kit. Then PCR method was used for definitive diagnosis of C. difficile. Multiplex PCR method performed for identification of tcdA, tcdB, cdtA and cdtB genes. In the final stage antimicrobial resistance determining was carried out by standard Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method.
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Because CAP can influence the antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus, before conducting combined treatment with local plasma application on wounds and systemic antibiotics, their interaction must be analysed in vitro to exclude unwanted combination effects.
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C. difficile was observed to be an important diarrhoeal pathogen and metronidazole was effective in treating diarrhoea caused by the bacterium. Co-trimoxazole, which is widely used as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients, was not very effective in preventing diarrhoea caused by C. difficile.
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We characterize the current national patterns of antibiotic resistance of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infection.
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National United States Medicaid prescription and GT user search database analysis.
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To conduct a descriptive analysis of clinical, biological and prognostic aspects of Escherichia coli meningitis in young infants.
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This study supports earlier findings of association between ciprofloxacin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics. The prevalence of multiresistance in quinolone-resistant isolates that have not yet developed high-level ciprofloxacin resistance suggest that multiresistance arises early in the development of quinolone resistance. This is consistent with exposure to quinolones causing quinolone resistance by mutations and mobilization of multiresistance elements by induction of the SOS response. The spread of clones seems to be less important than previously reported in regard to emergence of quinolone resistance and multiresistance as both are associated primarily with singleton isolates.
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Precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) is an intermediate stage in the formation of mature rRNA and is a useful marker for cellular metabolism and growth rate. We developed an electrochemical sensor assay for Escherichia coli pre-rRNA involving hybridization of capture and detector probes with tail sections that are spliced away during rRNA maturation. A ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) prepared on gold electrode surfaces by coassembly of thiolated capture probes with hexanedithiol and posttreatment with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol minimized the background signal and maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Inclusion of internal calibration controls allowed accurate estimation of the pre-rRNA copy number per cell. As expected, the ratio of pre-rRNA to mature rRNA was low during stationary phase and high during log phase. Pre-rRNA levels were highly dynamic, ranging from 2 copies per cell during stationary phase to ~1,200 copies per cell within 60 min of inoculation into fresh growth medium. Specificity of the assay for pre-rRNA was validated using rifampin and chloramphenicol, which are known inhibitors of pre-rRNA synthesis and processing, respectively. The DNA gyrase inhibitor, ciprofloxacin, was found to act similarly to rifampin; a decline in pre-rRNA was detectable within 15 min in ciprofloxacin-susceptible bacteria. Assays for pre-rRNA provide insight into cellular metabolism and are promising predictors of antibiotic susceptibility.
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is often associated with persistent bacterial infection despite the use of systemic antibiotics. Topically administered antibiotics are an alternative strategy, but require effective local concentrations, prolonged mucosal contact time, minor systemic absorption, and minimal depletion. The objectives of the current study were to analyze the in vitro release rate and in vivo drug delivery tolerance and pharmacokinetics of a ciprofloxacin-coated sinus stent (CSS).
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An AMR surveillance programme was established and implemented by the Nepalese MOH in partnership with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B) from 1998 to 2003. From 2004 to 2012, the programme was integrated and maintained as a core activity of the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) and resulted in an increased number of participating laboratories and pathogens brought under surveillance. The main strategies were to build national capacity on isolation, identification and AMR testing of bacterial pathogens, establish laboratory networking and an External Quality Assessment (EQA) programme, promote standardised recording and reporting of results, and to ensure timely analysis and dissemination of data for advocacy and national policy adaptations. The programme was initiated by nine participating laboratories performing AMR surveillance on Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
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Since the introduction of sulfonamides in the late 1930s, selective pressure and the widespread dissemination of mobile genetic elements conferring antimicrobial resistance have forced clinicians to seek successive agents for the treatment of multidrug-resistant shigellosis. Over the decades, the principal antibiotics used to treat Shigella infections have included tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid. Presently, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone serve as the mainstays of treatment, although growing evidence has documented decreased susceptibility or full resistance to these agents in some regions. With diminishing pharmaceutical options available, there is an enhanced need for preventive measures in the form of improved sanitation and hygiene standards, strict use of currently effective agents, and a safe and effective licensed vaccine.
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Use of ertapenem was directly associated with a downward trend in the use of imipenem and ciprofloxacin, which may have contributed to improve the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to imipenem. Ertapenem use had no impact on the susceptibility of A. baumannii to imipenem.
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The main pathogens responsible for prostatitis were found to be Staphylococcus haemolyticus (30%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%), Escherichia coli (6%), Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus aureus (3%), Mycoplasma urealyticum (8%), chlamydia trachomatis (5%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6%). Statistically significant increases were observed in the detection rates of Escherichia coli (chi2 = 17.56, P<0.05), Mycoplasma urealyticum (chi2 = 8.73, P<0.05), Chlamydia trachomatis (chi2 = 8.73, P<0.05) and Enterococcus (chi2 = 8.22, P<0.05), but not in other pathogens. The resistance rates of Gram-positive bacteria to erythromycin and benzylpenicillin G were both above 45%, but with no significant difference between the two, those of Oxacillin (chi2 = 10.06, P<0.05) and Cefoxitin (chi2 = 9.89, P<0.05) were markedly increased, but those of quinolones, gentamycin and clindamycin remained low, except rifampicin (chi2 = 11.09, P<0.05). The resistance rates of Gram-negative bacteria to cefazolin and ampicillin were relatively high (mean 57.3%), and those to ceftriaxone (chi2 = 11.26, P<0.05) and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (chi2 =11.00, P< 0.05) significantly high; those to amikacin, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem remained at low levels with no significant changes. However, the resistance rates of mycoplasma urealyticum to ciprofloxacin (chi2 = 11.18, P<0.05) and azithromycin (chi2 = 9.89, P<0.05) were remarkably increased.