Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
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To examine the impact of enzalutamide versus bicalutamide on HRQoL in mCRPC.
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1. The biologic activity of androgens is mediated through the formation of a non-covalent androgen receptor (AR)-steroid complex. Casodex and other antiandrogens inhibit formation of this complex and thus negate the role of endogenous steroids in androgen-dependent growth of prostate. 2. Casodex is currently available as a racemic mixture. The goal of this investigation was to determine the in vitro AR binding affinities of the individual isomers of Casodex. 3. The (R) or (S) isomers of Casodex were synthesized according to the general synthetic scheme proposed by Tucker et al. for (S)-Casodex, using (R) or (S)-proline as the chiral matrix respectively. 4. ARs were isolated from rat ventral prostate tissue by homogenization and differential centrifugation, and used as the receptor source. 5. AR binding studies were conducted by incubation of the cytosol with 1 nM 3H-mibolerone (a synthetic androgen) and increasing concentrations of each isomer (10(-12) - 10(-5) M). Bound radioligand was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. 6. Ki for (R)-Casodex (11.0 +/- 1.5 nM) was about 30 times lower than that of (S)-Casodex (364 +/- 10 nM). Ki for the racemate was 20.2 +/- 2.0 nM. 7. This study demonstrated that (R)-Casodex has a higher binding affinity than its stereoisomer and suggests that the antiandrogenic activity of racemic Casodex is almost completely due to the (R)-isomer.
Histological changes following treatment were uncharacteristic and patients treated with bicalutamide were not identified. At morphometry prior to therapy, the prostates of the study participants consisted of 91.8% stroma (range 78.9-97.2), 5.5% epithelium (range 1.4-14.1) and 2.7% glandular lumen (range 0.8-7.5). Changes in the relative content of the three tissue components following treatment were not statistically significant.
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5α-reductase types 1 and 2, encoded by SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, are the two enzymes that can catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the most potent androgen receptor (AR) agonist in prostate cells. 5α-reductase type 2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the normal prostate. However, its expression decreases during prostate cancer (PCa) progression, while SRD5A1 increases and the mechanism underlying this transcriptional regulatory switch is still unknown. Interrogation of SRD5A mRNA expression in three publicly available datasets confirmed that SRD5A1 is increased in primary and metastatic PCa compared to non-tumoral prostate tissues, while SRD5A2 is decreased. Activation of AR, a major oncogenic driver of PCa, induced the expression of SRD5A1 from 2- to 4-fold in three androgen-responsive PCa cell lines. In contrast, AR repressed SRD5A2 expression in this context. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies established that AR is recruited to both SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes following androgen stimulation, but initiates transcriptional activation only at SRD5A1 as monitored by recruitment of DNA polymerase II and the presence of the H3K27Ac histone mark. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-androgens bicalutamide and enzalutamide block the AR-mediated regulation of the both SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, highlighting an additional mechanism explaining their beneficial effects in patients. In summary, we identified an AR-dependent transcriptional regulation that explains the differential expression of 5α-reductase type 1 and 2 during PCa progression. Our work thus defines a mechanism by which androgens control their own synthesis via differential regulatory control of the expression of SRD5A1 and SRD5A2.
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All deaths irrespective of cause and all prostate cancer-specific deaths were recorded. The data were analyzed using Cox regression analysis and the log-rank test.
To determine the treatment outcome of combined androgen blockade (CAB) therapy using the non-steroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide or the steroidal antiandrogen chlormadinone in patients with prostate cancer.
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Over 3,000 men, the majority of whom were patients with prostate cancer, were treated with Casodex (ICI 176,334), an oral anti-androgen, at doses ranging from 10 to 200 mg daily, corresponding to a total exposure to the drug of over 1,500 patient-years. Over this period, the tolerability of Casodex and its effect on quality of life were closely studied. Information on tolerability is presented from three large randomized trials of Casodex, 50 mg/day, in patients with prostate cancer, two large randomized trials of Casodex, 150 mg/day, in patients with prostate cancer and three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Casodex, 50 mg/day, in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Information on quality of life and assessment of sexual functioning is presented from the trials using Casodex, 50 mg/day, for both prostate cancer and BPH. The most commonly reported adverse events were those that would be expected with an anti-androgen (i.e. breast tenderness, gynaecomastia and hot flushes). Overall, Casodex was well tolerated; there were no reports of light/dark adaptation problems or pulmonary fibrosis, and only one case of alcohol intolerance, which was not considered by the investigator to be treatment related. Only 0.3% of patients in the whole trial programme had to be withdrawn because of changes in liver function, and there were no clinically significant changes in mean liver function tests. Although there were no consistent differences between treatments for other aspects of quality of life, there was evidence of benefit from treatment with Casodex in maintaining both sexual interest and functioning.
T and DHT inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in the epithelium of cultured normal HBT and opposed E(2)-stimulated proliferation and cell survival in an AR-dependent manner. These effects were associated with changes in the proportions of ERα- and AR-positive epithelial cells.
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Among 3 sucrose compounds, beta-D-(3,4-di-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside decreased AR and PSA mRNA and protein levels in LNCaP cells and inhibited androgen-stimulated AR translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. This compound also increased P53 Ser(15) phosphorylation and PARP cleavage in LNCaP cells, but required higher dosage than for suppressing AR-PSA. Interestingly, this compound did not inhibit the growth of RWPE-1 non-transformed prostate epithelial cells. The benzophenone compound 2-methoxy-3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzophenone suppressed PSA and AR in LNCaP cells without apoptosis.
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Bicalutamide monotherapy yielded comparable results relative to standard treatment with MAB, induced fewer side effects, and produced a better QOL.
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For patients who predominantly have IRPC, the addition of HT to DE-EBRT did not significantly affect BF, OS, or LC. Bicalutamide appeared to be well tolerated. The conclusions from the study are limited by incomplete recruitment. Cancer 2016;122:2595-603. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Hormonal down-staging with bicalutamide 150 mg/day for 3 months, then conformal radiotherapy (70 Gy over 7 weeks) with adjuvant bicalutamide 150 mg/day, to be continued until disease progression. Breast radiotherapy administered over a 5-day period at a dose of 15 Gy to reduce nonsteroidal antiandrogen-associated gynecomastia and breast pain.
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Insulin resistance is associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to evaluate the effect of bicalutamide on insulin resistance and serum CRP levels in non-obese polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients.
Androgen ablation therapies are effective in controlling prostate cancer. Although most cancers relapse and progress despite androgen ablation, some patients experience antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome, in which those treated with antiandrogen show clinical improvement when antiandrogen is discontinued. Although the androgen receptor (AR) is suggested to play an important role in prostate cancer progression even after the androgen ablation, limited tissue availability for molecular studies and small numbers of human prostate cancer cell lines have restricted prostate cancer research. Here, we describe KUCaP, a novel serially transplantable human prostate cancer xenograft model. We established KUCaP from liver metastatic tissue of a patient treated with antiandrogen bicalutamide. KUCaP expressed the AR with a point mutation at amino acid 741 (tryptophan to cysteine; W741C) in the ligand-binding domain. This mutation was also present in cancerous tissue used for generation of KUCaP. Although the growth of KUCaP in male mice was androgen dependent, bicalutamide aberrantly promoted the growth and prostate-specific antigen production of KUCaP. For the first time, we show the agonistic effect of bicalutamide to a xenograft with clinically induced AR mutation. This bicalutamide-responsive mutant AR will serve in the development of new therapies for androgen ablation-resistant prostate cancers.
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The antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on human prostate cancer cells is well known, but the mechanism is still not fully understood, especially its androgen-dependent action. Based on cDNA microarray results, we found that long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 (FACL3/ACS3) might play an important role in vitamin D(3) and androgen regulation of LNCaP cell growth. The expression of FACL3/ACS3 was found to be significantly upregulated by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and the regulation was shown to be time-dependent, with the maximal regulation over 3.5-fold at 96h. FACL3/ACS3 was a dominant isoform of FACL/ACS expressed in LNCaP cells as indicated by measuring the relative expression of each isoform. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) had no significant effect on the expression of FACL1(FACL2), FACL4 and FACL6 except for its downregulation of FACL5 at 24 and 48h by around twofold. The upregulation of FACL3/ACS3 expression by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) was accompanied with increased activity of FACL/ACS as demonstrated by enzyme activity assay using a (14)C-labeled substrate preferential for FACL3/ACS3. The growth inhibitory effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on LNCaP cells was significantly attenuated by FACL3/ACS3 activity inhibitor. Androgen withdrawal (DCC-serum), in the presence of antiandrogen Casodex or in AR-negative prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145), vitamin D(3) failed to regulate FACL3/ACS3 expression. The upregulation of FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D(3) was recovered by the addition of DHT in DCC-serum medium. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein was consistent with vitamin D(3) regulation of FACL3/ACS3 expression. Taken together, the data suggest that the upregulation of FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D(3) is through an androgen/AR-mediated pathway and might be one of the contributions of the vitamin D(3) antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer LNCaP cells.
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In all, 106 men with prostate cancer (T1b-T4/Nx/M0) and no current gynecomastia/breast pain were enrolled in this randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group multicenter trial. Patients received either a single dose of electron beam radiotherapy (10 Gy) or sham radiotherapy. Bicalutamide (Casodex) 150 mg/day was administered for 12 months from the day of radiotherapy. Every 3 months, patients underwent physical examination and questioning about gynecomastia and breast pain.
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1. The pharmacokinetics of Casodex, a novel, non-steroidal antiandrogen, have been investigated following single oral and i.v. doses and during daily oral dosing to male and female rats and male dogs. 2. The binding of 14C-Casodex to rat, dog and human plasma proteins, determined by equilibrium dialysis, was high with values greater than 95%; in dog there was evidence for decreased binding at concentrations greater than 12 micrograms/ml. 3. Casodex was slowly absorbed over prolonged periods and its bioavailability decreased with increase in dose from 72% and 88% in male and female rats respectively at 1 mg/kg to 10% and 12% at 250 mg/kg; in dog bioavailability decreased from 100% at 0.1 mg/kg to 31% at 100 mg/kg. 4. Elimination of Casodex from plasma was slow with terminal elimination half-lives of about 1 day in rat and about 6 days in dog. On daily administration to rats Casodex accumulates slightly in plasma at 10 mg/kg but not at 250 mg/kg; in dog appreciable accumulation (9-12-fold), calculated from the ratio of trough plasma concentrations at steady state to those after a single dose, was observed at 2.5 and 10 mg/kg, but at 100 mg/kg the accumulation ratio was much lower (4-fold).
The androgen receptor co-activator CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein)-binding protein (CBP) enhances androgen receptor activity after stimulation by androgenic hormones and androgen receptor antagonists. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of CBP expression by steroid and peptide hormones in prostate cancer. For this purpose, LNCaP cells were treated with the synthetic androgen methyltrienolone (R1881), epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I or interleukin-6 (IL-6). CBP protein and mRNA expression were studied by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. CBP expression was also investigated in tissue specimens obtained from 26 patients with therapy-resistant carcinoma of the prostate. In LNCaP cells, CBP protein was down-regulated by R1881 or IL-6. The non-steroidal anti-androgen bicalutamide antagonized the effects of R1881 and the Janus kinase inhibitor AG 490 reversed the effects of IL-6. In contrast, neither R1881 nor IL-6 caused any effect on CBP expression in the PC-3 cell line. In LNCaP cells, the inhibition of CBP expression by R1881 or IL-6 was also observed at the mRNA level. CBP protein was detected in all 26 specimens by immunohistochemistry. The results suggest that up-regulation of CBP during androgen ablation may be relevant to the failure of endocrine therapy in patients with prostate carcinoma.
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We isolated and characterized three lines of endothelial cells from prostate cancer and we tested the effect of Sunitinib and Sorafenib, and the combined treatment with the anti-androgen Casodex, on their angiogenic functions.
To improve the therapy for prostate cancer, it will be necessary to address the problems of progression to androgen independence and the process of metastatic spread of tumour. The complexity of the latter condition is likely to mitigate against the immediate development of relevant therapeutic approaches. However, the basis of androgen independence appears to be a problem of simpler dimensions and more amenable to treatment with current therapeutic technology. Since early tumour progression can be detected by an incomplete prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to androgen withdrawal therapy, a study of the molecular biology of PSA gene regulation may well provide insight into new methods for preventing or delaying this problem. Mounting evidence suggests that ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor may be one underlying mechanism of androgen independence. In the absence of androgen, a compensatory increase in the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) enhances the ability of the androgen receptor to bind to the response elements regulating PSA gene expression. The activation of the androgen receptor through up-regulation of the PKA signal transduction pathway involves the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor, the function of which may be altered either by modifications such as phosphorylation, or through interactions with co-regulators or other proteins. Of therapeutic interest is the fact that this effect can be counteracted experimentally by the anti-androgen, bicalutamide, and clinically by several other similar agents. We speculate that the inhibition of PKA-activated androgen receptor might also be accomplished by decoy molecules that can bind to the relevant activated site on the amino-terminus or competitively interact with proteins recruited by the PKA pathway that are responsible for activating the receptor in the absence of androgen. Such molecules might include small mimetic substances or agents that can gain access to the nucleus of the cell.
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From April 2003 to May 2005, 31 patients opted for cytoreduction with bicalutamide (50 mg daily) and dutasteride (0.5 mg daily). Before, and at 3 months (90 +/- 5 days) after, the initiation of medical therapy, all patients underwent a transrectal ultrasound volumetric study of the prostate gland, with ellipsoid volume determination of the prostate gland and transition zone. The variables analyzed included pretreatment and posttreatment prostate and transition zone volumes and changes in width, height, and length of the prostate gland and transition zone. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors for prostate gland and transition zone volume reduction.
Progression to androgen independence is the lethal end stage of prostate cancer. We used expression of androgen receptor (AR)-targeted short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) to directly test the requirement for AR in ligand-independent activation of androgen-regulated genes and hormone-independent tumor progression. Transient transfection of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells showed that AR shRNA decreased R1881 induction of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-luciferase reporter by 96%, whereas activation by forskolin, interleukin-6, or epidermal growth factor was inhibited 48% to 75%. Whereas the antiandrogen bicalutamide provided no further suppression, treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor U0126 completely abrogated the residual activity, indicating a MAPK-dependent, AR-independent pathway for regulating the PSA promoter. Expression of doxycycline-inducible AR shRNA expression in LNCaP cells resulted in decreased levels of AR and PSA as well as reduced proliferation in vitro. When these cells were grown as xenografts in immunocompromised mice, induction of AR shRNA decreased serum PSA to below castration nadir levels and significantly retarded tumor growth over the entire 55-day experimental period. This is the first demonstration that, by inducibly suppressing AR expression in vivo, there is an extensive delay in progression to androgen independence as well as a dramatic inhibition of tumor growth and decrease in serum PSA, which exceeds that seen with castration alone. Based on these findings, we propose that suppressing AR expression may provide superior therapeutic benefit in reducing tumor growth rate than castration and may additionally be very effective in delaying progression to androgen independence.
The mean level of HER2 in serum was significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than non-prostate cancer patients (P = 0.006). Also, the serum HER2 level was significantly higher in bone metastatic cancer patients (14.3 +/- 6.3 ng/mL) than in non-metastatic patients (T2: 11.9 +/- 2.3 ng/mL, P = 0.003; T3: 12.2 +/- 2.8 ng/mL, P = 0.011). The metastatic patients were divided into those with low and high HER2 levels using a cutoff value of 12.6 ng/mL based on receiver-operating characteristic curves. The biochemical recurrence-free rate was significantly poorer in patients with a high HER2 level (P = 0.0078, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment serum HER2 value (P = 0.022), serum prostate-specific antigen value (P = 0.018), and extent of disease score (P = 0.027) were independent predictors of recurrence.
To provide context in oncology for the significance of the benefits and cost of combined androgen blockade (CAB) in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
To compare the efficacy of bicalutamide monotherapy to maximal androgen blockade (MAB) in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer.
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces prostate cancer (CaP) cell proliferation in vitro. Several lines of evidence suggest that IL-6 may promote CaP progression through induction of an androgen response. In this work, we explored whether IL-6 induces androgen responsiveness through modulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression. We found that in the absence of androgen, IL-6 increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels and activated several androgen-responsive promoters, but not the non-androgen responsive promoters in LNCaP cells. Bicalutamide, an antiandrogen, abolished the IL-6 effect and IL-6 could not activate the PSA and murine mammary tumor virus reporters in AR-negative DU-145 and PC3 cells. These data indicate the IL-6 induces an androgen response in CaP cells through the AR. Pretreatment of LNCaP cells with SB202190, PD98059, or tyrphostin AG879 [p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MAP/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase 1/2, and ErbB2 MAPK inhibitors, respectively) but not wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) blocked IL-6-mediated induction of the PSA promoter, which demonstrates that IL-6 activity is dependent on a MAPK pathway. Finally, IL-6 activated the AR gene promoter, resulting in increased AR mRNA and protein levels in LNCaP cells. These results demonstrate that IL-6 induces AR expression and are the first report of cytokine-mediated induction of the AR promoter. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-6 induces AR activity through both increasing AR gene expression and activating the AR in the absence of androgen in CaP cells. These results provide a mechanism through which IL-6 may contribute to the development of androgen-independent CaP.
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Androgen is the most important growth factor for the development and growth of prostatic adenocarcinomas. For patients with advanced prostate cancer, hormonal manipulation including castration and antiandrogen therapy is a well-established mode of treatment. The choice of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer depends not only on the desired progression-free and overall survival, but also on the patient's quality of life, treatment costs, and treatment toxicities.
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