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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)

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Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL


Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.


Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.


Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.


If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

calan drug classification

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease. Previously, clinical and animal experimental studies in AF revealed a variety of myocyte remodeling processes including L-type Ca(2+) channel reduction and structural changes, which finally result in electrical remodeling and contractile dysfunction. There are indications that myocyte remodeling is mediated by Ca(2+) overload induced calpain activation. To study in more detail the mechanisms underlying myocyte remodeling and to develop strategies for drug-interference, we utilised a paced cell model for AF.

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A 31-year-old white woman was admitted with an acute exacerbation of migraine with hemiplegia. A transcranial Doppler showed an increased flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery consistent with a migrainous process. The patient was treated with verapamil 5 mg iv and the hemiplegia gradually resolved. A transcranial Doppler indicated that the flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery was decreased after verapamil administration, indicating reversal of the vasospasm.

calan medication

The magnitude of symptom distress or relief associated with symptoms in 2 patient populations correlated strongly with a shift in quality of life. The assessment of distress associated with symptoms provides valuable additional information on drug therapy.

calan dosage

It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris × hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or auxin inhibitors also did not change the time to senescence. Abscisic acid (ABA) hastened senescence, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) had no effect. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) slightly delayed senescence in some experiments, but in other experiments it was without effect, and gibberellin inhibitors [ancymidol or 4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate (AMO-1618)] were ineffective as well. Salicylic acid (SA) also had no effect. Ethylene, auxins, GA3 and SA affected flower opening, therefore did reach the flower cells. Jasmonates delayed senescence by about 2.0 days. Similarly, cytokinins delayed senescence by about 1.5-2.0 days. Antagonists of the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathway (lithium), calcium channels (niguldipine and verapamil), calmodulin action [fluphenazine, trifluoroperazine, phenoxybenzamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7)] or protein kinase activity [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine hydrochloride (H-7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H-8) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H-9)] had no effect on senescence, indicating no role of a few common signal transduction pathways relating to hormone effects on senescence. The results indicate that tepal senescence in Iris cv. Blue Magic is not regulated by endogenous ethylene, auxin, gibberellins or SA. A role of ABA can at present not be excluded. The data suggest the hypothesis that cytokinins and jasmonates are among the natural regulators.

calan 120 mg

To evaluate the effects of Verapamil and Metoprolol on improving heart rate variability(HRV) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

calan reviews

It is now clear that different pathophysiologic mechanisms have a profound influence on the extent of the functional impairment in intermittent claudication. In particular, metabolic derangements, including impaired oxygen delivery and/or extraction, reduced nitric oxide synthesis, reduced glucose oxidation, accumulation of toxic metabolites and reduction in carnitine availability are correlated with disease severity. Therefore, metabolic interventions aimed at counteracting these alterations may represent a valid therapeutic approach to the treatment of this condition. To date, verapamil and L-arginine efficacy has been proven in few patients; a large scale clinical trial, conversely, reports that propionyl-L-carnitine appears to be an effective and well tolerated drug for the treatment of intermittent claudication.

calan eeze review

Oyster solution at 7 500 mg/mL inhibited noradrenaline-induced contraction in isolated aortic rings. Cardiac electrophysiology results showed that neither concentration of oyster solution was able to significantly reduce action potential duration at all phases of repolarisation in left ventricular papillary muscles from healthy animals.

calan pill

Osteopontin (OPN) is a multi-functional secreted glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in glucose metabolism and inflammatory process. Growing evidence suggests that there is a link between OPN and ovarian function. However, no such link has yet been found for OPN in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to ascertain whether circulating OPN levels are altered in women with PCOS and to determine whether OPN levels differ between the follicular phase and mid-cycle of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women.

calan dosage forms

The decrease in phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (DeltaMAP(AE)) was significantly larger after verapamil than after SMF exposure. DeltaMAP(AE) inversely correlated with verapamil-induced significant increase in DeltaMPPG (r = 0.53, p < 0.000) and with SMF-induced significant increase in DeltaBRS (r = 0.47, p < 0.016).

calan 40 mg

A total of 9340 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 3.8 years. The primary outcome occurred in significantly fewer patients in the liraglutide group (608 of 4668 patients [13.0%]) than in the placebo group (694 of 4672 [14.9%]) (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.01 for superiority). Fewer patients died from cardiovascular causes in the liraglutide group (219 patients [4.7%]) than in the placebo group (278 [6.0%]) (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.007). The rate of death from any cause was lower in the liraglutide group (381 patients [8.2%]) than in the placebo group (447 [9.6%]) (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97; P=0.02). The rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure were nonsignificantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group. The most common adverse events leading to the discontinuation of liraglutide were gastrointestinal events. The incidence of pancreatitis was nonsignificantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group.

calan sr medication

The human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumps a wide variety of structurally diverse compounds out of the cell. It is an ATP-binding cassette transporter with two nucleotide-binding domains and two transmembrane (TM) domains. One class of compounds transported by P-gp is the rhodamine dyes. A P-gp deletion mutant (residues 1-379 plus 681-1025) with only the TM domains retained the ability to bind rhodamine. Therefore, to identify the residues involved in rhodamine binding, 252 mutants containing a cysteine in the predicted TM segments were generated and reacted with a thiol-reactive analog of rhodamine, methanethiosulfonate (MTS)-rhodamine. The activities of 28 mutants (in TMs 2-12) were inhibited by at least 50% after reaction with MTS-rhodamine. The activities of five mutants, I340C(TM6), A841C(TM9), L975C(TM12), V981C(TM12), and V982C(TM12), however, were significantly protected from inhibition by MTS-rhodamine by pretreatment with rhodamine B, indicating that residues in TMs 6, 9, and 12 contribute to the binding of rhodamine dyes. These results, together with those from previous labeling studies with other thiol-reactive compounds, dibromobimane, MTS-verapamil, and MTS-cross-linker substrates, indicate that common residues are involved in the binding of structurally different drug substrates and that P-gp has a common drug-binding site. The results support the "substrate-induced fit" hypothesis for drug binding.

calan tablets

We tested the hypothesis that the primary cilium of renal epithelia is mechanically sensitive and serves as a flow sensor in MDCK cells using differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Bending the cilium, either by suction with a micropipette or by increasing the flow rate of perfusate, causes intracellular calcium to substantially increase as indicated by the fluorescent indicator, Fluo-4. This calcium signal is initiated by Ca2+-influx through mechanically sensitive channels that probably reside in the cilium or its base. The influx is followed by calcium release from IP3-sensitive stores. The calcium signal then spreads as a wave from the perturbed cell to its neighbors by diffusion of a second messenger through gap junctions. This spreading of the calcium wave points to flow sensing as a coordinated event within the tissue, rather than an isolated phenomenon in a single cell. Measurement of the membrane potential difference by microelectrode during perfusate flow reveals a profound hyperpolarization during the period of elevated intracellular calcium. We conclude that the primary cilium in MDCK cells is mechanically sensitive and responds to flow by greatly increasing intracellular calcium.

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Paclitaxel (PCT) is a cytotoxic agent with a broad antineoplastic activity. IV formulation of PCT causes hypersensitivity reactions in some patients and oral administration is an alternative to decrease the side effects. PCT is not orally available because of low solubility, lack of intestinal permeability, and efflux by pumps in intestinal wall. PCT solution in cremophor EL: ethanol (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats after pre-treatment by mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, verapamil, cyclosporine, and verapamil+ibuprofen in individual groups. Ibuprofen presented positive effect on intestinal permeation of PCT. C(max) and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) after pre-treatment by ibuprofen was decreased when the oral dose of PCT was decreased to 50 and 25 mg/kg, while dose-blood concentration relationship was nonlinear. Rise in oral bioavailability of PCT after pre-treatment by cyclosporine was lower than ibuprofen. It seems that by using ibuprofen in concomitant with potent P-gp inhibitors before PCT solution, oral delivery of PCT could be promising.

calan 80 mg

The therapeutic potential of berberine has been well documented in various neurological problems. However, the neurological mechanism of berberine remains untapped in the light of its P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated gut efflux properties responsible for reduced bioavailability. Verapamil, a well known L-type calcium channel blocker, has additional inhibitory activity against P-gp efflux pump. Thus, there is a strong scientific rationale to explore the interaction of berberine with verapamil as a possible neuroprotective strategy.

calan drug

Due to its high sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability, fura-2 is one of the most preferred tools to quantify Ca2+ levels. Recently, using fura-2/AM, some calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been reported to have inhibitory effects on intracellular Ca2+ signaling even in nonexcitable cells that do not possess voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC). Some CCBs are known to be photosensitive. Since photosensitive chemicals often have autofluorescent property, it is likely that CCBs with autofluorescence interfere with the fluorescent dye probes for Ca2+, which may cause misinterpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of various CCBs on Ca2+ fluorescent probes and to identify proper fluorescent probes for each CCB to allow reliable Ca2+ measurement using endothelial cells (ECs), which possess no VDCC. Thapsigargin (TG, Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor on endoplasmic reticulum) increased fura-2 F340/F380 ratio from 0.75+/-0.06 to 4.28+/-0.32, suggesting the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in ECs. Verapamil, nifedipine and nicardipine did not affect TG-induced increase in fura-2 F340/F380 ratio; however, amlodipine dose dependently inhibited the rise of fura-2 ratio by 24% at 100 nM, by 55% at 1 microM and by 82% at 10 microM, respectively, in ECs. In ex vivo experiments without cells, due to the autofluorescence of amlodipine excited by ultraviolet (UV light), amlodipine itself boosted the intensity of F380 much more than it did that of F340, which results in a decrease in F340/F380 ratio of fura-2 fluorescence. Rhod-2/AM, a fluorescent probe of which the excitation wavelength is out of the excitation spectrum of amlodipine, showed that amlodipine did not affect TG-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase in ECs. When the effect of amlodipine on intracellular Ca2+ concentration is assessed, fura-2 fluorospectrometry should not be used due to fluorescent interaction between amlodipine and fura-2, and using rhod-2 is strongly recommended.

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Although therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of certain diseases, L-type calcium channel antagonism can result in unwanted off-target pharmacology leading to adverse drug reactions and to the termination of the development of otherwise promising compounds. In the present study three marketed calcium channel inhibitors, nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem were profiled in a series of in vitro and ex-vivo assays in an effort to determine the ability of these assays to discriminate, between dihydropyridine versus non-dihydropyridine-like compounds, and how well they can predict the cardiovascular effects observed in a conscious telemetered rat model.

calan 180 mg

Functional parameters of cardiac preload, including the RSVT, allow prediction of fluid responsiveness in an experimental model of acutely impaired cardiac function.

calan tab

A stereospecific capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the determination of verapamil (VER) and its main metabolite norverapamil (NOR) in human plasma. Optimal temperature, cyclodextrin selectors (CDs), pH of background electrolyte (BGE) and voltage were established to obtain complete separation of the chiral analytes and clopidogrel internal standard (I.S.) during one analytical run. Successful resolution of analytes was obtained in silica capillary filled with BGE consisting of heptakis 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-beta-CD in phosphate buffer, pH 2.5 at 15 degrees C of capillary temperature. The calculated electrophoretic parameters of the analytes were as follows: apparent electrophoretic mobility, for VER enantiomers: micro(ap(+)-R) = 1.1 x 10(-4), micro(ap(-)s) = 1.06 x 10(-4) cm2/Vs and for NOR enantiomers: micro(ap(+)-R) = 1.09 x 10(-4), micro(ap(-)s) = 1.04 x 10(-4) cm2/Vs, resolution factors, R(s) = 5.4-6.6. Liquid extraction was applied for isolation of the analytes. The calibration curves ware linear in the range 0.25-10 microg/mL for VER and NOR enantiomer concentrations. The validation parameters were also established. The precision and accuracy of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 15%. The lower limit of detection and limit of quantification for single enantiomers were 0.1 and 0.2 microg/mL, respectively. Recovery of the enantiomers from plasma was in the 91-103% range. To evaluate analytical applicability of the proposed method, plasma sample from patient suffering from arterial hypertension treated with 80 mg of commercial tablets was analyzed.

calan 240 mg

For assessment of the independent renoprotective effect of BP control and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) therapy, the relationships of baseline BP, BP reduction, and follow-up BP with the incidence of persistent microalbuminuria were evaluated in 1204 hypertensive patients who had type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria and were included in the BErgamo Nephrologic Diabetic Complications Trial (BENEDICT) study and were randomly assigned to 3.6 yr of treatment with the ACEi trandolapril (2 mg/d), the nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (ndCCB) verapamil SR (240 mg/d), their fixed combination Veratran (trandolapril 2 mg/d plus verapamil SR 180 mg/d), or placebo, plus other antihypertensive medications targeted at systolic/diastolic BP <130/80 mmHg. Follow-up (from month 3 to study end) systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse BP and their reductions versus baseline--but not baseline BP--independently predicted (P < 0.001) the risk for microalbuminuria. In patients with follow-up BP above medians, ACEi significantly reduced the risk for microalbuminuria to levels that were observed among patients with BP below medians, regardless of ACEi treatment. The same trend was observed among patients with BP reductions below medians. ndCCB therapy did not independently affect microalbuminuria. Patients who were on Veratran had lower BP and less frequently received diuretics, beta blockers, or dihydropyridine dCCB. In hypertensive, normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes, BP reduction and ACEi therapy both independently may prevent microalbuminuria. ACEi therapy is particularly effective when BP is poorly controlled, whereas ndCCB therapy is ineffective at any level of achieved BP. As compared with trandolapril, Veratran may help with achievement of target BP with less need for concomitant antihypertensive medications.

calan 5 mg

The effects of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) verapamil and diltiazem on the toxicity of rubratoxin B in HL60 cells were investigated. Treatment of rubratoxin B caused a considerable rate of blebbing, fragmentation and condensation of cells. The rate of this morphological change was much lower in the concomitant rubratoxin B and CCBs-treated cells than in the cells treated only with rubratoxin B. Cell viability was determined by measuring mitochondrial succinic dehydrogenase activity and the rate of cell proliferation. The results of these assays were of the same tendency as that of the morphological study. CCBs attenuated rubratoxin B's toxicity on cell viability because of their protective action. Rubratoxin B induced apoptosis in the presence of internucleosomal fragmentation. In contrast, concomitant rubratoxin B and CCBs treatment did not. Taken together, the above results indicated that CCBs impaired the toxicity including morphological change, cell viability and apoptosis caused by rubratoxin B.

calan drug classification

This study investigated the effect on the uterus of the aqueous fraction of the partitioned methanol crude extract of the leaves of Anthocleista djalonensis (AD) and the possible mechanism of AD activity. AD inhibited the concentration-response curves induced by oxytocin and CaCl2 on the rat uterus in vitro and significantly reduced the EC50 in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). A similar effect was observed with salbutamol and verapamil on the concentration-response curves obtained for oxytocin and CaCl2. The inhibitory effect of AD was not attenuated in the presence of propranolol. AD, salbutamol, and verapamil also produced a concentration-dependent relaxation on K+-induced sustained uterine contraction. In Ca2+-free medium, AD and salbutamol similarly inhibited oxytocin-induced contraction, but verapamil failed to produce this effect. The present results suggest that AD, being a mixture of phytochemicals, probably exerts inhibitory activity on in vitro uterine contractions of the nonpregnant, diethylstilboestrol-treated rat by multiple mechanisms that do not involve interaction with β-adrenergic receptors and do not solely depend on inhibition of calcium influx.

calan sr dosage

To eliminate the noncardiac toxicities associated with Adriamycin (Pharmacia Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) and to avoid the need for surgical implantation of a coronary artery catheter, we proposed serial intracoronary infusions of Adriamycin (Pharmacia Upjohn) with a Judkins catheter to develop a nonsurgical but selective model of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs.

calan medication

We have attempted to determine whether muscarinic stimulation induces RhoA/ROCK-mediated Ca2+ sensitization of contractions in chicken gizzard smooth muscles. rhoA is a small GTP-binding protein, and ROCK is a rhoA-associated coiled coil-forming serine/threonine kinase. The relationship between the cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) and muscle force in the presence of a high K+ concentration was not different from that in the presence of carbachol. Verapamil inhibited muscle force in proportion to the decrease in [Ca2+]i in both the muscle stimulated with high K+ and that stimulated with carbachol. In addition, Y-27632 (10 microM), a ROCKs inhibitor, had no effect on the contractions. In the alpha-toxin-permeabilized muscles, Ca2+ induced a greater contraction in the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphapte) (GTP[gamma-S]), whereas carbachol with GTP was not effective. The GTP[gamma-S]-induced Ca2+ sensitization was completely inhibited by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3. Western blot analysis revealed both rhoA and ROCKII in the muscle extract. In addition, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the expression of both ROCKI and ROCKII mRNAs. These results suggest that Ca2+ sensitization in the chicken gizzard is elicited via a rhoA/ROCKs pathway, and that this pathway may be responsible for the augmentation of contraction by GTP[gamma-S] in the permeabilized muscles. If such a pathway does exist, however, carbachol-induced contraction may not be coupled to it, which explains the absence of Ca2+ sensitization in the intact chicken gizzard stimulated by carbachol.

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calan eeze review 2017-08-29

The bioavailability of belotecan and topotecan in rats was determined following oral administration of each drug at buy calan online a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. The vectorial transport of each drug was measured in Caco-2 and engineered MDCK II cells.

calan reviews 2017-06-17

Isradipine raises the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human gingival fibroblasts by enhancing Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane. To research the pathways through which Ca2+ enters the cells, we examined the interactive effects of isradipine and blockers or enhancers of nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs). Normal human gingival fibroblast Gin-1 cells were used. The [Ca2+]i was measured with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2/AM. Changes in the fluorescence intensity of fura-2 in the cells were recorded with a video-imaging analysis system. Ca2+ antagonists (nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem in the concentration range of 1 to 20 microM) other than isradipine also raised the [Ca2+]i. All of the NSCC inhibitors (SK&F 96365, GdCl3, HgCl2 and flufenamic acid), but none of the NCX inhibitors (KB-R 7943 and benzamil), significantly decreased the [Ca2+]i raised by isradipine (3 microM). Neither the buy calan online Na+ ionophore monensin nor Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor ouabain had any significant effect on the isradipine-induced [Ca2+]i rise. Taken together, our data indicate that Ca2+ entry through the NSCCs is involved in the isradipine-induced [Ca2+]i rise. The results obtained here play an important role in the development of drugs for etiologic therapy of gingival overgrowth.

calan 80 mg 2016-06-22

Culture of buy calan online human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cytogenetic methods have been used.

calan pill 2015-05-23

As an outcome, these findings support the hypothesis that similar calcium-dependent mechanisms are involved in an aversive nonsomatic component, associated with nicotine or d-amphetamine withdrawal. We can suggest that calcium channel blockers have potential buy calan online to alleviate drug withdrawal and may thus be beneficial as pharmacotherapy of drug cessation and relapse.

calan sr medication 2016-06-26

Zoospores are a critical component of the disease cycles of most oomycete pathogens. To better understand this stage, genes induced during zoosporogenesis were identified from Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen. Using cDNA arrays representing 2,600 genes expressed during zoosporogenesis, 69 genes showing >fourfold increases in mRNA levels were identified, of which 22 exhibited >100-fold induction. Included were putative protein kinases, transcription factors, ion channels, and other regulators. The expression of 15 genes was characterized in detail using zoosporogenesis time courses, other developmental stages, different temperature regimes, and tissue treated with signaling inhibitors. The latter were of interest because zoosporogenesis is known to be cold induced and inhibited by calcium channel blockers such as verapamil; moreover, in this study, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122) and inositol trisphosphate receptor-gated calcium channels (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) also were shown to block zoosporogenesis. The results indicated that the cytoplasmic and transcriptional changes occurring during zoosporogenesis are regulated by several pathways. For example, verapamil inhibited zoosporogenesis but not the up-regulation of most genes; the induction of some genes required while others were independent buy calan online of calcium or phospholipid signaling; and, although most genes were induced in sporangia at 10 degrees C but not 24 degrees C, one was induced at both temperatures.

calan tablets 2017-06-29

Twenty-eight percent (28%) of SJW visits involved a drug that has buy calan online potentially dangerous interaction with SJW. These included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, warfarin, statins, verapamil, digoxin, and oral contraceptives.

calan 5 mg 2016-07-31

The intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus has been widely used in aquatic toxicity testing for diverse environmental pollutants including metals. Despite relatively well-characterized in vivo physiological modulations in response to aquatic pollutants, the molecular mechanisms due to toxicity and detoxification are still unclear. To better understand the mechanisms of metal transport and further detoxification, T. japonicus P-glycoprotein (TJ-P-gp) with conserved motifs/domains was cloned and measured for protein activity against the transcript and protein expression profiles in response to metal exposure. buy calan online Specifically, we characterized the preliminary efflux activity and membrane topology of TJ-P-gp protein that supports a transport function for chemicals. To uncover whether the efflux activity of TJ-P-gp protein would be modulated by metal treatment, copepods were exposed to three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and were observed for both dose- and time-dependency on the efflux activity of TJ-P-gp protein with or without 10μM of P-gp-specific inhibitors verapamil and zosuquidar (LY335979) for 24h over a wide range of metal concentrations. In particular, treatment with zosuquidar induced metal accumulation in the inner body of T. japonicus. In addition, three metals significantly induced the transporting activity of TJ-P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner in both transcript and protein levels within 24h. Together these data indicate that T. japonicus has a conserved P-gp-mediated metal defense system through the induction of transcriptional up-regulation of TJ-P-gp gene and TJ-P-gp protein activity. This finding provides further understanding of the molecular defense mechanisms involved in P-glycoprotein-mediated metal detoxification in copepods.

calan generic name 2017-06-23

In the CYP3A5 gene, the A>G (*3) and G>A (*6) polymorphisms result in severely decreased expression of CYP3A5 enzyme relative to a normal functional allele (*1). We sought to determine if the CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms were associated with level of blood pressure (BP), risk of hypertension (HTN), and the antihypertensive response to verapamil. A total of 676 normotensive and hypertensive participants (mean age 49+/-8.2 years) from the Hypertension Genes study and 722 patients (mean age 66+/-9 years) from the International Verapamil/Trandolapril Study Genetic Substudy (INVEST-GENES) were genotyped for CYP3A5 to test for associations with BP, HTN, and in the latter cohort, antihypertensive response to verapamil. CYP3A5 haplotypes were determined using PHASE 2, with any allele containing either (*3) or (*6) designated as non functional. In the HTN genes population, there were no significant differences based on the number of functional CYP3A5 alleles, in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among the normotensive whites or blacks (all P> or =0.70) or in allele frequency between normotensives and hypertensives. In INVEST-GENES, when controlled for baseline BP, race, age, and gender, untreated BP in carriers versus non carriers of a CYP3A5 functional allele was 158.2+/-13.7 and 154.8+/-13.7 (P=0.061), respectively. CYP3A5 functional allele status was marginally associated with the SBP response to verapamil in blacks (P=0.075) and Hispanics (P=0.056), but not in whites (P=0.40), with the effect being largely driven by higher buy calan online SBP in the carriers of two functional alleles. There was no association with DBP response and CYP3A5 allele status. CYP3A5 genotype does not contribute importantly to BP or risk of HTN, but may influence response to calcium channel blockers in populations in which carrier status of two functional alleles is common.

calan 180 mg 2016-12-09

GSK1322322 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor active against Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to currently marketed antibiotics. Our aim was to assess the activity of GSK1322322 against intracellular S. aureus using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model and, in parallel, to examine its cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular disposition. For intracellular activity analysis, we used an established model of human THP-1 monocytes and tested one fully susceptible S. aureus strain (ATCC 25923) and 8 clinical strains with resistance to oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, macrolides, clindamycin, linezolid, or moxifloxacin. Uptake, accumulation, release, and subcellular distribution (cell fractionation) of [(14)C]GSK1322322 were examined in uninfected murine J774 macrophages and uninfected and infected THP-1 monocytes. GSK1322322 demonstrated a uniform activity against the intracellular forms of all S. aureus strains tested, disregarding their resistance phenotypes, with a maximal relative efficacy (E max) of a 0.5 to 1 log10 CFU decrease compared to the original inoculum within 24 h and a static concentration (C s) close to its MIC in broth. Influx and efflux were very fast (<5 min to equilibrium), and accumulation was about 4-fold, with no or a minimal effect of the broad-spectrum eukaryotic efflux transporter inhibitors gemfibrozil and verapamil. GSK1322322 was recovered in the cell-soluble fraction and was dissociated from the main subcellular organelles and from bacteria (in infected cells). The results of this study show that GSK1322322, as a typical novel deformylase inhibitor, may act against intracellular forms of S. aureus. They also suggest that buy calan online GSK1322322 has the ability to freely diffuse into and out of eukaryotic cells as well as within subcellular compartments.

calan 120 mg 2016-10-01

Forty-four patients received the study drugs. Three were withdrawn, leaving 19 in buy calan online the verapamil-quinidine (VER-Q) group and 22 in the digoxin-quinidine (DIG-Q) group. Sixteen patients (84%) in the VER-Q group and 10 (45%) in the DIG-Q group converted to NSR within 6 hours (P < .02). Mean time to conversion (+/-SD) was 185 +/- 146 minutes for VER-Q and 368 +/- 386 minutes for DIG-Q patients (P = NS). Twelve VER-Q patients (63%) and 6 DIG-Q patients (27%) were discharged from the ED (P < .05). Minor adverse effects were more common in the VER-Q group. No mortality or significant morbidity occurred.

calan sr dosage 2015-03-23

This study demonstrates that the inotropic agent milrinone and the bronchodilator drug theophylline exert a relaxing effect on the rabbit lower oesophageal sphincter in vitro. The relaxing effect of milrinone and theophylline, which is concentration-dependent, involves a second messenger 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway and most probably it is accomplished through inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type III, as according to the obtained results it is not significantly modified either by nicotinic acid, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, or by the inhibitor of nitric oxide-synthetase N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and the purinergic antagonist buy calan online suramin; moreover, it persists under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic conditions and it is both hexamethonium- and tetrodotoxin-insensitive. Both milrinone and theophylline display equal efficacy, comparable to that of the calcium blocker verapamil and the non-selective PDE inhibitor papaverine, but milrinone appears 50 times more potent than theophylline and three times less potent than verapamil, as, according to the pIC(50) values the potency rank of order is found to be verapamil (5.56) > milrinone (5.12) > theophylline (3.42). The here obtained pharmacodynamic profiles of the drugs suggest that both milrinone and theophylline may be considered as potent relaxing agents of the lower oesophageal sphincter.

calan 240 mg 2016-05-18

Both ramipril and verapamil can reduce proteinuria in patients suffering from steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. However, ramipril had a better and sustained reduction in proteinuria with well-controlled mean arterial pressure. Verapamil can be considered buy calan online as an alternative to ramipril when the use of the latter is not tolerated because of side effects and/or worsening of renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

calan dosage 2016-08-09

The anthrapyrazoles have entered clinical trials and show significant activity against breast cancer. However, these drugs are cardiotoxic and ineffective in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumor cells. We have reported previously on the synthesis and antitumor characteristics of the 9-aza-anthrapyrazoles and their lack of cardiotoxicity; unfortunately, the leading candidates are cross-resistant in MDR-expressing cells. The results also indicated that the side arm structures of 9-aza-anthrapyrazole play a critical role in determining the drug resistance in MDR-expressing cells-only compounds that have a tertiary buy calan online amine on both side arms are not cross-resistant. To further elucidate the biochemical and pharmacological impact of the side arm structures, one of the 9-aza-anthrapyrazole compounds, BBR 3422 [2-(2-aminoethyl)-5-(2-methylaminoethyl)indazolo[4,3-g,h]isoquinoline-6(2H)-one], was selected to be photolabeled with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidosalicylic acid (NHS-ASA). In comparison to the parental compound, the photolabeled BBR 3422 was not as cytotoxic or DNA active, but it competed better than the parental compound against azidopine on P-glycoprotein labeling. In addition, confocal microscopic studies showed that BBR 3422 was clustered mainly in the cell nucleus, but its photolabeled analogue was located in the cytoplasm of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Only a trace amount of both compounds was detected in the doxorubicin-derived resistant cell line MCF-7/ADR. The treatment of MCF-7/ADR cells with verapamil increased the intracellular amounts of both compounds.

calan drug classification 2016-03-28

Polymorphisms in and around the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene have been associated with HDL levels, risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), and response to therapy. The mechanism of action of these polymorphisms has yet to be defined. We used mRNA allelic expression and splice isoform measurements in human liver tissues to identify the genetic variants affecting CETP levels. Allelic CETP mRNA expression ratios in 56 human livers were strongly associated with several variants 2.5-7 kb upstream of the transcription start site (e.g., rs247616 p = 6.4 × 10(-5), allele frequency 33%). In addition, a common alternatively spliced CETP isoform lacking exon 9 (Δ9), has been shown to prevent CETP secretion in a dominant-negative manner. The Δ 9 expression ranged from 10 to 48% of total CETP mRNA in 94 livers. Increased formation of this isoform was exclusively associated with an exon 9 polymorphism rs5883-C>T (p = 6.8 × 10(-10)) and intron 8 polymorphism rs9930761-T>C (5.6 × 10(-8)) (in high linkage disequilibrium with allele frequencies 6-7%). rs9930761 changes a key splicing branch point nucleotide in intron 8, while rs5883 alters an exonic splicing enhancer sequence in exon 9.The effect of these polymorphisms was evaluated in two clinical studies. In the Whitehall II study of 4745 subjects, both rs247616 and rs5883T/rs9930761C buy calan online were independently associated with increased HDL-C levels in males with similar effect size (rs247616 p = 9.6 × 10(-28) and rs5883 p = 8.6 × 10(-10), adjusted for rs247616). In an independent multiethnic US cohort of hypertensive subjects with CAD (INVEST-GENE), rs5883T/rs9930761C alone were significantly associated with increased incidence of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality in males (rs5883: OR 2.36 (CI 1.29-4.30), p = 0.005, n = 866). These variants did not reach significance in females in either study. Similar to earlier results linking low CETP activity with poor outcomes in males, our results suggest genetic, sex-dependent CETP splicing effects on cardiovascular risk by a mechanism independent of circulating HDL-C levels.

calan medication 2015-08-25

The risk for the primary outcome, all-cause death, and MI, but not stroke, progressively increased with low diastolic blood pressure. Excessive reduction in diastolic pressure should be avoided in patients with CAD who are being treated Strattera Cost Canada for hypertension.

calan tab 2017-01-22

Average time to death was 21.0±9.57 minutes for group C, 35.57±10.61 minutes for group S, 37.14±16.6 minutes for group L and 49.86±27.56 minutes for group SL. Time to death was significantly longer Dapoxetine Generic Viagra in other groups than in the control group (p<0.05).

calan dosage forms 2017-03-16

Distension of the perfused guinea pig ureter at pressures from 20 to 700 cmH(2)O increased the amount of ATP released from the epithelium in a pressure-dependent manner. During basal perfusion (40 microl/min), the perfusate contained 10 pmol/ml ATP; this increased 10- to 50-fold at various distending pressures. ATP was released from epithelial cells during distension as mechanical removal of the urothelium blocked release. No lactate dehydrogenase was detected in the perfusate, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed an intact urothelium after distension. ATP was not released due to the activation of stretch-activated channels, as gadolinium (10 microM) failed to affect ATP release. Glibenclamide (10 microM), known to inhibit two members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family, did not affect Arjuna Reviews ATP release after distension; nor did verapamil (10 microM). In contrast, both monensin (100 microM) and brefeldin A (10 microM), which interfere with vesicular formation or trafficking, inhibited distension-evoked ATP release, which was Ca(2+)-dependent. This suggests that ATP release from the ureter epithelium might be mediated by vesicular exocytosis. The role of ATP released by distension of hollow visceral organs is discussed in relation to the concept of purinergic mechanosensory transductions, with special reference to nociception and the activation of P2X(3) receptors on the subepithelial sensory nerves.

calan drug 2017-11-07

We demonstrate, by immunohistochemistry in patient tissue microarrays, that ABCB1 is expressed in 43% of tumours and is significantly associated with high-risk. We show that ABCB1, O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and BCL2 family members are differentially expressed (by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and flow cytometry) in MB cell lines. Based on these findings, each pathway was then inhibited or circumvented and cell survival assessed using clonogenic assays. Inhibition of ABCB1 using vardenafil or verapamil resulted in a significant increase Allegra Tablet Composition in sensitivity to etoposide in ABCB1-expressing MB cell lines. Sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) was MGMT-dependent, but two novel imidazotetrazine derivatives (N-3 sulfoxide and N-3 propargyl TMZ analogues) demonstrated ≥7 fold and ≥3 fold more potent cytotoxicity respectively compared to TMZ in MGMT-expressing MB cell lines. Activity of the BAD mimetic ABT-737 was BCL2A1 and ABCB1 dependent, whereas the pan-BCL2 inhibitor obatoclax was effective as a single cytotoxic agent irrespective of MCL1, BCL2, BCL2A1, or ABCB1 expression.

calan 40 mg 2017-01-22

Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is present in the plasma membrane of various tumor cells and in several normal cell types, contributes to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of many human cancers. As a prerequisite for therapy, the expression of Pgp must be studied. The available clinical radiopharmaceuticals for studying the expression of Pgp include the lipophilic (99m)Tc cations (sestamibi, tetrofosmin) as well as [(99m)Tc]Q57, [(99m)Tc]Q58, and [(99m)Tc]Q63. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo properties of the structurally different complex (3-thiapentane-1, 5-dithiolato)[[N-(3-phenylpropyl)-N-2(3-quinazoline-2, 4-dionyl)-ethyl]amino-ethylthiolato¿ oxotechnetium(V) ((99/99m)Tc1) as a potential inhibitor of Pgp. (99)Tc1 enhances the net cell accumulation of Pgp substrates [(3)H]vinblastine, [(3)H]vincristine, [(3)H]colchicine, [(99m)Tc]sestamibi, and [(99m)Tc]tetrofosmin in rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4), an immortalized endothelial cell line that expresses Pgp. In addition, the cell accumulation of (99m)Tc1 could be Lanoxin Drug Dose increased by verapamil and reserpine, which are known Pgp inhibitors. A multitracer approach was used to study the side effects of (99)Tc1 on cell metabolism. The cells were simultaneously incubated with [(99m)Tc]sestamibi, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG), and various (3)H-labeled tracers. Two-dimensional scatter plots of [(99m)Tc]sestamibi uptake/[(18)F]FDG uptake show typical changes of known Pgp inhibitors including (99)Tc1. The effects of (99)Tc1 on the in vivo distribution of [(99m)Tc]sestamibi and [(18)F]FDG in rats also are comparable with the effects of verapamil, an established Pgp inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. We conclude that (99/99m)Tc1 is a transport substrate and a potential inhibitor of Pgp. Our approach may be useful in the design of further radiotracers with specificity to Pgp.

calan overdose 2015-01-11

Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key factor contributing to the development of multidrug Flonase Dosage Directions resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. The objective of the study is to investigate whether a P-gp substrate, paclitaxel, delivered to MDR tumor cells in poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles is susceptible to P-gp - mediated drug efflux. Paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Nanoparticles had a mean hydrodynamic diameter of about 195nm, and demonstrated sustained release of paclitaxel. In vitro cell culture studies indicated that paclitaxel nanoparticles result in sustained, dose-dependent and significant cytotoxicity in drug-sensitive MCF-7 tumor cells but not in drug-resistant NCI-ADR/RES cells. Resistance to nanoparticle-encapsulated paclitaxel was reversed by verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Further, sustained inhibition of P-gp was necessary for sustaining the cytotoxicity of nanoparticle-encapsulated paclitaxel in drug-resistant cells. Inhibition of P-gp by verapamil did not significantly affect the uptake or retention of nanoparticles in drug-resistant cells. In conclusion, our studies suggest that P-gp substrates, such as paclitaxel, delivered to MDR cells by PLGA nanoparticles, are susceptible to efflux by P-gp. Inhibition of P-gp restores sensitivity to paclitaxel; however, sustained inhibition of P-gp is required for sustained therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticle-encapsulated drug.

calan eeze review 2015-10-22

After 6 months to 5 years of calcium channel blocker (CCB) therapy for arterial hypertension, nine patients developed photoinduced annular or papulosquamous eruptions consonant clinically with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). Four patients were receiving diltiazem, four received verapamil, and one was taking nifedipine. Serology showed antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in seven of nine patients, anti-Ro antibodies in five, and anti-La antibodies in five, with three patients having only anti-La antibodies. Skin biopsy specimens in all nine patients were held to be characteristic of SCLE based on light microscopy, direct, and indirect immunofluorescence. The CCB was discontinued in all; in 8 patients in whom the CCB was stopped, the eruption resolved. A proposed mechanism by which the CCBs may have precipitated the eruptions is offered.

calan reviews 2015-02-18

Pharmacokinetic results show that FLAP has high bioavailability (> 75%), long T1/2 (> 260 min), and short peak time (<20 min). In the Caco-2 cell culture model, the bidirectional permeability of FLAP was 0.47 × 10(-5) cm/s to 1.53 × 10(-5) cm/s and the efflux ratios were 3.27 and 2.17 at 10 and 30 μM, respectively. Apical loading of two P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, cyclosporine A and verapamil, significantly increased the intracellular amount of FLAP and lowered its efflux ratio. In the four-site model, 10 and 40 μM FLAP perfusions were well absorbed at various regions of the intestine, and the biliary excretions of FLAP glucuronides were 1.60-2.84 nmol and 12.47-17.33 nmol, respectively.

calan 80 mg 2016-03-11

No-reflow phenomenon is the absence of myocardial perfusion despite adequate dilatation of the infarct related coronary artery during percutaneous coronary intervention. It predicts severe left ventricular dysfunction and poor prognosis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present case is a 54 year old Turkish female who presented with chest pain that had started 2.5 hours earlier. The clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with AMI and the coronary angiogram performed for primary angioplasty revealed a 95% thrombotic occlusion with a TIMI grade I flow in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. A TIMI grade III flow was achieved with direct stent deployment. However, after the placement of a second stent for severe ostial stenosis more proximally and adjacent to the first one, the antegrade flow became TIMI grade O. As the intracoronary medications did not improve the flow, a mechanical occlusion was considered and a third stent was deployed covering the first two stents. A control angiogram revealed the persistence of TIMI grade O flow. A severe and persistent vasospasm was considered at this point and accordingly, intracoronary verapamil was administered in high concentrations by an infusion catheter to the distal LAD which was followed by the immediate achievement of TIMI grade III flow. Intracoronary administration of high dose verapamil can be performed to prevent vasospasm in resistant no-reflow cases with no evidence of mechanic occlusion.

calan pill 2017-04-24

In CMVs prepared from SD rats, but not from EHBR, a marked ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]E(2)17betaG was observed. Moreover, E(2)17betaG competitively inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG). In addition, no significant inhibitory effect of verapamil (100 microM) and PSC-833 (5 microM) on the uptake of [3H]E(2)17betaG was observed. In vivo, the biliary excretion of intravenously administered [3H]E(2)17betaG was severely impaired in EHBR while the biliary excretion of [3H]E(2)17betaG in SD rats was reduced by administering a cholestatic dose (10 micromol/kg) unlabeled E(2)17betaG, but not by PSC-833 (3 mg/kg).

calan sr medication 2016-06-12

Decoction of C. zedoaria significantly increases the spike area, the duration and the number of bursts of action potentials of the uterine smooth muscle and its effect is related dosage. Atropine and phentolamine decreased the exciting effect of C. zedoaria, whereas verapamil, diphenhydramine and indomethacin have no effect on the excitation of C. zedoaria.