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To assess the effect of nebivolol, a highly selective third generation beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist with an endothelium-dependent vasodilatory action, on smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction.
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Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor but most patients remain asymptomatic for many years. Successful therapy not only needs to be effective, it also needs to be well tolerated. beta-blockers are well established as effective antihypertensive agents. However, one major drawback to the currently available beta-blockers, particularly the noncardioselective beta-blockers, is their side-effect profile, including sexual dysfunction, fatigue, depression and metabolic abnormalities such as impaired glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities. Nebivolol (Bystolic), a novel, highly cardioselective, third-generation beta-blocker that recently received approval by the US FDA for the treatment of hypertension in the USA, is effective in treating blood pressure and has a favorable side-effect profile. Studies conducted in Europe, where nebivolol has been available for some time for the treatment of hypertension, have shown that nebivolol achieves blood pressure reductions comparable to other beta-blockers but with fewer side effects. Additionally, nebivolol has demonstrated similar efficacy in blood pressure reduction when compared with calcium channel blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. When combined with hydrochlorothiazide there was an additive antihypertensive effect. Lastly, nebivolol exhibits a vasodilatory property that is related to its effect on nitric oxide, an intrinsic vasodilator produced in the vascular endothelium. Nebivolol enhances nitric oxide bioavailability. Studies have also demonstrated nebivolol's ability to function as an antioxidant and decrease markers of oxidative stress. These effects are believed to ultimately produce a modulation of the endothelial dysfunction typically seen in hypertension.
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A prospective, open-label, multicentre, post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in 2838 patients with arterial hypertension requiring intervention and concomitant type 2 diabetes, with or without other diseases. The therapeutic agent was nebivolol, either as monotherapy or as add-on therapy to other antihypertensive agents, over a minimum period of 3 months, with the primary endpoint being achievement of target BPs, that is, systolic BP < or = 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP < or = 90 mm Hg. Other endpoints were changes in metabolic parameters, effects on physical capability and tolerability during treatment. Statistical analysis was prospectively planned and conducted on an intention-to-treat basis.
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1.007 patients, mean age 57.9 (10.59) years, were included. The prevalence of any category of ED was 71.0% (38.1% mild ED; 16.8% moderate ED; 16.1% severe ED). Patients with ED had longer time since the diagnosis of hypertension and higher prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities. The prevalence of ED increased linearly with age. ED patients received more medications and were more frequently treated with carvedilol and less frequently with nebivolol. Patients treated with nebivolol obtained higher scores in every parameter of the IIEF questionnaire. The multivariate analysis identified independent associations between ED and coronary heart disease (OR: 1.57), depression (OR: 2.25), diabetes (OR: 2.27), atrial fibrillation (OR: 2.59), and dyhidopiridines calcium channel blockers (OR: 1.76); treatment with nebivolol was associated to lower prevalence of ED (OR: 0.27).
To evaluate whether active immunization producing β1- or β3-antibodies (β1-ABs and β3-ABs) detected in sera of patients with dilated cardiomyopathies has deleterious effects on vascular reactivity in Lewis rat thoracic aorta (TA) and small mesenteric arteries (SMA).
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Pertinent articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and Current Contents from 1966 through December 15, 2008, using the terms nebivolol, drug interaction, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology. The reference lists of the identified publications were reviewed for additional references. Abstracts presented at meetings of the American Heart Association and the American Society of Hypertension from 2006 through 2008 were also reviewed. All human clinical trials were included, regardless of design.
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Ventricular remodeling (VR) which develops after myocardial infarction (MI) plays an important role in progressive left ventricular dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the role of nebivolol treatment on VR after a MI in a rat ischemia-reperfusion model.
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Nebivolol was given to 30 hypertensive postmenopausal women as monotherapy (5-10 mg/day) or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. Clinical effect was achieved in 76.6 and 86.7% of women on mono- and combination therapy, respectively. Hypotensive effect was confirmed by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. Blood pressure lowering was associated with decrease of total peripheral resistance and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Nebivolol appeared to be metabolically neutral and only sporadic adverse effects were registered.
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Nebivolol seems better than bisoprolol in CHF by decreasing apoptosis and cytokines induced muscle wastage, preventing fibers shift and protein oxidation. Nebivolol by stimulating NO generation may have prevented protein oxidation. It could be speculated that ROS release, pro-inflammatory cytokines production and NF-kappa-B activation may play a key role. These positive changes could produce a favorable impact on exercise capacity in man.
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Emerging evidence reveals physiological differences within the β-blocker class and in comparison to other antihypertensives. These differences provide insight into the diverse clinical effects β-blockers provide in cardiovascular disease.
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To assess the effects of antihypertensive treatment on subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and to compare the effects of nebivolol with metoprolol.
To compare adherence and persistence associated with nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) as add-on hypertension treatments.
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No significant difference was found in terms of anti-ischemic efficacy between metoprolol succinate and nebivolol in the postoperative period; however, the incidence of any grade ED was %85.96 in Group 1, %83.87 in Group 2. This difference was considered as statistically significant (p = 0.036).
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multifactorial disease related to age, vascular disease, psychological disorders, or medical treatments. Beta-blockade agents are the recommended treatment for hypertensive patients with some specific organ damage but have been outlined as one of leading causes of drug-related ED, although differences between beta-blockade agents have not been assessed.
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Nebivolol and carvedilol are third-generation beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, which unlike classic beta-blockers, have additional endothelium-dependent vasodilating properties specifically related to microcirculation by a molecular mechanism that still remains unclear. We hypothesized that nebivolol and carvedilol stimulate NO release from microvascular endothelial cells by extracellular ATP, which is a well-established potent autocrine and paracrine signaling factor modulating a variety of cellular functions through the activation of P2-purinoceptors.
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The effects of nebivolol were independent of arterial pressure. The results of this study provide important laboratory data that support a rationale for nebivolol in the treatment of patients with hypertension having diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction.
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Are β-blockers associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events when used as initial treatment in individuals with hypertension compared with placebo, no treatment, or other drugs?
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Nebivolol/4-OH-nebivolol AUC metabolic ratios were not characterized by a standard normal distribution. The unique distribution emphasized the existence of two groups and the 43 healthy volunteers were classified as follows: poor metabolizers (PMs)=3, extensive metabolizers (EMs)=40. The phenotype had a marked impact on nebivolol metabolism. The exposure to nebivolol was 15-fold greater for PMs in comparison to EMs.
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Following 24-week nebivolol treatment, there was a statistically significant increase in 6'WT distance (from 473 +/- 47.6 to 516.7 +/- 58.4 m; p < 0.0001) and a drop in BDI (from 3.4 +/- 2.2 to 1.1 +/- 0.7; p < 0.05) and FC (from 2.9 +/- 0.4 to 1.7 +/- 0.2; p < 0.05). Doppler EchoCG showed that pulmonary artery systolic pressure statistically significantly decreased (91.6 +/- 30 to 78.3 +/- 39 mm Hg; p = 0.05) at 12 weeks and slightly increased up to 83.2 +/- 32.4 mm Hg at 24 weeks. After 24-week treatment, the anteroposterior dimensions of the right ventricle (RV) statistically significantly reduced (from 4.4 +/- 0.6 to 3.8 +/- 1.2 cm; p < 0.05). The other EchoCG parameters remained substantially unchanged. There was a statistically reduction in the level of ET-1 (from 2.99 +/- 1.1 to 2.17 +/- 0.8 micromol/l; p < 0.05). The concentrations of 6-ketoPG Fla, TxB2, and NO metabolite remained substantially unchanged at 24 weeks of treatment with nebivolol. There were no adverse reactions requiring that the dose of the drug be discontinued or reduced. Heart rate tended to be lower at a 24-week follow-up. All the patients continued taking nebivolol after completion of the study.
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The trial enrolled 20 patients. 11 of them had mild and 9 moderate arterial hypertension (mean age 47.1 +/- 9.52 years, hypertension history 6.98 +/- 2.75 years). 2-5 days after discontinuation of hypotensive drugs the examination was made including blood count, ECG, echocardiography, 24-h AP monitoring. It was repeated on days 56-60 of nebivolol therapy. Arterial pressure and heart rate were measured at the start of the treatment and 1, 3, 5 and 8 weeks later.
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Of the 3 presented substances, only AVE 0991 was able to diminish the rise of inflammatory markers. Therefore, drug manipulations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis seem to be the most promising in the future treatment of atherogenesis.
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The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which nebivolol, a cardio-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, inhibits rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC) proliferation. Nebivolol was compared with DETA-NO and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), two nitric oxide (NO) donor agents, and alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a known inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). All four test agents inhibited RASMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, with nebivolol being the most potent (IC(50) = 4.5 microM), whereas atenolol, another relatively selective beta(1)-blocker, was inactive. DFMO, nebivolol, and DETA-NO interfered with cell proliferation in a cell-density-dependent manner, the lower the cell density the greater the inhibition of cell proliferation. The cytostatic effects of nebivolol and DETA-NO were completely independent of cyclic GMP, as neither ODQ (cytosolic guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) nor zaprinast (cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor) affected the antiproliferative action of nebivolol or DETA-NO. The cytostatic effects of nebivolol, SNAP, and DFMO were largely prevented by the addition of excess putrescine, but not ornithine, to cell cultures. Moreover, nebivolol caused a marked reduction in the intracellular levels of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. Like DFMO, nebivolol and DETA-NO interfered with the G(1)-phase to S-phase cell cycle transition in RASMC. These observations confirm previous findings that DFMO and NO interfere with RASMC proliferation by inhibiting ODC and polyamine production and provide evidence that nebivolol works by the same mechanism.
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We investigated whether carvediolol or nebiovolol with vasodilator properties will produce different effects on diastolic function of the left ventricle (LV) in heart failure (HF) with low ejection fraction (EF).
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Chronic treatment with β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) agonists increases mortality and morbidity while βAR antagonists (β-blockers) decrease all-cause mortality for those at risk of cardiac disease. Levels of sympathetic nervous system βAR agonists and βAR activity increase with age, and this increase may hasten the development of age-related mortality. Here, we show that β-blockers extend the life span of healthy metazoans. The β-blockers metoprolol and nebivolol, administered in food daily beginning at 12 months of age, significantly increase the mean and median life span of isocalorically fed, male C3B6F1 mice, by 10 and 6.4%, respectively (P < 0.05). Neither drug affected the weight or food intake of the mice, indicating that induced CR is not responsible for these effects, and that energy absorption and utilization are not altered by the drugs. Both β-blockers were investigated to control for their idiosyncratic, off-target effects. Metoprolol and nebivolol extended Drosophila life span, without affecting food intake or locomotion. Thus, βAR antagonists are capable of directly extending the life span of two widely divergent metazoans, suggesting that these effects are phylogenetically highly conserved. Thus, long-term use of β-blockers, which are generally well-tolerated, may enhance the longevity of healthy humans.
Despite no statistical significance, there was a trend toward reduced CIAKI risk in patients receiving nebivolol. The findings of our meta-analysis suggest the need of a large RCT with very careful attention to the balance of benefits and harms.
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Nebivolol attenuated IRI by decreasing the expression and level of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
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Alterations in the function and structure of the blood vessel wall account for most clinical events in the coronary and cerebrovascular circulation such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Cardiovascular drugs may exert beneficial effects on the vascular wall both at the level of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells. Therefore, endothelial mediators, in particular nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET), are of special interest. Drugs can modulate the expression and actions of NO, a vasodilator with antiproliferative and antithrombotic properties, and of ET, a potent vasoconstrictor and proliferative mitogenic agent. The most successful drugs in this context are statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. While statins increase the expression of NO synthase. ACE-inhibitors increase the release of NO via bradykinin-mediated mechanisms. Antioxidant properties of drugs are also important, as oxidative stress is crucial in atherosclerotic vascular disease. These properties may explain part of the effects of calcium antagonists and ACE-inhibitors. Indeed, angiotensin II stimulates NAD(P)H oxidases responsible for the formation of superoxide, which inactivates NO. ACE-Inhibitors thus increase the bioavailability of NO. Newer cardiovascular drugs such as nebivolol are able to directly stimulate NO release from the endothelium both in isolated arteries and in the human forearm circulation. ET receptor antagonists may exert beneficial effects in the vessel wall by preventing the effects of ET at its receptors and by reducing ET production. In summary, cardiovascular drugs have important effects on the vessel wall, which may be clinically relevant for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
In-vitro studies have shown that beta-blockers are taken up into and released from adrenergic cells together with epinephrine and norepinephrine. Consequently, studies in humans revealed an increase in plasma concentrations of propranolol and atenolol, whereas those of carvedilol were not affected by physical exercise. However, nebivolol and bisoprolol never were investigated on this issue.
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Some beta-blockers are less effective in reducing central blood pressure than other antihypertensive drugs, which may explain the higher rate of events in subjects randomized to atenolol in recent trials. We hypothesized that nebivolol, a mixed beta-blocker/nitro-vasodilator, would be more effective than atenolol in reducing central blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx). The aim of the present study was to test this in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, in a cohort of subjects with isolated systolic hypertension.