Among 1,011 recently isolated Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from 10 Central and Eastern European centers, the MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)s) and the MIC(90)s were as follows: for telithromycin, 0.03 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; for erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, 0.06 to 0.125 and 1 to 8 microg/ml, respectively; and for clindamycin, 0.125 and 0.125 microg/ml, respectively. Erythromycin resistance occurred in 12.3% of strains. Erm(A) [subclass erm(TR)] was most commonly encountered (60.5%), followed by mef(A) (23.4%) and erm(B) (14.5%). At <0.5 microg/ml, telithromycin was active against 98.5% of the strains tested.
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To our knowledge, this is the first case report of parotitis caused by M. fortuitum and its successful medical treatment.
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Northern blot analysis revealed that clarithromycin suppressed IL-1 beta gene expression in human nasal epithelial cells stimulated by H. influenzae endotoxin (HIE). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expression in nasal fibroblasts stimulated by IL-1 beta was also suppressed by clarithromycin. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that clarithromycin reduced DNA-binding activity of NF-kappa B in both human nasal epithelial cells and fibroblasts stimulated by HIE or IL-1 beta, respectively.
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The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae during the winter of 1999-2000 in Germany.
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Helicobacter pylori infection is found in at least 80% of people in developing countries. This randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of 4 different H. pylori eradication regimens in Iranian patients.
This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of lansoprazole (LAN)-based triple therapy with that of RBC-based dual therapy in H pylori-infected patients with duodenal ulcer.
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Seventy years old woman had fever and hemosputum at May 1997. She was diagnosed as mycobacteriosis because of the positive acid fast bacilli smear from sputum. Mycobacterium gordonae was isolated from sputum, gastric juice, and bronchial aspirate. The combination therapy of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin was administrated; however, M. gordonae was not eradicated from sputum. Sparfloxacin was administered instead of isoniazid based on the result of drug susceptibility test. The smear became negative and M. gordonae was eradicated from sputum one month after the initiation of treatment with the combination of clarithromycin and sparfloxacin.
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The Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) presented several recent findings from clinical trials at the International Conference on AIDS. Weekly doses of fluconazole can safely prevent persistent yeast infections in HIV-infected women who frequently develop yeast infections of the mouth, vagina and throat. Combination antibiotic therapy given intermittently is an effective initial treatment for persons with HIV-related tuberculosis. High dosages of clarithromycin should not be given to patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC); doses above 500 mg are associated with higher mortality levels. Researchers have also determined the genetic sequence of the virus that causes molluscum contagiosum, a skin disease affecting up to 18 percent of AIDS patients.
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One hundred forty-one patients (82 male and 59 females; mean age 41.8 years) were enrolled in the study. A total of seven patients were excluded from the per protocol analysis. The eradication rates in intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) were 72.3% (95% CI 64.2-79.5%) and 76.1% (95% CI 68-83%), respectively. The main endoscopic findings were normal in 47.5% and gastritis in 37.6%.
Iridocyclitis, arthralgia, and pseudojaundice have been identified as dose-dependent adverse effects in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who are treated orally with rifabutin for Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC) infections. Nine episodes of acute anterior uveitis of varying severity ranging from mild iridocyclitis to anterior uveitis with fibrin or hypopyon, mimicking endogenous metastatic endophthalmitis, occurred in seven patients. At the time of presentation, all seven patients were receiving rifabutin at a dose ranging from 300 to 600 mg daily. Iridocyclitis was bilateral in four of seven patients, in two cases simultaneously and in two cases successively. Inflammation resolved rapidly on treatment with systemic and topical antibiotics, on corticosteroid therapy, and on discontinuation of rifabutin. In two cases of mild iridocyclitis, cessation of rifabutin alone led to resolution of the uveitis. The combination of rifabutin, clarithromycin, and fluconazole may increase the risk for anterior uveitis in patients with AIDS. All of our patients were treated with fluconazole, with clarithromycin, or with a combination of both substances in addition to rifabutin. Identification of rifabutin-induced uveitis is important because hypopyon uveitis in the immunocompromised patient generally evokes intensive and, sometimes, invasive ophthalmic and systemic workup and therapy. We suggest it to be sufficient for resolution of the inflammatory signs to discontinue rifabutin medication.
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Leptin immunoreactive cells were detected in the lower half of the gastric fundic glands and a leptin PCR product was also found in the gastric fundic mucosa. H pylori infection significantly increased gastric leptin expression. In addition, cure of H pylori infection significantly reduced gastric leptin expression, with a concomitant increase in BMI. In contrast, serum leptin levels did not change significantly after cure of H pylori infection.
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The HP eradication rates with intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 51% (for both) in the PCA-DM group; 81 and 85% in the PBTM-DM group, and 85 and 87% in the PBTM-non-DM group. The eradication rates are not different between the PBTM-DM and PBTM-non-DM groups (p > 0.05). The eradication rate was significantly lower in the PCA-DM group with both ITT and PP analysis than in the PBTM-DM and PBTM-non-DM groups (p < 0.05). LDQ score was 4.53 +/- 7.7 in DM patients with successful eradication and 14.68 +/- 5.9 in DM patients without successful eradication (p < 0.05).
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Antibiotic resistance is the most important factor leading to the failure of eradication regimens; thus, it is important to obtain regional antibiotic resistance information. This review focuses on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and furazolidone in China.
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For this open study, 331 patients with duodenal ulcer were screened and randomly allocated to either pantoprazole 40 mg b.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.d. (PCM) or pantoprazole 40 mg b.d., amoxycillin 1000 mg b.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. (PAC) for 7 days. Both combinations were followed by a 7-day therapy with pantoprazole 40 mg o.d. alone. Eradication of H. pylori was assessed by use of a 13C-urea breath test 4 weeks after the intake of the last medication.
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Current anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment regimens are costly and because of the increasing antibiotic resistance, are becoming ineffective.
Whole genome sequencing has revealed frequent transmission of multidrug resistant NTM between patients with cystic fibrosis despite conventional cross-infection measures. Although the exact transmission route is yet to be established, our epidemiological analysis suggests that it could be indirect.
Combination of clarithromycin, rifabutin and ethambutol has proven to be the most efficacious therapy and therefore has to be considered as standard therapy for disseminted MAC-infection. Problems most frequently encountered with this medication include uveitis (rifabutin) gastrointestinal disturbances (clarithromycin) and leucopenia (rifabutin) as well as drug interactions with protease-inhibitors (rifabutin).
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In a controlled, multicenter, investigator-blinded study, 437 ambulatory patients at least 12 years old with signs/symptoms and radiographic findings of acute sinusitis were randomized to receive clarithromycin ER 1000 mg once daily or amoxicillin/ clavulanate 875 mg/l25 mg twice daily for 14 days.
To assess the efficacy of clarithromycin in active Crohn's disease.
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The combined administration of proton-pump inhibitors and mucosal protective agent can improve gastric ulcer healing.
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The casted films of aqueous dispersions of Eudragit NE30 D and Eudragit L30 D-55 containing pore former were prepared. The study investigated the influence of pore former on basic model drug clarithromycin release, water uptake and water vapor permeability from casted film prepared from the blends of neutral polymer dispersion of Eudragit NE30 D and enteric polymer dispersion of Eudragit L30 D-55. This study was concluded that pore former hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, lactose, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidon (PVP) was released at the beginning of the release process, the rate and extent of water uptake of the polymeric films were much higher in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 than in pH 5.0 and the concentration of pore former have a significant influence on the permeability to water vapour.
Thirty microliters of resazurin (0.01%) was added after visually taking MIC reading. Resistance was observed in 11.1% of M. bolletti and 4.8% of M. abscessus strains; and induced resistance was detected in 77.8% and 95.2% of M. bolletti and M. abscessus strains, respectively. All strains of M. massiliense were susceptible. The samples presented same MIC value both by visual reading and through resazurin.
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Clinical and bacteriological response rates were determined at a test-of-cure visit, which was conducted up to 10 days following the completion of treatment. Radiological response was assessed at a follow-up visit.
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Rabeprazole, levofloxacin and rifabutin-based triple therapy and quadruple therapy were equally effective as second-line treatments for H. pylori infection.