Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
Prospective evaluation in which patients colonized with MRSA were treated twice daily with 2% topical mupirocin ointment for 5 days.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and contribute significantly to patient morbidity and healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microbial cause. The epidemiology of S. aureus is changing with the dissemination of newer clones and the emergence of mupirocin resistance. The prevention and control of SSIs is multi-modal, and this article reviews the evidence on the value of screening for nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent decolonization of positive patients pre-operatively. Pre-operative screening, using culture- or molecular-based methods, and subsequent decolonization of patients who are positive for meticillin-susceptible S. aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) reduces SSIs and hospital stay. This applies especially to major clean surgery, such as cardiothoracic and orthopaedic, involving the insertion of implanted devices. However, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach coupled with patient education. Universal decolonization pre-operatively without screening for S. aureus may compromise the capacity to monitor for the emergence of new clones of S. aureus, contribute to mupirocin resistance, and prevent the adjustment of surgical prophylaxis for MRSA (i.e. replacement of a beta-lactam agent with a glycopeptide or alternative).
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Topical mupirocin application was effective against crush wound infections inoculated with S. pyogenes and S. aureus. Nitrofurazone provides better granulation tissue formation, but did not effectively prevent bacterial colonization and infection in crush contaminated wounds.
Retapamulin inhibited all the isolates of MSSA and MRSA at 0.125 mg/L, but the 18 linezolid-resistant-MRSA strains proved resistant, with MICs over 32 mg/L. Most MSSA isolates (9/10) were susceptible to mupirocin with MICs under 0.19 mg/L, although this value decreased to half against MRSA, and almost all linezolid-resistant MRSA (17/18) strains were resistant to mupirocin with an MIC range of between 8 mg/L and 28 mg/L. The MIC of fusidic acid increased substantially against linezolid-resistant MRSA, whereas that of bacitracin showed no differences.
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At present, there is no existing evidence to support the routine use of systemic antibiotics to promote healing in venous leg ulcers. However, the lack of reliable evidence means that it is not possible to recommend the discontinuation of any of the agents reviewed. In terms of topical preparations, there is some evidence to support the use of cadexomer iodine. Further good quality research is required before definitive conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics and topical preparations such as povidone iodine, peroxide-based preparations, ethacridine lactate and mupirocin in healing venous leg ulceration. In light of the increasing problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, current prescribing guidelines recommend that antibacterial preparations should only be used in cases of defined infection and not for bacterial colonisation.
Several pre- and intraoperative factors have been associated with incisional surgical site infection (SSI), but little is known about the influence of postoperative wound care and especially, the use of different dressings on incisional SSI. The aim of this study was to compare 3 methods of wound dressings (conventional dressing, silver-containing dressing, and mupirocin ointment dressing) for their ability to prevent SSI, as measured by SSI rates, in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective open surgery.
Mupirocin MICs and mupA presence were determined in 108 staphylococci causing prosthetic joint infection. Zero of 35 isolates (0%) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 4/15 (27%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates, 3/16 (19%) methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 11/42 (26%) methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were mupirocin resistant. mupA was detected in all five high-level mupirocin-resistant staphylococci and one mupirocin-susceptible staphylococcus.
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After 7 years' routine use of prophylactic mupirocin ointment at the catheter exit site in non-selected chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, MuRSA was found in 25% of SA strains isolated or in 2.7% of the patients. Compared with our previous study, 3 years earlier, there is no significant increase in the MuRSA prevalence in peritoneal dialysis patients who routinely apply mupirocin ointment at the catheter exit site.
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The rate of new acquisition of S. aureus colonization of nares after transplantation decreased from 45.6% (21 of 46 patients) during the preintervention period to 9.9% (9 of 91 patients) during the postintervention period (P<.001). An increased length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05; P<.002) was associated with new carriage acquisition, and transplantation during the postintervention period (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.51; P<.001) was independently protective against new carriage. The rate of infection due to S. aureus decreased from 40.4% (19 of 47 patients) during the preintervention period to 4.1% (4 of 97 patients) during the postintervention period (P<.001), and the rate of bacteremia decreased from 25.5% (12 of 47 patients) to 4.1% (4 of 97 patients), respectively (P<.001). Overall, S. aureus infections occurred more frequently among patients with new carriage than among patients who were carriers at the time of transplantation (P<.001) or patients who were noncarriers (P<.001).
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Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most often isolated from blood during bacteraemic episodes in haemodialysis patients (42%). The pathophysiology of these infections is discussed and a prophylactic strategy is proposed. Nasal carriage of S. aureus, found in 42% of haemodialysis patients, plays a major role in its cutaneous dissemination and hence in the risk of infection by this microorganism. Long-term use of nasal mupirocin in haemodialysis patients with nasal carriage of S. aureus (t.i.d. for 3 to 5 days, followed by once a week) led to a decrease in the yearly incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia from 0.097 to 0.024 (p < 0.01). Tolerance was excellent. This chemoprophylaxis results in substantial savings. When applied as proposed (only nasal application), the long-term use of mupirocin only very rarely leads to the emergence of mupirocin-resistance in S. aureus (1 case in 165 patient-years).
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Between 1 April 2011 to September 2014, 45 participants (44% female, mean age 11.5 years) were randomised (24 Rx, 21 Obs). At day 28, 82% (n=18/22) of participants in the Rx arm compared with 26% (n=5/19) in the Obs arm were MRSA-negative. Adjusted for interim monitoring, this difference was 52% (95% CI 23% to 80%, p<0.001). Limiting analyses to participants who were MRSA-positive at the screening visit, 67% (8/12) in the Rx arm and 13% (2/15) in the Obs arm were MRSA-negative at day 28, adjusted difference: 49% (95% CI 22% to 71%, p<0.001). Fifty-four per cent in the Rx arm compared with 10% participants in the Obs arm remained MRSA-negative through day 84. Mild gastrointestinal side effects were higher in the Rx arm.
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The frequency and genetic bases of antimicrobial drug resistance was determined for 111 Staphylococcus aureus recovered from young healthy carriers in a Spanish region. Resistances to ampicillin (84.7%), kanamycin (27%), erythromycin (25.2%), clindamycin (22.5%), tetracycline (11.7%), amikacin and tobramycin (6.3% each), gentamicin (5.4%), chloramphenicol (2.7%), ciprofloxacin (0.9%; MIC 4 μg/ml), moxifloxacin (0.9%) and mupirocin (0.9%; MIC 60 μg/ml) were found, and all were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA). Nearly 50% of the isolates were resistant to one antibiotic, 30% to two, 15.3% to three and 1.8% to four, while only 6.3% remained fully susceptible. A total of 31 profiles were found. For each phenotypic resistance, at least one gene accounting for it was identified. The detected genes were blaZ; erm(A)-erm(B)-erm(C)-msr(A)-msr(B)-lnu(A), aphA-aadE-sat4-aacA + aphD-aadD, tet(K), cat, and qacA/B, for resistance to ampicillin, macrolides and/or lincosamides, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and quaternary ammonium compounds, respectively. In all isolates carrying cat genes, in all except one of the isolates positive for tet(K), and in most isolates with blaZ, erm(C), msr(A), or msr(B), the gene(s) mapped on resistance plasmids, which were detected in 69.2% of the resistant isolates (65% of the total). The S. aureus from young healthy carriers analysed in the present study do not constitute a reservoir of MRSA, but they represent a repository of multiple determinants conferring resistance to "old" antimicrobials. Some of these have still clinical applications and, considering the increasing resistance to recently introduced antimicrobials, none of them can be disregarded.
2% mupirocin ointment applied intra-nasally for 5 days was assessed for elimination of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in 31 staff members in a children's hospital. Three volunteers failed to complete the trial because of side effects, i.e. buccal reddening and swelling, and unpleasant taste. During treatment staphylococcal nasal carriage was not found in any case; of the 24 post-treatment nasal swabs taken 4 days after treatment 22 were still negative. Re-colonization with S. aureus of different phage types occurred in the remaining two cases.
After 3 years, 44 of 431 (10.2%) and 43 of 362 (11.9%) patients had died in the mupirocin/chlorhexidine and placebo groups, respectively. No significant differences in mortality rates were observed between the treatment groups or the subgroups according to type of surgery. In the subgroup of patients with clean procedures (382 cardiothoracic, 167 orthopedic, 61 vascular, and 56 other), mupirocin/chlorhexidine reduced 1-year mortality: 11 of 365 (3.0%) died in the mupirocin/chlorhexidine versus 21 of 301 (7.0%) in the placebo group [hazard ratio = 0.38 (95% CI: 0.18-0.81)].
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The mono-Claisen rearrangement of carbohydrate glycals is demonstrated to be a synthetically useful and mechanistically significant reaction. Addition of per-O-acetyl glycal-tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane mixture to lithium diisopropylamide generated a bis (or tris)ketenesilylacetal which, upon heating, underwent smooth mono-Claisen rearrangement to provide a C-glycosyl compound after methylation. A second apparently similar Claisen rearrangement required significantly higher temperatures in all cases. Thus, similar hydroxy groups were differentiated without resort to selective protection. A stereoelectronic rationale based on the newly-introduced vinylogous anomeric effect (VAE) is put forth to explain the accelerated Claisen rearrangements of these glycals. Molecular orbital and resonance descriptions of the VAE are included, and the VAE is also used to rationalize ground-state conformational preferences of carbohydrate glycals. The C-glycosyl compounds produced by mono-Claisen rearrangement were suitable for Pd(0)-catalyzed allylic alkylations, providing an unusually facile entry into the pseudomonic acid-ring systems. A nine-step synthesis of a known precursor of pseudomonic acid C is reported.
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Peritoneal dialysis is in widespread use for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Infection is still one of the major complications and can include peritonitis and pericannular problems. The rate of peritonitis is currently 0.5 episodes per patient year with disconnect systems, and there are about 0.4 exit-site infections (ESIs) per patient year. ESI is associated with a high rate of catheter removal and replacement. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of peritonitis and accounts for more than half of all ESIs. Nasal carriage of S. aureus is associated with a much higher rate of ESI. Treatment of ESIs is unsatisfactory. The type of exit-site care, however, does influence the rate of infection and prophylaxis with oral rifampicin and local or nasal mupirocin has been claimed to reduce ESIs. A large multicentre double-blind trial of nasal mupirocin has just been completed and preliminary results show a reduction in the incidence of S. aureus-induced ESI. The cost benefits of such a regimen are being evaluated.
The number of patients with impetigo caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been increasing.
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A prospective cohort study was performed in 18 Dutch centres from 1 October 2006 until 1 October 2008.
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As the number of CA-MRSA skin and soft tissue infections continues to grow, it's important to know which patients are at greatest risk and which evidence-based treatment protocols to turn to when needed.
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The concordant results of PFGE and coag-RFLP demonstrated the presence of a persistent MRSA clone in the hospital during the study period.
Infections due to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) are an ever-increasing nosocomial problem, particularly in the pediatric population. The authors describe a cluster of three primary bloodstream infections due to CNS in a newborn intensive care unit that occurred between November 23 and December 2, 1992. Two children died as a direct consequence of the bacteremia; at autopsy, one had a large bacteria-containing thrombus extending from the insertion site of a central catheter to the superior vena cava. The children were placed in isolation, and the nursing and medical staff were given topical nasal mupirocin. Plasmid analysis performed later disclosed three different blood isolates that also were different from any of the staff's nasal isolates. The authors concluded that molecular methods such as plasmid analysis are important tools in identifying true outbreaks and can prevent needless interventions, such as those during this cluster.
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The potential index case was a patient with an isolated MRSA pneumonia. From him, it was transmitted to his cohabitors and to the rest of the Unit. All the patients had AIDS and 13 presented with MRSA-associated symptoms. Five were admitted 30 days previously and 12 had intravenous catheters. The mean time for the appearance of the infection was 16 days. In the antibiotic investigations multiresistance was confirmed and in the 13 symptomatic cases systemic treatment with vancomycin was indicated requiring replacement by teicoplanin in 50% due to adverse reactions. Two years later, the 14 patients had died but only one in relation to MRSA. Of the health-workers, one carrier was detected. The line of decolonization with mupirocin was efficatious.
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Peritonitis remains the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Gram-positive organisms are among the most common causes of PD peritonitis; however, recent trends show increasing rates of gram-negative and fungal infections. Strategies to prevent peritonitis include the use of prophylactic topical mupirocin at the site where the PD catheter exits from the abdominal wall; however, mupirocin does not afford protection against gram-negative or fungal infections. The aim of this study is to determine if the incidence of catheter-related infections (exit-site infection, tunnel infection, or peritonitis) is significantly reduced by the routine application of Polysporin Triple antibiotic ointment (Pfizer Canada, Markham, Ontario, Canada) in comparison to mupirocin ointment.
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Records of 420 patients were reviewed. In the 241 patients without screening, nine patients had S aureus infections, and there were two (0.8%) postoperative MRSA surgical-site infections. Of 179 patients after screening was initiated, 24 patients (13.4%) were colonized with S aureus and underwent preoperative treatment. There were no MRSA infections in the postoperative period.
This meta-analysis included five RCTs. The overall incidence of measured hospital-acquired BSIs was significantly lower in the chlorhexidine group compared to the controls 0.69 (95 % CI 0.55-0.85; P < 0.001; I (2) = 57.7 %). Gram-positive-induced (RR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.41-0.58; P = 0.000; I (2) = 0.0 %) bacteremias were significantly less common in the chlorhexidine group. The incidence of MRSA bacteremias (RR 0.63; 95 % CI 0.44-0.91; P = 0.006; I (2) = 30.3 %) was significantly lower among patients who received mupirocin in addition to chlorhexidine bathing than among those who did not routinely receive mupirocin.
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Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain with high-level mupirocin resistance (SA_ST125_MupR), isolated from a patient with recurrent bacteremia. This strain belonged to sequence type ST125, which was responsible for more than 50% of the health care-associated infections caused by MRSA in Spain.
Charts of patients who received mupirocin nasal irrigations for MRSA exacerbations of CRS between January 2000 and October 2003 were reviewed.
Common bacterial infections of the skin due to MRSA or to multiresistant S. aureus are not rare in France and have tended to increase slowly in recent years.
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