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Twenty patients with allergic rhinitis (12 males and eight females, mean age 37.7 +/- 10.5 years) were evaluated. All the patients received levocetirizine (5 mg x day(-1)) for 4 weeks, and the speed of nasal mucociliary clearance was assessed before and after treatment. Twenty healthy controls (11 males and nine females, mean age 39.4 +/- 7.8 years) were also evaluated.
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A single dose of cetirizine dihydrochloride (approx 1 mg/kg, which corresponded to approximately 0.87 mg of cetirizine base/kg) was administered orally to cats. It was tolerated well and maintained plasma concentrations higher than those considered effective in humans for 24 hours after dosing. The half-life of cetirizine in cats is compatible with once-daily dosing, and the extent of protein binding is high.
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Both treatments were effective in managing allergic rhinitis symptoms, and patients' symptoms were more closely associated with domiciliary measurements of nasal flow than laboratory measurements of nasal function.
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Anxiety disorders are chronic, common, and often comorbid. There is an unmet need in its treatment. Aripiprazole and hydroxyzine are well-known therapeutic options used as monotherapy in clinics. They have different mechanisms and site of actions.
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Randomized double-blind trials using doxepin and several conventional antihistamines were carried out for treatment of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria. In the first double-blind trial, eight of nine patients preferred doxepin (10 mg three times daily) to cinnarizine (10 mg three times daily). In the second double-blind trial, the results of ice cube tests suppressing the effect of cyproheptadine (4 mg three times daily), doxepin (10 mg three times daily), and hydroxyzine (10 mg three times daily) did not statistically differ. However, doxepin was subjectively the most effective and it had fewer side effects than other treatments that were compared. Doxepin effectively suppressed the wheal and itching responses and shortened the duration of the wheal response in the ice cube test in all patients with cold urticaria who were studied.
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The partitioning of cetirizine in a phosphatidylcholine liposomes/water system was compared with that of hydroxyzine and acrivastine to gain insight into the mechanisms of interaction of its various electrical species with membranes.
The oral formulation of cetirizine/PSE was significantly (P<0.001) superior to placebo in improving nasal obstruction during both challenges. The improvement in nasal airflow and nasal patency was significantly greater with cetirizine/PSE than with placebo (P<0.02). In addition, subjective assessment of nasal symptoms showed that cetirizine/PSE was significantly superior to placebo in both challenges for the sum of nasal obstruction scores (P<0.01). Both medications were well tolerated, and no serious adverse events occurred during the study.
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Anabolic-androgenic steroids are capable of causing hepatotoxicity, and multiple cases reported in the literature support this. A case report described hepato toxicity secondary to both creatine and whey protein consumption, and several reports have described liver damage secondary to designer supplement use. To our knowledge, this is the first case to describe hepatotoxicity as a result of combination herbal and designer supplement use. The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assess ment Method (RUCAM) score for drug-induced hepatotoxicity indicated a highly probable correlation between the use of combination supplements and cholestatic jaundice.
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During a forensic toxicological GC/MS screening, changed compounds of hydroxyzine were found in a man's urine taken about 20 h after ingesting sake (Japanese liquor) and tranquilizers. The structures of those compounds were assigned to 4-chlorodiphenylmethane(I), p-chlorbenzophenone(III), norchlorcyclizine(IV), 7-(p-chloro-alpha-phenylbenzyl)-2-hydroxy-2H,3H-oxazolo-[3,2 -alpha] piperazine(V), 1-(p-chloro-alpha-phenylbenzyl)-4-methylpiperazine-3-one(VI), N-(p-chloro-alpha-phenylbenzyl)-N'-formylmethyl-N'- hydroxyethyl-1,2-ethenediamine(VII) and 1-(p-chloro-alpha-phenylbenzyl)-4-[2-ethoxy(2-ethoxy)-ethyl] piperazine(VIII) on the basis of the fragmentation patterns and relative retention times except VIII which was identified using the synthesized compound. I, V, VI, VII and VIII have not been reported previously, but the possibility of metabolites of hydroxyzine is still uncertain.
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Overall, 47 children from 2 to 18 years old, concerned with an indication of botulinum toxin injections, were included. Four hundred and twenty-two children were given during 49 sessions. Seventy-one percent of children received a premedication associating hydroxyzine, MEOPA(®) and EMLA(®). Eight children were also accompanied by hypnoanalgesia, the others, distraction. The average pain during the injections was estimated with the FLACC to 2,632 (sd 1,892), the Digital Scale with 2.591 (sd 2,67). Children who presented an intense pain (FLACC>7) during the session of injections were 14,28%. Thirty-three percent of children were worried or very worried. Injectors were unsatisfied with 33% of their sessions. No link was established between pain and: sex, prematurity, epilepsy, motor disability, premedication, injection's volume, localisation of injection, hypnotherapy or distraction support. Anxiety and pain were linked.
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Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease encountered in dogs. Glucocorticoids are commonly recommended for symptomatic therapy and well-tolerated adjunctive therapies may help to reduce the necessary dose and associated risks of chronic glucocorticoid use.
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Generally speaking the efficacy of Mizolastine in treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis is better than Cetirizine, Bad events are less. It is safe.
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Levocetirizine was shown to improve quality of life and symptoms and to decrease the overall costs of the disease over the 6-month treatment period.
This was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 315 patients, randomly allocated to 3 groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200 mcg/kg as single dose, and third group received ivermectin 1% lotion as single application. All the patients received anti-histaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. Primary efficacy variable was clinical cure of lesions. Statistical analysis was done by chi square test and one way ANOVA test using SPSS version 12.
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There were no differences in PR, SpO2 and risk of desaturation between the inhalation agents. The level of sedation was deeper and the sedation outcomes were better in the N2O/O2 group.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the use of psychotropic medications for both labeled and off-labeled indications in a French paediatric teaching hospital.
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The combination of LRA and H1 receptor antagonist is promising for CIU treatment and is reasonably well tolerated by patients. The combination of H1- and H2-receptor antagonists provided the greatest treatment efficacy by the measures used in this small study.
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New therapeutic approaches in urticaria are presented with special respect to chronic and physical types including symptomatic dermographism, cholinergic urticaria, pressure and solar urticaria as well as vibratory angioedema. Clinical efficacies of several antihistamines (clemastine, astemizole, terfenadine, acrivastine, hydroxyzine, cimetidine), of ketotifen as a H1 receptor antagonist and mast cell stabilizer, of tricyclic antidepressant doxepin with H1 and H2 antagonist properties, of the calcium channel antagonist nifedipine, of topical corticosteroids and of the attenuated androgen danazol are presented. The data are specified by a detailed description of the design and particular conditions of the underlying study protocols.
Sixteen atopic patients with mild-to-moderate asthma of whom 10 were receiving inhaled corticosteroid therapy (all had positive results to house dust mite on skin prick testing) were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over fashion to receive single doses of 5 mg of desloratadine, 180 mg of fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX), 5 mg of levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV), or placebo, with AMP challenge performed 12 hours after dosing.
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Levocetirizine inhibits eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM through both dermal and lung microvascular endothelial cells suggesting that, like cetirizine, levocetirizine has potential anti-inflammatory effects.
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In this prospective study, we performed 80 phacoemulsifications under topical anesthesia, with tetracaine 1% drops, 10 minutes before and at the start of surgery: 40 patients received 0.3 cc balanced salt solution (BSS) intracameral injection; 40 patients received 0.3 cc unpreserved lidocaine 1% intracameral injection. The same surgical procedure was performed in both groups: 3.2 mm temporal corneal self-sealing incision, capsulorhexis, foldable polyHEMA IOL implantation into the capsular bag. There was no intravenous sedation.
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We describe a subject who developed prolonged penile erections on hydroxyzine. Molecular modelling showed that the hydroxyzine metabolite, norchlorcyclizine, has structural and conformational similarities to the trazodone metabolite, m-chlorophenylpiperazine. This suggests that a common pharmacological mechanism may underlie the ability of trazodone and hydroxyzine to induce erections.
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Each of the five premedication schedules described appear to confer similar effects on cardiovascular changes in anticipation of, and during, surgery, except that those given the lightest premedication, Group 1, showed greater increases in BP at the start of surgery than did those given the heaviest premedication, Group 5. The requirements in the operating room for IV medication were similar in the five premedication groups, and no greater benefit was discernible for any one of the five premedication schedules on the objective features assessed. These data suggest that simple oral premedication of hydroxyzine, with or without an H2 receptor antagonist and NSAID, may suffice as premedication in middle-aged to elderly patients undergoing anterior segment surgery.
Cetirizine is a new antihistamine with greater selectivity for the histamine H1 receptor and a low rate of hepatic metabolism. Cetirizine once daily is effective in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria.
A total of 100 patients suffering from PTSD were assessed (mean age = 35.51 years, SD = 6.41; 28% females). Next, they were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: prazosin (33 patients), hydroxyzine (34 patients) or placebo (33 patients). The trial lasted for 8 weeks. The patients' sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Items taken from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to operationalize PTSD.
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H1-type antihistamines are considered the therapeutic agents of choice for treating urticaria and angioedema. The use of traditional H1 antihistamines is limited by their side effects. In recent years low-sedating H1 antihistamines with reduced sedative and anticholinergic side effects have become popular choices for the treatment of urticaria and angioedema. Terfenadine and astemizole are currently available in the United States, and cetirizine and loratadine, currently under review at the Food and Drug Administration, are available in other countries. Terfenadine, cetirizine, and loratadine achieve rapid peak plasma concentrations in 1 to 2 hours, whereas astemizole has a slow onset of action. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of chronic idiopathic urticaria, low-sedating H1 antihistamines were more effective than placebo. The choice of a particular low-sedating H1 antihistamine depends on pharmacokinetic considerations and frequency of administration.
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This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of levocetirizine in: (i) relieving nasal symptoms, (ii) improving nasal airflow, (iii) reducing leucocyte infiltration, and (iv) diminishing cytokine levels. These findings are the first evidence of the effectiveness of levocetirizine in SAR.
The paradoxical acute exacerbation of pre-existing chronic idiopathic urticaria accompanied by intense generalized pruritus, facial oedema, and dyspnoea in a 36-year-old-woman 3-4 h after a single oral dose of 10 mg cetirizine (Zyrtec tablets), suggested the presence of an underlying intolerance reaction. However, a type I hypersensitivity reaction also had to be excluded. Detailed allergy testing supported the view that the patient had suffered an intolerance reaction to cetirizine. This is the third known case of most probably a nonallergic generalized urticaria following the administration of cetirizine, a drug with extensive usage worldwide. However a type I sensitization to cetirizine is indeed possible, as has been demonstrated in this research with the verification of cetirizine-specific IgE antibodies in one of the control sera.
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To review previous and recent literature on this subject to assess the current state of evidence.