Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.
Brand name of Artane is Artane.
Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.
If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.
If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Artane are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.
Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.
Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.
Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
Avoid driving machine.
It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.
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A patient with spasms of the neck, occurring when he turned his head to the left, responded to treatment with benzhexol. Cerebral blood flow imaging demonstrated reduced uptake in the right corpus striatum compared with the left. The study demonstrates the presence of an abnormality in the basal ganglia; it also illustrates response to drug treatment. Cerebral blood flow imaging may be useful in the detection of basal ganglia abnormalities in spasmodic torticollis and assist in the selection of cases which should be targeted for treatment with drugs.
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Patients who experience transient, ECT-induced, postictal cortical blindness may not necessarily experience the same adverse effect on rechallenge with ECT.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of two anticholinergic agents--trihexyphenidyl and tridihexethyl chloride (a quaternary anticholinergic that does not cross the blood-brain barrier)--in patients with acquired nystagmus and measured visual acuity and nystagmus before and at the end of 1 month on each medication. Of the 10 patients admitted to the study, only five completed trials of both drugs due to intolerance of medication or intercurrent illness. Of six patients who completed the trial of trihexyphenidyl, only one showed improvement. Of six patients who completed a trial of tridihexethyl chloride, four showed improvement. We conclude that (1) trihexyphenidyl is not a reliable treatment for acquired nystagmus, although occasional patients may benefit; (2) anticholinergic agents may suppress nystagmus by peripheral rather than central mechanisms; and (3) the side effects of anticholinergic agents limit their effectiveness in the treatment of nystagmus.
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The co-occurrence of tics and dystonia as an idiopathic condition has only rarely been reported. We report a series of patients with tics and persistent dystonia, with the aim of determining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of this syndrome.
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Extracellular single-cell recording techniques were employed to study the mechanism of action of repeated oral clozapine administration on the in vivo spontaneous activity of substantia nigra (A9) and ventral tegmental area (A10) dopamine (DA)-containing neurons in the rat. Clozapine was observed to affect DA neurons differentially within these two regions when compared to haloperidol. Acute treatment (1 hr) with both drugs increased the number of spontaneously firing neurons in both A9 and A10. Chronic (21 day) treatment with haloperidol decreased the number of cells encountered in both regions, whereas repeated treatment with clozapine reduced the number of DA cells per track only in A10. In all cases, the silent DA neurons were inferred to be in a state of depolarization inactivation since they could be induced to discharge normally by the microiontophoretic application of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. These effects were not due to an effect of chloral hydrate anesthesia since they were also observed in gallamine-paralyzed, artificially respired animals. Chronic co-administration with haloperidol of either an anticholinergic (trihexyphenidyl) or the alpha 1-norepinephrine (NE) receptor antagonist, prazosin, but not an alpha 2-NE antagonist, RX781094, resulted in a differential effect on A9 and A10 DA neurons identical to that observed with repeated clozapine administration alone. Thus, chronic treatment with these combinations of drugs resulted in the depolarization inactivation of only A10 cells. These data suggest that anticholinergic and/or alpha 1-NE-blocking properties of clozapine may, in part, mediate its differential effects on A9 and A10 midbrain DA neurons.
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Finding about structural and functional relation between NMDA receptors specific binding and phencyclidine sites was very important for a possible modulation of NMDA receptors' function. We have therefore got interested what would happen with EEG and vegetative patterns of PS in the case when NMDA receptors function is modulated by blocking of phencyclidines' site. Consequently, we studied the effects of Trihexyphenydil, the structural analog of phencyclidine, on neocortical and hippocampal electrical activity in SWC. On cats (n=5) metallic electrodes were implanted under Nembutal anesthesia. EEG registration lasting 12 hr daily started after animals' recovery. Trihexyphenydil was administered intraperitoneally (0.5 mg/kg - 1 mg/kg). Statistical processing was made by Students' t-test. Trihexyphenydil resulted in dissociated triggering of PS. Rapid eye movements and PGO waves appeared on the face of active waking state. Therefore on the background of behavioral active waking according to electrical activity of the visual cortex and rapid eye movements, electrographic patterns of paradoxical sleep were recorded. Thus in our experiments it was shown firstly that the mechanism of hallucinogenic action of Trihexyphenydil is closely related to the disturbance of paradoxical sleep integrity. Blocking of NMDA receptors phencyclidines site and therefore functional modulation of these receptors produce the splitting of PS patterns and their intrusion in waking state. Such an effect never takes place in normal conditions since the waking system has the powerful inhibitory influence on the PS triggering system. Suggestion is make that NMDA glutamate receptors must be involved in mechanisms providing structural and functional integrity of PS and that fulfillment of such function is possible in the case when the NMDA receptors phencyclidine site isn't in blocked state. Normal functioning of NMDA receptors phencyclidine site represents the mechanism which inhibits and/or hampers appearance of hallucination. NMDA glutamate receptors, possessing phencyclidine site, are implicated in the mechanisms providing structural and functional integrity of PS.
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Broad-spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonists have represented the first available treatment for different movement disorders such as dystonia. However, the specificity of these drugs and their mechanism of action is not entirely clear. We performed a systematic analysis of the effects of anticholinergic drugs on short- and long-term plasticity recorded from striatal medium spiny neurons from DYT1 dystonia knock-in (Tor1a(+/Δgag) ) mice heterozygous for ΔE-torsinA and their controls (Tor1a(+/+) mice). Antagonists were chosen that had previously been proposed to be selective for muscarinic receptor subtypes and included pirenzepine, trihexyphenydil, biperiden, orphenadrine, and a novel selective M1 antagonist, VU0255035. Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice exhibited a significant impairment of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Anticholinergics had no significant effects on intrinsic membrane properties and on short-term plasticity of striatal neurons. However, they exhibited a differential ability to restore the corticostriatal plasticity deficits. A complete rescue of both long-term depression (LTD) and synaptic depotentiation (SD) was obtained by applying the M1 -preferring antagonists pirenzepine and trihexyphenidyl as well as VU0255035. Conversely, the nonselective antagonist orphenadrine produced only a partial rescue of synaptic plasticity, whereas biperiden and ethopropazine failed to restore plasticity. The selectivity for M1 receptors was further demonstrated by their ability to counteract the M1 -dependent potentiation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) current recorded from striatal neurons. Our study demonstrates that selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonism offsets synaptic plasticity deficits in the striatum of mice with the DYT1 dystonia mutation, providing a potential mechanistic rationale for the development of improved antimuscarinic therapies for this movement disorder.
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Working and reference memory processes were simultaneously evaluated during the performance of a paired discrimination (PD) task in which visual and spatial discrimination trials were combined within the same session. Atropine (1 and 5 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.02-0.20 mg/kg), benactyzine (1-4 mg/kg), trihexyphenidyl (1-10 mg/kg), and aprophen (5-20 mg/kg) were all found to increase the number of errors performed by overtrained rats during the spatial but not during the visual trials. Although all the anticholinergic drugs tested induced specific working memory impairment at low doses, they differentially affected other, simultaneously recorded, behavioral parameters. Thus, while atropine affected most of the recorded parameters, aprophen induced only a mild effect. Benactyzine was found to have the most specific effect on working memory, with only minimal side effects, a combination that supports its use as the preferred psychopharmacological model of working memory impairment.
A new neuroleptic drug, Timiperone, is able to exert an antiapomorphine effect at doses smaller than cataleptogenic doses. Nineteen patients with urologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin in combination with other agents were studied for the antiemetic efficacy of Timiperone. Six of 8 patients over 46 years old treated with Timiperone 6 mg/day p.o. from the day before undergoing DDP therapy to the last day of the therapy had no episode of vomiting and 2 patients had a few episodes of emesis (one and two episodes during 5 days of undergoing DDP, respectively). Five patients under 45 years old given Timiperone 6 mg/day by the same method had few episodes of vomiting, but suffered from extrapyramidal symptoms. Finally 6 patients undergoing DDP with Timiperone in combination with trihexyphenidyl suffered no symptoms of catalepsy but sometimes had mild vomiting episodes (1-4 times a day). We would like to propose that in antiemetic therapy with Timiperone for cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting, a dose of 4.5 mg/day be given from two days before undergoing chemotherapy because of the cumulative effect of Timiperone.
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Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Tribulus terrestris on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Mice were allocated to four groups, each group containing six animals. Both, the test drug, Tribulus terrestris and the standard drug trihexyphenidyl were uniformly suspended in 1% gum acacia solution. Catalepsy was induced in mice with haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The first group received the vehicle (10 ml/kg, orally), the second group received trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg, orally) and the remaining two groups received Tribulus terrestris (100, 200 mg/kg, orally). The animals were assessed after single and repeated dose administration for ten days, 30 min prior to haloperidol, using standard bar test. The result of the present study demonstrates Tribulus terrestris has a protective effect against haloperidol-induced catalepsy, which is comparable to the standard drug used for the same purpose. Our study indicates Tribulus terrestris can be used to prevent haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal side effects.
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Treatment of manifestations: Intramuscular botulinum toxin, intrathecal or oral baclofen, ablative pallidotomy or thalmotomy, oral trihexyphenidyl, deep brain stimulation for dystonia; services for the blind, educational programs; physical therapy and occupational therapy to maintain normal joint mobility; adaptive aids (walker, wheelchair) for gait abnormalities; speech therapy and/or assistive communication devices. Prevention of secondary complications: Full-mouth dental extraction when severe orobuccolingual dystonia results in recurrent tongue-biting; adequate nutrition through swallowing evaluation, dietary assessment, gastrostomy tube feeding as needed. Surveillance: Evaluation for treatable causes of pain during episodes of extreme distress; monitoring of height and weight; routine ophthalmologic assessment; regular assessments of ambulation and speech abilities.
artane drug information
Three patients, one male and two females who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome following exposure to depot and oral neuroleptic are presented. The patients satisfied Levenson's criteria for diagnosis. Bromocriptine and Electro Convulsive Therapy were found effective whereas trihexyphenidyl proved unsatisfactory in the treatment. All the patients recovered completely without complications.
The muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the urinary bladders of man, guinea pig, rat and rabbit were studied by means of a receptor binding technique, with l-quinuclidinyl [phenyl 4-3H]benzilate, (-)3H-QNB, as radioligand. The potential role of the receptors in the supersensitivity of the rat bladder to muscarinic agonists, following parasympathetic denervation, hypertrophy and urinary diversion, was also investigated. In addition, the binding of various unlabelled antimuscarinic drugs in the guinea pig bladder was compared to that in other tissues in order to study the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes, commonly referred to as M1 and M2. According to this classification the putative M1 receptors prevail in discrete areas of the brain, whereas the M2-receptors predominate in peripheral tissues, such as the exocrine glands and smooth muscles. The receptor density (but not the qualitative properties of the receptors) in the bladder differed between the species. The affinities of various antimuscarinic drugs were virtually identical in the guinea pig and human bladders. In both species, the binding data were found to correlate with functional in vitro data. In the rat bladder, the receptor density was increased after denervation but decreased, below control values, when the denervation was combined with urinary diversion. A decrease was also found after urinary diversion of innervated bladders, whereas the receptor density was unaffected by hypertrophy. These results suggest that the receptors are not involved in the development of supersensitivity and that the receptor levels may be influenced by the functional state of the bladder. Binding studies with classical muscarinic antagonists indicated that the receptors in the guinea pig bladder are indistinguishable from those in the ileum, heart, parotid gland and cerebral cortex. However, four drugs--namely, oxybutynin, dicyclomine, benzhexol and pirenzepine had a much higher affinity for the receptors in the parotid gland and cortex than for those in the other tissues. Moreover, dicyclomine and benzhexol, like pirenzepine, seemed in the cortex to distinguish between two classes of sites exhibiting high and low affinity. The high affinity sites could be selectively labelled with 3H-benzhexol. The ability of oxybutynin, dicyclomine, benzhexol and pirenzepine to discriminate between the receptors in the parotid gland and those in smooth muscle provides further evidence that the M1/M2 concept is inaccurate. The present data indicate that there may be three classes of muscarinic antagonist binding sites.
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Exposure to high doses of organophosphorus nerve agents such as soman, even with carbamate pretreatment, produces a variety of toxic cholinergic signs, including secretions, convulsions and death. Evidence suggests that soman-induced convulsions may be associated with postexposure brain neuropathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacologic mechanism of action of soman-induced convulsions and of anticonvulsant drugs. Various classes of compounds were evaluated for their efficacy in preventing soman-induced convulsions in rats pretreated with the oxime HI-6 to increase survival time, along with various doses of the test compounds (IM) either in the absence or presence of atropine sulfate (16 mg/kg, IM) 30 minutes prior to a soman challenge dose (180 micrograms/kg, SC; equivalent to 1.6 x LD50) that produced 100% convulsions. Without atropine sulfate, only tertiary anticholinergics (scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, benactyzine, benztropine, azaprophen and aprophen), caramiphen, carbetapentane and MK-801 were effective anticonvulsants. In the presence of atropine sulfate, the benzodiazepines (diazepam, midazolam, clonazepam, loprazolam and alprazolam), mecamylamine, flunarizine, diphenylhydantoin, clonidine, CGS 19755 and Organon 6370 studied were effective. We have examined the possibility that diazepam may exert some of its anticonvulsant effects through cholinergic mechanisms and found that a reduced release of ACh into synapses after diazepam and atropine treatment may account for diazepam's anticonvulsant activity against soman. We also found that at anticonvulsant doses biperiden and trihexyphenidyl each significantly reversed the effects of soman on striatal levels of DOPAC and HVA, the metabolites of dopamine, and have concluded that in addition to actions on muscarinic receptors, the anticonvulsant effects of these anticholinergics in soman poisoning may be partially related to their actions on the striatal dopaminergic system. These findings allow us to postulate that central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms are primarily involved in eliciting the convulsions following exposure to soman and that subsequent recruitment of other excitatory neurotransmitter systems and loss of inhibitory control may be responsible for sustaining the convulsions and for producing the subsequent brain damage. Future studies to confirm these neuropharmacological mechanisms are proposed.
To clarify the observed variability of haloperidol disposition in patients with psychiatric disorders.
Characteristic features included axial hypotonia, hypokinesia, and athetosis, with superimposed episodes of ocular convergence spasm, oculogyric crises, dystonia, and limb rigidity. Catecholamine deficiency was manifest by ptosis, nasal congestion, paroxysmal diaphoresis, temperature instability, and blood pressure lability. Abnormal sleep, feeding difficulties, and esophageal reflux were typical. Significant therapeutic benefit was observed in one child with a combination of pergolide, trihexyphenidyl, and tranylcypromine. Preliminary trials using serotonin receptor agonists or reuptake inhibitors resulted in adverse effects.
The peripheral administration of the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine (1-(phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine hydrochloride) (PCP) induces a dose-related ipsilateral rotation in unilateral substantia nigra electrolytically-lesioned rats. The intensity of this rotation can be modulated by administration of various dopaminergic and cholinergic agents. Injection of alpha-methylparatyrosine methylester (125 mg/kg) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg) inhibited the ipsilateral circling behavior. Pimozide (1 mg/kg) also inhibitied the rotation, but to a lesser extent. The injection of the anticholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl (5 mg/kg) potentiated, and the cholinomimetic drug arecoline (5 mg/kg), depressed the rotation induced by PCP (7.5 mg/kg), It is probable that PCP possesses significant dopaminergic and anticholinergic properties. The capacity of PCP to induce rotation in this model may be related to its effects on dopaminergic and cholingergic neurons in the rat striatum. Thus, PCP may induce rotational behavior by potentiating dopaminergic transmission, by blocking cholinergic activity, or both; both of these effects have been demonstrated to be important in the generation of circling behavior in rats with nigrostriatal lesions.
Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder that manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians develop musician's dystonia, and in many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. The pathophysiology of the disorder is not completely clarified. Findings include 1) reduced inhibition at different levels of the central nervous system, 2) maladaptive plasticity and altered sensory perception, and 3) alterations in sensorimotor integration. Epidemiological data demonstrate a higher risk for those musicians who play instruments requiring maximal fine-motor skills. For instruments where workload differs across hands, focal dystonia appears more often in the more intensely used hand. In psychological studies, musicians with dystonia have more anxiety and perfectionist tendencies than healthy musicians. These findings strengthen the assumption that behavioral factors may be involved in the etiology of musician's dystonia. Preliminary findings also suggest a genetic contribution to focal task-specific dystonia with phenotypic variations including musician's dystonia. Treatment options include pharmacological interventions, such as trihexyphenidyl or botulinum toxin-A, as well as retraining programs and ergonomic changes in the instrument. Patient-tailored treatment strategies may significantly improve the situation of musicians with focal dystonia. Positive results after retraining and unmonitored technical exercises underline the benefit of an active involvement of patients in the treatment process. Only a minority of musicians, however, return to normal motor control using the currently available therapies.
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Our data confirm the importance of the combination of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine with anticholinergic drugs in the pharmacological prophylaxis of soman poisoning because of the elimination of consequences of pyridostigmine-induced increasing in acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the peripheral compartment.
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A comparison has been made between [3H]pirenzepine binding to the M1 receptor population of rat cerebral cortex and [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding to M2 receptors in rat cardiac membranes. Several standard muscarinic antagonists including trihexyphenidyl HCl, benztropine, biperidin and 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl piperidine methiodide) showed some selectivity for the M1 binding assay. Dicyclomine and hexahydrosiladifenidol were the only antagonists with a selectivity approaching that of pirenzepine. Gallamine and AFDX-116 were the only M2 (cardiac) selective antagonists. Muscarinic agonists displayed profiles which could be classified into two groups, apparently related to their intrinsic activity. One group displayed apparent selectivity for the heart, with low Hill coefficients and contained full agonists such as acetylcholine. The second group displayed less selectivity, intermediate Hill coefficients and contained partial agonists such as pilocarpine. Thus muscarinic agents can distinguish between different tissues not only on the basis of receptor selectivity, but also by recognition of high and low agonist affinity states. Thus the intrinsic activity of a muscarinic agonist may reflect an apparent but not true receptor-mediated selectivity.
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1 The present study examined the role of muscarinic receptors in the modulation of noradrenaline (NA) release in the guinea-pig isolated distal colon. The spontaneous endogenous NA overflow assayed by HPLC-ED was taken as an index of NA release from enteric noradrenergic nerve terminals. 2 Physostigmine (10 microM) significantly enhanced spontaneous endogenous NA overflow. Hyoscine (muscarinic antagonist), (R)-(-)-trihexyphenidyl and telenzepine (M1-selective antagonists), and 11[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperydil]acetyl]-5,11 -dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116, M2-selective antagonist) inhibited NA overflow in a concentration dependent manner, with the following EC50 values: 131.74 (18.19-953.96), 101.62 (58.83-175.60), 150 (60-330), 30 (5-170) nM, respectively. 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, M1- and M3-selective antagonist) had no significant effect up to 100 microM. 3 The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine inhibited NA overflow in a concentration dependent manner, with an EC50 value of 0.67 (0.30-1.51) microM. The response to oxotremorine was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with the following order of potency: hyoscine = (R)-(-)-trihexyphenidyl = telenzepine > 4-DAMP > AF-DX 116. 4 In the presence of 3 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX), the effect of oxotremorine and 4-DAMP was unchanged, while hyoscine, (R)-(-)-trihexyphenidyl, telenzepine and AF-DX 116, instead of inhibiting, significantly enhanced NA overflow. 5 The present results indicate that, in the guinea-pig colon, endogenous acetylcholine sustains spontaneous NA release by activating muscarinic receptors possibly located on interneurones. In addition, inhibitory muscarinic receptors may exist on adrenergic terminals.
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