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Brown Norway rat trachea were transplanted into the greater omentum of Lewis (allografts) or Brown Norway (isografts) animals. Recipient animals were treated with rapamycin, cyclosporine, 15-deoxyspergulin, mycophenolate mofetil, or leflunomide from day 0, 7, or 14 until day of graft removal, either day 28 or 50. Trachea segments were evaluated for degree of lumenal occlusion, as well as percent and type of lumen epithelial cell coverage.
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To evaluate the benefits of the addition of leflunomide (LEF) in children with polyarticular course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), non-responsive to standard dose parenteral methotrexate (MTX).
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ABCG2 protein expression was stable for at least 4 weeks when CEM/SSZ cells were grown in the absence of SSZ, but gradually declined, along with SSZ resistance levels, to non-detectable levels after withdrawal of SSZ for 6 months. Rechallenging with SSZ led to a rapid (<2.5 weeks) resumption of SSZ resistance and ABCG2 expression as in the original CEM/SSZ cells. CEM/SSZ cells displayed diminished sensitivity to the DMARDs leflunomide (5.1-fold) and methotrexate (1.8-fold), were moderately more sensitive (1.6-2.0 fold) to cyclosporin A and chloroquine, and markedly more sensitive (13-fold) to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone as compared with parental CEM cells.
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Compared with methotrexate initiation, leflunomide or glucocorticoid initiation consistently increased all-cause hospitalizations in the first 180 days of use. Most PER and PEI estimates were similar; observed differences in risk between these methods were likely due to differences in adherence.
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To evaluate the use of fumaric acid esters (FAEs) in combination with other antipsoriatic agents in 6 specialized dermatological departments in Germany.
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Among the 77 items identified, 41 were selected as pertinent to guide the DMARD choice. They were reorganised into five domains: rheumatoid arthritis activity, factors predictive of structural damage; patient characteristics; DMARD characteristics; physician characteristics. In the majority of situations, the two top ranking DMARD choices were methotrexate and leflunomide. Etanercept was an alternative for these agents when high disease activity was associated with poor structural prognosis and rheumatoid factor positivity.
Pyrimidine biosynthesis is an attractive drug target in a variety of organisms, including humans and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, an enzyme catalyzing the only redox reaction of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, is a well-characterized target for chemotherapeutical intervention. In this study, we have applied SPROUT-LeadOpt, a software package for structure-based drug discovery and lead optimization, to improve the binding of the active metabolite of the anti-inflammatory drug leflunomide to the target cavities of the P. falciparum and human dihydroorotate dehydrogenases. Following synthesis of a library of compounds based upon the SPROUT-optimized molecular scaffolds, a series of inhibitors generally showing good inhibitory activity was obtained, in keeping with the SPROUT-LeadOpt predictions. Furthermore, cocrystal structures of five of these SPROUT-designed inhibitors bound in the ubiquinone binding cavity of the human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase are also analyzed.
A 78-year-old woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis without a history of skin tumors or immunosuppressive medication, started treatment with leflunomide. One month after the introduction of the drug, and for two consecutive years, she developed multiple crateriform nodules and papules on her lower extremities . Biopsy specimens showed keratoacanthomas and squamous-cell carcinomas. Owing to suspicion that the drug could be implicated in the appearance of these tumors, the patient decided to suspend the drug. No new skin lesions have appeared in seventeen months of clinical follow-up. There have been several published case reports of multiple keratoacanthomas associated with immunosuppressive therapy such as sorafenib and imiquimod. However, we found no mention in the literature of the eruption of multiple keratoacanthomas in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with leflunomide. We suggest, that the the sudden appearance of skin tumors in our patient is related to the introduction of leflunomide, but additional case reports are required to confirm this association.
Rituximab (RTX) has been used successfully for the treatment of severe Jo1 antibody-associated antisynthetase syndrome. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of RTX in severe Jo1 antisynthetase syndrome and determine predictive factors for response.
The spectrum of small vessel vasculitides includes Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis and essential cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. The first three are characterized by the presence of circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The symptoms of vasculitis range from stable or slowly progressive to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis or alveolar haemorrhage. The diagnosis of small vessel vasculitis should preferably rely on both clinical findings and histopathological examination of the organ involved. Cyclophosphamide combined with glucocorticoids is still standard therapy for remission induction in generalized ANCA-associated vasculitis. In severe cases the use of plasmapheresis treatment has been advocated. Medications suitable for remission maintenance include azathioprine, methotrexate, leflunomide and mycophenolate mofetil. Early experience with biologic drugs, particularly with rituximab, for refractory disease has been quite promising.
LEF-induced ILD in patients with nephropathy usually occurred after ∼2 months of treatment and an accumulated dose of 1192.5 mg. Duration of LEF use, male sex, young age and fever seemed to increase the risk of mortality.
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Leflunomide (LFL) is a modern immunomodulating medication belonging to the group of drugs that favourably affect the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present in this study the results of an open prospective trial on the effectiveness and side effects of LFL in clinically followed up patients with active RA refractory to other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS). At the onset of treatment with LFL the patients had at least 8 swollen and tender joints, the disease severity being assessed by both patients and physicians as over 3 cm VAS. ESR was higher than 40mm/lh. In all patients previous treatment with disease modifying drugs received for at least 3 months was insufficiently effective. It was discontinued prior to the therapy with LFL. Assessment of the therapeutic results was made at 3, 6 and 12 months after onset of LFL therapy. The following parameters were followed-up: 1) Number of tender joints, 2) Number of swollen joints, 3) Morning stiffness (min), 4) Global assessment of the patient (VAS 1-10 cm), 5) Global assessment of the physician (VAS 1-10 cm); 6) ESR - mm/lh; 7) Mean HAQ - the sum of all scores (0-3), divided by the number of the questions5; 8) SDAI index of RA activity6; 9) ACR20% and ACR50% positive therapeutic effect2.
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The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 inhibits the proliferation of a variety of mammalian cell lines in culture. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent proliferation is inhibited by A77 1726 at an effective dose of 30-40 microM. A77 1726 appears to directly inhibit the EGF receptor tyrosine-specific kinase activity both in intact cells and purified EGF receptors at the same effective dose. These data suggest that leflunomide inhibits cellular proliferation by the inhibition of tyrosine-specific kinase activities.
The isoxazole derivative Leflunomide (HWA 486) is a novel immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory drug. Affinity chromatography was used to purify and identify Leflunomide binding proteins, which might play a role as potential cellular targets in the molecular mode of action. The Leflunomide derivative A 0273 was covalently coupled to a Fractogel(R) matrix. This column was used to separate a cytosolic protein extract of the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 by several selected and specific gradient elution steps. Proteins that were specifically eluted through the active metabolite of Leflunomide, A 1726, were identified by subsequent protein sequence analysis. This allowed us to specify 10 cytosolic proteins, which bind with high affinity to this matrix. Three of them, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and phosphoglycerate mutase belong to the second part of the glycolytic pathway. The binding specificity of these protein/drug interactions was further evaluated using BIAcore(R) analysis. Kd values of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were similar to the Kd value of a known Leflunomide target protein, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. In order to elucidate the features as well as the overall relevance of these results, cytosolic fractions of three additional cell lines MOLT-4, A20.2J, HeLa were compared using the same chromatographic protocol. The elution profiles as well as subsequent Western blot analyses confirmed the data obtained previously for the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.
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NK cell and T-I B cell xenotolerance can be induced in T-deficient rats. Compared with B cell xenotolerance, the maintenance of NK cell xenotolerance is much shorter, more dependent on the presence of the graft, and easily reversible in vitro.
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The RARBIS had a range of 0 to 8. All subscales except extraarticular manifestations were statistically significantly related to intensity of RA treatment (chi-square test p
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Immunosuppressive effect, pharmacokinetics, and adverse events of FK778, as a single drug treatment or combination with tacrolimus or cyclosporine, were determined in a canine kidney transplantation model. The agents were daily administered orally to the animals for 90 days after surgery. Animal survival, pharmacokinetics, biochemistry, hematology, and histopathology were evaluated.
mRNA binding proteins (RBPs) constitute 10-15% of the eukaryotic proteome and play important part in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Due to the instability of RNA and the transient nature its interaction with RBPs, identification of novel RBPs is a significant challenge. Recently, a novel methodology for RBP purification and identification (termed RaPID) was presented, which allows high affinity purification of RBPs while associated with mRNA in vivo.
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In untreated rats, the ICC xenografts were completely rejected. Treatment with PRE alone had no, or only a marginal, protective effect. TAC alone at a dose of 1 or 0.5 mg/kg of body weight (BW) prevented xenograft rejection. The addition of PRE to TAC treatment had a paradoxical unfavorable effect. In contrast, when PRE was added to CsA-based protocols (CsA+DSG, CsA+SIR, or CsA+LEF), the immunosuppressive effect was slightly enhanced. In comparison with untreated rats, the messengers for interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were reduced in both CsA and TAC treated rats. Notably, the amount of IL-12p40 transcripts was only inhibited in rats given TAC alone, whereas this messenger was increased to approximately the same levels in untreated, CsA treated, and TAC plus PRE treated rats.
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To determine whether multidrug-resistance efflux transporters are expressed on immune effector cells in synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compromise the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) and leflunomide (LEF).
The biochemical mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose methotrexate and leflunomide in the treatment of RA are quite different. The potentially complementary mechanisms of action of these two effective DMARDs should provide a rationale for their use in combination therapy for patients whose condition no longer responds to methotrexate alone.
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Cross-sectional assessment of this large cohort of Australian RA patients found a large proportion remain in moderate or high disease activity; suggesting a considerable evidence-practice gap. Improvement in disease control in this group may reduce future health burdens.
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Alopecia areata is a non-scarring form of alopecia that can be localized or widespread. Its etiology is unknown, but immunological factors are implicated in its pathogenesis. With the more frequent use of anti TNFα biologic drugs, some alopecia areata cases during their use have been described. We report a case of universal alopecia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis while using adalimumab and leflunomide.
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A 78-year-old white woman developed bilateral leg ulcers after 6 months of treatment with leflunomide for rheumatoid arthritis. A history of leg ulcers after methotrexate therapy had been documented. Serologic and diagnostic tests did not support an alternate process. Other medications prescribed were oral ethinyl estradiol 0.05 mg/d, felodipine 5 mg/d, and paroxetine 20 mg/d, for which no documented correlation with the skin breakdown could be made.
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation is a problem of increasing concern resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Widespread use of ganciclovir (GCV) and valganciclovir (VGCV) may cause an increase of CMV resistance to these first line drugs. Other treatment options are sparse and often complicated by adverse events, namely nephrotoxicity associated with foscarnet and cidofovir. Leflunomide may be another treatment option for CMV infections. So far it is not clear if leflunomide can also be used in the case of GCV-resistant CMV infections. Here we describe the use of leflunomide in two patients after renal transplantation with GCV-resistant CMV infections.
The present study was conducted in Indian rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients prescribed disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to determine the incidence and type of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) leading to their withdrawal in the initial 6 months of therapy. This was considered important as pharmacogenetic variations in the pattern of RA in different populations and genetic differences in efficacy and safety to drugs demand separate studies to be conducted in different populations. Hospital records were used to identify 1,000 consecutive patients with RA fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria and having at least 6-month follow-up. Age, gender, duration of arthritis, drug usage and ADR-related drug withdrawal were recorded from the charts. Most of the patients were put on single DMARD. Combined use of DMARD was less frequent and non-use of DMARD was common; however, disease control was good. The commonest DMARD used in our hospital was hydroxychloroquine 444 (44%) and the commonest combination used was methotrexate with hydroxychloroquine by 55 (6%). Sulphasalazine use showed preference to young and males. Supportive drugs used were NSAIDs by 883 (88%), corticosteroids by 646 (65%), paracetamol by 594 (59%) and amitriptyline by 88 (9%). Incidence of ADR-related DMARD withdrawal was maximum with leflunomide 2/15 (13.33%) followed by methotrexate 9/116 (7.76%), sulphasalazine 6/185 (3.24%), chloroquine 3/131 (2.29%) and hydroxychloroquine 8/444 (1.8%). Severity and symptomatology of disease, genetic pattern of patients, financial status, previous experience of the clinicians and patients, availability of drugs, patient expectations and compliance were the main factors that lead to a difference in pattern of therapy in our patients compared to other population.
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8 patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis who were treated with TNF inhibitors as adjunct treatment were identified. The mean (SD) duration of disease before initiation of TNF inhibitors was 8.5 (4.4) years. The patients failed to respond to treatment with corticosteroids (oral and intravenous); intravenous immunoglobulin and immunosuppressants (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and leflunomide); 4.5 (1.4) immunosuppressants had been used before TNF treatment. Six patients were treated with etanercept alone, one with infliximab and one sequentially with both agents. Of the eight patients, six showed a favourable response with improved motor strength and decreased fatigue after 15.2 (6.5) months. Two of the patients did not respond after 4 (1.4) months and TNF inhibitors were discontinued. Responders showed a 54.4% (27.7%) decrease in serum concentration of creatine kinase, which was grossly abnormal (4463.5 (4036.4) U/l). Non-responders had similar reductions in creatine kinase concentration (56.1% (20.4%)), but their pre-treatment concentrations were in the normal range (118.5 (19.1) U/l).