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The addition of sofalcone, but not polaprezinc, significantly increased the cure rate of H pylori infection when combined with the rabeprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin regimen.
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Despite our study's limitations, our findings show that most diabetic foot infections can be successfully treated with standard antibiotics.
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Concomitant treatment eradication rate overcomes 90% per protocol and has a significant advantage over sequential therapy. This is probably due to its better efficacy on metronidazole resistant strains. Both regimens were well tolerated and safe.
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No differences in etonogestrel or ethinylestradiol serum concentrations were observed between subjects using NuvaRing alone versus those receiving the ring plus either of the antibiotics. Calculation of etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol interaction/control ratios confirmed the absence of pharmacokinetic interactions.
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Our study showed no significant changes in antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae isolated at different hospitals in the Netherlands over a 6-y period. Regular surveillance remains important in controlling the prevalence of resistance, since actual resistance data should be taken into account when the choice of an empiric antibiotic is made.
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The eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with standard treatments are decreasing worldwide as in Greece. Studies with new antibiotic combinations are needed to find better methods of eradication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of a 10-day, four-drug, three-antibiotic, nonbismuth-containing concomitant regimen.
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Staphylococci were the most frequent gram-positive pathogens encountered in Turkish hospitals. Studies have found that ∼74% of strains were Staphylococcus aureus and the remaining strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Overall methicillin resistance in staphylococci was reported as ∼60%. In Turkey, S aureus was one of the most common infectious agents found inside hospitals and is deemed a growing threat in the community. While the rate of methicillin resistance in community-acquired isolates is ∼4%, the data from hospitals suggest that reduced resistance comprises most of the isolates. In the studies reviewed, older quinolones like ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin seem to be ineffective in nearly half of the S aureus isolates. Alternatives like rifampicin, gentamicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), clindamycin, and erythromycin have had substantial resistance profiles in >50% of the strains. In recent Turkish studies, in vitro profiles of linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD), and daptomycin have had positive results. As in the S aureus isolates, resistance trends have been observed in the CoNS group of pathogens. The possible use of β-lactams seems restricted, and alternative approaches have become necessary. Quinolones, gentamicin, tetracycline, TMP/SMX, clindamycin, and erythromycin have resistance profiles of >50%. Although glycopeptide resistance was not detected, the frequency of heterogenous vancomycin-intermediate S aureus, a precursor to future resistance, was 13% in 1 study. Current studies in Turkey have found that Enterococcus faecalis comprises three quarters of enterococci while the rest are comprised of Enterococcus faecium. Initial studies performed with linezolid, QD, and daptomycin suggest that these drugs might be effective alternatives for future enterococcal infections that may have high glycopeptide resistance. Approximately 8% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae strains had high-level resistance in Turkey. However, 10 million units of crystallized penicillin or 3 g of oral amoxicillin maintains the optimum treatment of pneumococcal infections outside the central nervous system (CNS). Resistance profiles in third-generation cephalosporins in Turkey range between 2% and 2.5%.
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Theses results show that both beta-lactamase and modifications of the target are widespread among H. influenzae strains isolated in France. Cefpodoxime remains the most active compounds against H. influenzae, whatever the resistance mechanisms, followed by pristinamycin, telithromycin, and co-amoxiclav.
One hundred and sixty patients were analyzed using ITT analysis. One hundred and fifty-three patients completed the study. In group A, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 48 (60%) of the 80 patients included in the ITT analysis, and in 48 (64%) of the 75 patients included in the PP analysis. In group B, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 73 (91.25%) of the 80 included in the ITT analysis and in 73 (93.5%) of the 78 patients included in the PP analysis. The eradication rate was significantly higher in group B than in group A (p < .005). TAC was at the lower limit of normal in both groups and the difference between them was not statistically significant (p > .05).
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The results of this study show a large discrepancy in the criteria for the treatment of odontogenic infections on the part of leading professionals involved in the management of this condition. Although the most common prescription involved beta-lactam antibiotics in both groups, several significant differences have been detected with regard to the second antibiotic choice.
Amoxicillin use in early pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of oral clefts.
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A 55-year-old man with lumbago and polyarthralgia was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data showed elevated levels of anti-streptolysin O and C-reactive protein. Throat swab culture revealed beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. Magnetic resonance imaging detected effusion of the lumbar bone and the left hip joint. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose activity in the bilateral shoulder and hip joints and the interspinal ligament between L2 and L3. He was diagnosed as having post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSReA) and treated with amoxicillin hydrate. Polyarthralgia improved and did not relapse. To our knowledge, no results of PET-CT have previously been reported in patients with PSReA. We propose that PET-CT might be a useful tool for diagnosing PSReA.
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We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013).
Introduction of restrictive antibiotic guidelines was associated with a reduction in utilization of ceftriaxone and co-amoxiclav and an increase in amoxicillin and gentamicin. Approximately 1593 episodes of bacteremia were included in the study. The mortality over 1-year following Gram-negative bacteraemia was lower in the period following guideline implementation (RR 0.852, P = 0.045). There was no evidence of a difference in secondary outcomes including ITU admission, length of stay, readmission, recurrence of bacteraemia and need for renal replacement therapy. There was a fall in CDI (RR 0.571, P = 0.014) and a reduction in bacterial resistance to ceftriaxone and co-amoxiclav but no evidence of an increase in gentamicin resistance after guideline implementation.
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Monitoring of prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of strictly anaerobic bacteria, causing infections in hospitalized patients, constitutes a part of a program for prudent use of antibiotics. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of strictly anaerobic bacteria in patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in 2001-2002 with reference to empiric antibiotic therapy. The most common gram-positive bacteria were Clostridium difficile--27.7%, Peptostreptococcus spp. and Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus--21.9% and Actinomyces spp.--11.1%. There was an increase in the number of stool samples positive for C. difficile toxins A and B from 39.4% in 2001 to 59.0% in 2002. The results of susceptibility testing of gram-positive isolates showed the highest percentages of strains susceptible to piperacilin/tazobactam--99.6%, ticarcillin/clavulanate--98.5%, imipenem--98.5%, amoxicillin/clavulanate--97.4% and piperacillin--97.4%. The most prevalent gram-negative anaerobes were strains of Bacteroides spp.--43.1%, Prevotella spp.--35.8% and Fusobacterium spp.--11.0%. All tested strains of gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to metronidazole, piperacilin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate and imipenem. In the analyzed population beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems and metronidazole may be used in empiric therapy of infections caused by strictly anaerobic bacteria.
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Data were retrieved from the laboratory information system for the period 2003 to 2012. During this time, blood cultures were inoculated in Bactec™ Plus vials (BD, USA) and continuously monitored in the Bactec™ 9000 blood culture system (BD, USA). Anaerobic organisms were identified using commercial identification kits, predominantly API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) supplemented with Vitek ANC cards (bioMérieux, France) and AN-Ident discs (Oxoid, United Kingdom). A representative subset of isolates were retrieved from 2009 to 2011 and antimicrobial susceptibilities to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole were determined using the Etest method.
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Annually hundreds if not thousands of patients fail empiric H. pylori eradication therapy. Failure occurs in part because routine post treatment testing, which provides an early warning of increasing antibiotic resistance, is not universally done and physicians are generally unaware that cure rates with legacy triple therapy (a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) in most places has fallen below 80%. We propose first, institution of routine post eradication testing and second, abandonment of the "better than another therapy" approach to separating acceptable from unacceptable therapies. Instead, we propose using results-based outcomes (ie, >95% cure rates). H. pylori should be evaluated as other infectious diseases (ie, few would compare a new antibiotic for pneumonia with the previous best choice whose effectiveness was now impaired because of resistance). Randomized comparisons should be restricted to studies designed to improve (eg, simplify or reduce costs) high cure rate therapies while maintaining efficacy. We also discuss potential ethical issues such as those including known or suspected low cure rate therapies. Legacy therapies cannot be identified as "approved" or "recommended" even if both statements were true. Instead patients and ethics boards must receive "full disclosures" both before and during studies that include all that might affect a patient's decision to enter or to continue. Finally, we provides advice regarding trial design using "best shot" pilot studies to efficiently identify tentative effective regimens which are then confirmed in randomized trials all the while minimizing patient risks and drug exposure.
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We examined antibiotic susceptibility testing using a combination of dilution agar methods with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.
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Included in the study were 100 children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years who had been diagnosed with AOM. From these patients, swabs for culture were obtained from the middle ear after paracentesis or perforation of the ear drum.
Almost half of the patients with gastric H. pylori harbored the bacterium in the oral cavity. After the eradication therapy, H. pylori was not detected in the oral cavity, what suggests high effectiveness of the therapy protocol in the oral cavity, or it is possible that oral H. pylori is of a transient character.
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To evaluate the efficacy of a 7-day regimen of gatifloxacin (400 mg daily), amoxicillin (1 g twice a day), and rabeprazole (20 mg twice a day) in the secondary eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.
Amoxicillin (AMO) degrades in plasma at room temperature and readily undergoes hydrolysis by the plasma amidase. In this paper, a novel, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method operated in segmental and multiple reaction monitoring has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma. The degradation of amoxicillin in plasma was well prevented by immediate addition of 20 μL glacial acetic acid to 200 μL aliquot of freshly collected plasma samples before storage at -80°C. The sensitivity of the method was improved with segmental monitoring of the analytes, and lower limits of quantitation of 0.5 ng/mL for ambroxol and 5 ng/mL for amoxicillin were obtained. The sensitivity of our method was five times better than those of the existing methods. Furthermore, the mass response saturation problem with amoxicillin was avoided by diluting the deproteinized plasma samples with water before injection into the LC-MS/MS system. The method was successfully employed in a pharmacokinetic study of the compound amoxicillin and ambroxol hydrochloride tablets.
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In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) and explored the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA in adolescent girls. A total of 1037 adolescent girls from Suihua, China were enrolled. Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori were measured. Participants with IDA and co-existing H. pylori infection (n 80) who had an intake of >25 mg/d of Fe were assigned randomly to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group were administered a 12-week course of oral EDTA-Na-Fe (60 mg Fe/dose, three times a week) and a 2-week course of colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Subjects in the control group were administered EDTA-Na-Fe alone. Hb, SF and sTfR were reassessed 3 months after the 12-week regimen ended. Prevalence of anaemia, Fe deficiency (defined as SF < 12·0 μg/l), IDA and H. pylori infection in the population of 1037 was 19.5, 40.4, 17.1 and 31.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the IDA group was 46.9 %, while the non-anaemic group had 28.1 % prevalence. A significant increase in Hb and SF and a decrease in sTfR value were found in the intervention group and the H. pylori-negative group. Findings suggest that IDA is still one of the prominent problems in adolescent girls. There is an association between H. pylori infection and IDA. Treatment of H. pylori infection is associated with a more rapid response to oral Fe therapy.
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We studied a total of 36 hepatotoxic reactions in 33 children. The drug classes most frequently involved were antimicrobials (71%). Amoxicillin-clavulanate was the individual drug responsible for the greatest number of cases (31.4%). We conclude that the registration of drugs associated with liver disease has proved a useful tool for creating an active network of motivated specialists in detecting and reporting incidents of toxic liver disease, ensuring increasing diagnostic accuracy.
Two hundred H. pylori strains obtained from gastric biopsies of patients presenting with gastric-related morbidities attending Livingstone Hospital, Port Elizabeth, were evaluated for their susceptibility to seven antibiotics - metronidazole, clarithromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. H. pylori was isolated following standard microbiology procedures, and susceptibility determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Comparisons of antimicrobial resistance rates with sex of the patients were determined using the chi-square test; a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
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QT interval prolongation in everyday practice is frequent, in association to clinical factors and drugs that can be easily identified for monitoring and prevention strategies.
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The prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of Moraxella catarrhalis was determined for the first time in Cuba. One-hundred fifty healthy children attending three day-care centers in the municipality of Marianao, Havana City were studied. The percentage of recovering bacteria in nasal and pharyngeal swabs was compared. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and norfloxacin were determined by the disk diffusion method according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Sixty-five percent of the children studied carried Moraxella catarrhalis. The nasal cavity was the main isolation site for this organism (81% of positive cultures). Most strains were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested, except to ampicillin (53.6% resistance). This study provides evidence of the need for continued surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of Moraxella catarrhali, in order to determine optimal empiric therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections produced by this pathogen.
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Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) remain frequent and severe events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and the availability of vaccines. Our aim was to assess the antibiotic susceptibilities and serotypes of strains responsible for IPD in HIV-infected patients.