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Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biopolymer, member of the family of the glycosaminoglicanes (GAGs) is one of the major natural components of the connective amorphous matrix. The lungs, together with skin and intestine, contain >50% of HA of the body: it provides to several biologic functions and presents the unique capacity to link and retain a particularly relevant number of water molecules. Since other GAGs have been proven to be provided with anti-asthmatic properties and HA has been employed with positive results by intra-tracheal instillation in experimental models of lung emphysema and COPD, we have explored the efficacy of the pre-administered aerosol of HA (compared to placebo) in preventing in asthmatic patients the bronchoconstriction induced by a challenge test such as that obtained with muscular exercise. In a randomised, cross-over, single-blind study design, saline as placebo (P) or HA have been administered by aerosol, in two non-consecutive days, 30 min prior to the beginning of the challenge (10 min free running), to 14 patients (13-36 years old; 7 teenagers, 7 young adults; 11 males, 3 females; 12 allergic, 2 non-allergic), all suffering from mild bronchial asthma. The bronchoconstrictive effect induced by the muscular exercise has been relevant and statistically significant. With the P pre-treatment, the average FEV1 measured 5 min after the end of exercise was reduced by 36.14% from the baseline FEV1. Pre-treatment with HA determined a partial but clear-cut protection of the FEV1 impairment due to the challenge: the average post-challenge FEV1 resulted to be 12.43% less than the pre-challenge baseline value. No significant difference was observed in the level of HA protection in the subgroup of teenagers when compared to that of young adults. The protection induced by HA, when compared with P, resulted particularly significant by the statistical point of view (p < 0.0001). We conclude that aerosol HA administration significantly reduces the bronchial hyper-reactivity to muscular exercise in asthmatics. Such effect could be attributed to the correction of the pathological remodelling, one of the main features of asthma: a correction which could be attributed to the unique physicochemical properties of this major component of the loose connective amorphous matrix of the airways, which is undoubtedly involved in the remodelling process.
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We sought to examine, through meta-analytic procedures, the collective evidence regarding the sedating and performance-impairing effects of diphenhydramine relative to placebo and second-generation antihistamines.
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At ED discharge, patients were randomized to either 50 mg prednisone daily for 5 days or identical-appearing placebo. Patients were contacted after 5 days to assess pain on a 0-3 scale (none, mild, moderate, severe) as well as functional status.
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-To develop evidence-based guideline recommendations through a systematic review of the literature to establish standard molecular biomarker testing of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues to guide epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies and conventional chemotherapy regimens.
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The ongoing accumulation of knowledge raises hopes that understanding tumor metabolism will provide new ways for predicting, diagnosing, and even treating cancers. Some metabolic biomarkers are at present routinely utilized to diagnose cancer and metabolic alterations of tumors are being confirmed as therapeutic targets. The growing utilization of metabolomics in clinical research may rapidly turn it into one of the most potent instruments used to detect and fight tumor. In fact, while the current state and trends of high throughput metabolomics profiling focus on the purpose of discovering biomarkers and hunting for metabolic mechanism, a prospective direction, namely reprogramming metabolomics, highlights the way to use metabolomics approach for the aim of treatment of disease by way of reconstruction of disturbed metabolic pathways. In this review, we present an ample summary of the current clinical appliances of metabolomics in hematological malignancies.
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Patients were randomised to receive FOLFIRI plus aflibercept or placebo every 2weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Efficacy and safety outcomes were analysed with respect to demographic and baseline characteristics, and stratification factors (prior bevacizumab treatment and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status).
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Our objective was to characterize emergency department (ED) visits for gastroenteritis by season and age and develop a predictive model.
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A randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was conducted in 25 fasting, healthy, male volunteers to compare two brands of fexofenadine 180 mg tablets, FEXOFENADINE 180 mg Film Tablet (Drogsan A.S., Ankara, Turkey) as test and Telfast 180 mg Tablet (Aventis Pharma, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) as a reference product.
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In this randomized, crossover, double-blind study, 24 subjects received single doses of fexofenadine 60 mg and 120 mg, promethazine 25 mg, and placebo, with a 6-day washout period between treatments. Objective measures included critical flicker fusion, choice reaction time, and a compensatory tracking task. A line analog rating scale evaluated self-rated sedation. A rapid visual information-processing task evaluated vigilance at baseline and at 2 hours.
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Legionella viability was monitored during heat shock treatment at 70 degrees C by a flow cytometric assay (FCA). After 30 min of treatment, for 6 of the 12 strains tested, the FCA still detected 10 to 25% of cells that were viable but nonculturable (VBNC). These VBNC cells were able to produce ATP and to be resuscitated after culture on amoebae.
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Eighteen patients with advanced, assessable GI malignancies (16 colon, one pancreas, and one gastric) previously treated with conventional chemotherapy (but no pelvic radiation) received 20 mg of COL-1 labeled with 131I, with doses from 10 mCi/m2 to 75 mCi/m2. In this cohort, the baseline serum CEA level ranged from 6 to 2,739 ng/mL (mean +/- SD, 500 +/- 639).
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To review the pharmacoeconomic literature evaluating use of antihistamines in treating allergic rhinitis (AR) in the US.
Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD.
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Trigger points in chronic pain and myofascial syndromes are often localized at a distance from the painful area. Infiltration of trigger points with Bupivacaine 0.5% greatly reduces pain and can eliminate it with no need of any other analgesic therapy.
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A simple and sensitive method was developed for determination of fexofenadine by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Fexofenadine in human plasma was extracted on a C18 bonded-phase extraction cartridge. The mobile phases were: (A) 0.05 M KH2PO4 buffer/acetonitrile/methanol (60:35:10, v/v/v) and (B) 0.05 M KH2PO4 buffer/acetonitrile (40:60, v/v). Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ODS-80A column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 microm) using a linear gradient from A to B in 10 min. The peak was detected using a fluorescence detector set at Ex 220 nm and Em 290 nm, and the total time for a chromatographic separation was approximately 17 min. The validated quantitation ranges of this method were 1.0-500 ng/ml with coefficients of variation of 0.6-9.1%. Mean recoveries were 72.8-76.7% with coefficients of variation of 2.7-5.8%. This method is successfully applicable for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated with clinical doses of fexofenadine and for analyses within pharmacokinetic studies.
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Livers from four groups of rats were perfused in a recirculatory manner with fexofenadine HCl added as a bolus (125, 250, 500, or 1000 microg) to perfusate. Livers from another three groups of rats were perfused with 250 microg of fexofenadine HCl. With one group as control, erythromycin (4.0 microg/ml) or DBSP (136 microg/ml) was added to the perfusate of the other groups. In all experiments, perfusate and bile were collected for 60 min; in addition, livers from the second experiment were retained for assay. Fexofenadine was determined in perfusate, bile, and homogenized liver by HPLC.
Twenty patients suffering from dermatomycosis have been treated with fluconazole at the dose of 50 mg/daily for 20 days. These patients (10 M + 10 F) were aged 36 years on average (range 17-65 years). And were suffering from the following: Tinea pedis (3 cases), Tinea cruris (1 case), Tinea corporis (9 cases), Tinea versicolor (3 cases), Candidiasis (5 cases). One patient was suffering from Tinea on two different body sites. 19 patients finished the treatment and reported a complete clinical and mycological healing either at the end of the therapy on at follow-up visits. One patient, who was already suffering from gastritis, had to interrupt the therapy early due to abdominal pain. General safety was excellent.
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Crohn's disease with acute abdomen in pregnancy is described. The Authors evaluate Crohn's disease together with the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic problems and relationships between this disease and pregnancy. They conclude as underlining the rarity of Crohn's disease beginning in pregnancy and so the importance of symptoms related to this disease in fertile age woman to make diagnosis and therapy before pregnancy.
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To date, it is unknown whether fexofenadine mitigates the worsening of symptoms induced by the cat allergen Felis domesticus allergen 1.
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Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic urticaria (CU) are common diseases with symptoms that impair quality of life. Second-generation antihistamines (e.g. cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, loratadine and mizolastine) are recommended first-line treatment for both conditions; however, studies of clinically relevant differences among these agents are lacking. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of desloratadine 5 mg once daily in four postmarketing surveillance studies in subjects with seasonal AR (SAR) or chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in real-world clinical practice settings.
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There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1) in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in '90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce clinical data are available on other antihistamines.
Indinavir significantly inhibited hepatic and first-pass CYP3A activity. Intravenous alfentanil systemic clearance and hepatic extraction were reduced to 40-50% of control, apparent oral clearance to 30% of control, and intestinal extraction decreased by half, indicating 50% and 70% inhibition of hepatic and first-pass CYP3A activity. Indinavir increased fexofenadine area under the plasma concentration-time curve 3-fold, suggesting significant P-glycoprotein inhibition. Indinavir had no significant effects on methadone plasma concentrations, methadone N-demethylation, systemic or apparent oral clearance, renal clearance, hepatic extraction or clearance, or bioavailability. Methadone plasma concentration-effect relationships were unaffected by indinavir.
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In spite of being substrates of intestinal efflux transporters such as P-gp, the in vivo oral absorption of 13 drugs examined apparently is not significantly impeded by efflux transporters. Thus, there may exist an apparent discrepancy between in vitro "expectations" and in vivo results; potential reasons for this are discussed. The present findings, however, do not de-emphasize potential in vivo importance of efflux transporters in affecting (increasing or decreasing) oral absorption of certain substrate drugs, especially those with low to moderate intestinal permeability and with low therapeutic index, or the importance of efflux transporters in the study of mechanisms of drug absorption and some potentially clinically significant drug-drug and drug-food interactions.