In this randomized, open-label, 4-week trial, 114 patients who had an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomized to receive either a standard or slow dose escalation scheme of dipyridamole. Participants were asked to report the four most common side effects of dipyridamole in a study diary on study days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. They were asked to score headache intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Participants were unaware that the trial was focused on headaches. Primary end point was to determine if a slow dose escalation scheme reduces the percentage of patients with headaches. Secondary objective was to determine the number of patients who discontinued treatment with dipyridamole because of headaches.
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A total of 243 patients who had reversible ischemic attacks (RIA) were submitted to clinical trial to determine whether dipyridamole (400 mg/day) (D) or aspirin (100 mg/48 hours) + dipyridamole (300 mg/day) (ASA + D) would produce significant reduction in the subsequent occurrence of RIA and completed stroke. One hundred and fifteen were selected for Group ASA + D and 71 were treated with dipyridamole only. The treatment groups were similar in relation to age, sex, risk factors, duration and presumed vascular territory of RIA, incidence of alterations of arterial supra-aortic trunks, cerebral infarct (CT scan), and platelet function. Patients were followed for a mean time of 21 months. At the end of the study, 21.7% of the ASA + D group and 19.7% in the D group had suffered new episodes of RIA or completed stroke (p = 0.88). Frequency of stroke (reversible ischemic neurologic deficit or completed stroke) was 7.8% in the ASA + D patients and 9.8% in the D patients (p = 0.83). Subgroup analysis did not show significant differences either. It is concluded that ASA + D has no significantly greater beneficial effect than that observed with D alone in the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic cerebral ischemia. However, a statistical Type II error cannot be excluded by the reduced number of recurrences.
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1. In a randomized, double-blind trial we compared the inhibition of the platelet-vessel wall interactions in whole blood ex vivo. There were four groups of 24 healthy volunteers each of whom were treated orally for 3.5 days with either 200 mg dipyridamole (sustained release preparation), 25 mg acetylsalicylic acid, both drugs combined or placebo twice daily. 2. The mean area of all platelets/aggregates was reduced by 6.2% +/- 4.2% (+/- s.e. mean) by placebo (n = 23), 19.8% +/- 6.7% by dipyridamole (n = 22), 53.7% +/- 4.9% by acetylsalicylic acid (n = 23) and 71.4% +/- 3.7% by the combination of both drugs (n = 24), when compared with total inhibition of aggregation by EGTA. Thus, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid inhibited aggregation (P less than 0.001). 3. Dipyridamole reduced the size of platelet aggregates (P less than 0.01, two-fold analysis of variance). The reduction was correlated with the individual dipyridamole plasma levels (P less than 0.05, analysis of covariance). The subgroup of large and very large thrombi being formed was also reduced by dipyridamole (P less than 0.05). 4. This ex vivo study demonstrates that dipyridamole alone inhibits formation of thrombi on subendothelial matrix and enhances the inhibitory effect of low dose acetylsalicylic acid in this model of thrombosis.
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The study enrolled 60 consecutive patients (20 per treatment arm), all of whom completed the study. There were no significant differences between treatment arms, although the ER-DP+ASA group had a numerically greater mean age, higher proportion of men, and a greater prevalence of vascular disease and smoking compared with the other groups. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the study, including symptoms attributable to cerebral ischemia, worsening of diabetes, or cerebral or systemic bleeding. Three patients in the ER-DP+ASA group and 1 in the clopidogrel plus ASA group reported headache during the first several days of therapy; 1 patient in the clopidogrel monotherapy group experienced transitory nausea and vomiting. ER-DP+ASA was associated with a significantly delayed (day 30) reduction in expression of glyco-protein (GP) Ilb/IIIa activity (P = 0.02), platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) (P = 0.03), GP Ib (P = 0.001), vitronectin (P = 0.001), P-selectin (P = 0.001), lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (P = 0.001), and cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (P = 0.01), as well as significant inhibition of the intact (P = 0.01) and cleaved (P = 0.01) epitopes of protease-activated receptor 1. Clopidogrel monotherapy, on the other hand, was associated with significant inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation (P = 0.001), closure-time prolongation (P = 0.01), and reduction in measurements on the rapid platelet function assay-ASA at day 15 (P = 0.001). Expression of PECAM-1 (P = 0.03) and GP IIb/IIIa activity (P = 0.01) was reduced at day 15 in clopidogrel-treated patients. The addition of ASA to clopidogrel was associated with significant inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation (P = 0.001) and diminished formation of platelet-monocyte microparticles at days 15 (P = 0.02) and 30 (P = 0.03).
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The CardioWest temporary total artificial heart serves as a viable bridge to orthotopic heart transplantation in patients who are experiencing end-stage refractory biventricular heart failure. This device is associated with a low, albeit still substantial, risk of thrombosis. Platelet interactions with artificial surfaces are complex and result in continuous activation of contact proteins despite therapeutic anticoagulation. We searched the medical literature (publication dates, January 1962-October 2009) in order to evaluate means of mitigating adverse events that have occurred after implantation of the CardioWest temporary total artificial heart.We conclude that the use of a multitargeted antithrombotic approach, involving anticoagulation (bivalirudin and warfarin) and antiplatelet therapy (dipyridamole and aspirin), can mitigate the procoagulative effects of mechanical circulatory assist devices, particularly those that are associated with the CardioWest temporary total artificial heart. Careful monitoring with use of a variant multisystem approach, involving efficacy tests (thrombelastography and light transmittance aggregometry), safety tests (laboratory analyses), and warfarin genomics, may maximize the therapeutic actions and minimize the bleeding risks that are associated with the multitargeted antithrombotic approach. The development and monitoring of individualized antithrombotic regimens require that informed health professionals appreciate the complexities and grasp the hazards that are associated with these therapies.
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We conclude that anticoagulation with achieved INR of 2.0 to 3.0 is reasonably safe in patients with cerebral ischemia of arterial origin.
Most controlled studies of the effects of anticoagulants on ischaemic cerebral accidents due to atheroma were carried out in the 60's and failed to show long-term beneficial results. Anti-platelet aggregation agents, such as dipyridamole, clofibrate and sulfinpyrazone, did not prove more effective. A well-conducted co-operative Canadian study has recently shown that aspirin in doses of 1300 mg/day reduced by 19% the risk of ischaemic cerebral accident or death and that this risk is further reduced in the subgroup of non-diabetic male patients without history of infarction. Another American co-operative study suggests that aspirin is more effective in patients who had several transient episodes of cerebral ischaemia and that an atheromatous lesion is present. No combination of anti-platelet aggregation agents is demonstrably superior to aspirin. The present tendency is to administer heparin immediately after ischaemic cerebral accidents.
This article focuses on recent data about the safety and effectiveness of antiplatelet therapies for secondary stroke prevention. Highlights include a discussion of changes in the professional labeling for aspirin and the results of a low- versus high-dose aspirin trial (Aspirin after Carotid Endarterectomy trial). Safety issues regarding aspirin also are considered. Other topics include a review of recent data on thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) associated with ticlopidine and a brief update on clopidogrel. A summary of discussions related to the European Stroke Prevention Study 2 data and Food and Drug Administration consideration of combination dipyridamole/aspirin therapy are presented.
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From 1987 until 1991 a large prospective randomized multicentre study was performed in The Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland entitled CABADAS (Prevention of Coronary Artery Bypass graft occlusion by Aspirin, Dipyridamole, and Acenocoumarol/Phenprocoumon Study). The aim of CABADAS was to evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) aspirin, (2) aspirin plus dipyridamole, and (3) oral anticoagulants in the prevention of vein graft occlusion during the first year after aortocoronary bypass surgery. No significant difference was observed in the incidence of graft occlusion among the three treatment groups. In a subgroup of 127 CABADAS patients, studied in the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, the relationship between treatment and clinical status (i.e. symptoms of angina pectoris and exercise capacity) was assessed, and the relationship between treatment and functional status of the vein grafts was determined by means of thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy. There were no differences in symptoms among the three treatment groups in the 127 patients studied. There were no significant differences either among the treatment groups, as regards exercise capacity and the number or intensity of perfusion defects, in the 81 patients who underwent thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy. The three antithrombotic treatment regimens had a similar effect on the clinical status of patients and on the functional status of venous bypass grafts one year after coronary bypass surgery. This finding underscores the CABADAS results in that aspirin may be the preferred treatment option in patients following venous bypass surgery.
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Patients are randomised to antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, dipyridamole or clopidogrel alone or in dual combination) or anticoagulation therapy [heparin followed by warfarin aiming for an International Normalised Ratio (INR) in the range 2-3] for at least 3 months. Treatment is open-label.
The response rate was 65%. Most (69%) practitioners always wait for brain imaging before initiating antithrombotic treatment in acute stroke. Aspirin (100 mg/day) is the most frequently prescribed antiplatelet agent after a first ischemic episode. Common reasons for the prescription of alternative agents instead of aspirin after a first attack include high-risk cases and intolerance or allergy to aspirin. The results of in vitro platelet aggregation studies frequently influence drug selection. If an event recurs during a given antiplatelet treatment, most neurologists change the medication. Some participants reported the administration of anticoagulation, or of the combination of aspirin plus clopidogrel in certain situations that are not cardiological indications.
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Of the 5 published studies, 3 earlier studies detected no differences in outcome when dipyridamole was added to ASA therapy for stroke prophylaxis. Two more recent trials found that the addition of dipyridamole to ASA therapy provided further reduction in the risk of secondary cerebrovascular events compared with placebo and with ASA alone. Further studies are needed to confirm long-term benefit.
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Randomised controlled trials comparing an ADP receptor antagonist with another antiplatelet agent or placebo for a minimum of 12 months in patients with diabetes. In particular, we looked for trials assessing clinical cardiovascular outcomes.
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In the recently published Warfarin Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS), a low-intensity anticoagulation regimen was used because of safety concerns. Such concerns are corroborated by the results of the Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischemia Trial (SPIRIT), which was stopped early because of a high incidence of intracranial hemorrhage with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 3.0 to 4.5. In the ongoing European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT), an intermediate anticoagulation regimen (INR 2.0 to 3.0) is used.
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Kawasaki Disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitic disorder of childhood of unknown etiology. Initially KD was thought to be a benign disease, but later on it became obvious that cardiac manifestations are present in about 25-30% of patients and lead to death in about 0.5-2% of them. An early diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid an unfavourable prognosis. In recent years, a number of publications described patients in which the diagnosis was delayed because they did not fulfil the required criteria of KD. These forms of KD are known as atypical or incomplete KD. The aim of this work is to describe two cases of atypical KD observed at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Pisa during the year 1992.
The adherence of 51Cr-labeled platelets to the subendothelium of rabbit aortas was inhibited in vitro and in vivo by high concentrations of dipyridamole (100 microM in vitro, 2.5 or 12.5 mg/kg in vivo). Dipyridamole (100 microM) inhibited release of 14C-serotonin from platelets that adhered to the subendothelium or to a collagen-coated glass surface; lower concentrations of dipyridamole had only a slight inhibitory effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed that many of the platelets that adhered to the subendothelium were rounded, with few pseudopodia. The combination of dipyridamole with PGI2 was no more inhibitory of platelet adherence than either agent alone; however, this combination of inhibitors exerted synergistic inhibitory effects on aggregation and release of 14C-serotonin from platelets aggregated by collagen. The effects of dipyridamole on platelet adherence are a consequence of the action of dipyridamole alone and do not appear to result from its interaction with PGI2 formed by injured vessels in vivo, since the inhibitory effect is not influenced by aspirin inhibition of PGI2 formation, either at the shear rates in the in vitro studies or under the shear conditions found in rabbit aortas in vivo.
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Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and the most common cause of neurological disability in older individuals. Prevention of recurrent stroke includes risk factor modification as well as the use of therapies that inhibit platelet activation. One such recommended therapy, dipyridamole, is given in combination with aspirin. Dipyridamole's inhibitory effect is thought to be due to inhibition of the adenosine transporter leading to an increase in cAMP, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. However, recent studies suggest that dipyridamole possesses beneficial properties in vasculature in addition to anti-platelet effects. This includes direct and indirect effects on the endothelium such as inhibition of proliferation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as their subsequent effect on cell signaling. The purpose of this review is to examine whether the recently identified beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole may partially underlie the clinical benefits observed in the secondary prevention of stroke.
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Three patients with sickle-cell disease (SSD) were followed, weekly, for 1 1/2 to 2 years, during which time they experienced one or more episodes of crisis. Crisis was associated with reproducible sequential hemostatic alterations indicating intravascular fibrin formation and a marked disturbance in platelet economy. With crisis onset, or possibly before, there was an increase in plasma high-molecular-weight fibrinogen complexes and a transient fall in platelet count, with a subsequent rise in both fibrinogen concentration and platelet count; plasma fibrinogen peaked 1 week after crisis onset and platelet count approximately 2 weeks after onset. Subsidence of crisis was associated with a fall in high-molecular-weight fibrinogen complexes and a subsequent increase in fibrinogen first derivative, an early fibrinogen breakdown product. Hemostatic findings and patient clinical status were generally correlated, the findings during asymptomatic periods being essentially normal. Agents affecting platelet function (aspirin alone or in combination with dipyridamole) appeared to reduce the extent of laboratory abnormality, suggesting potential clinical usefulness in this disorder.
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These results suggest that dipyridamole potentiates the antiplatelet effect of cilostazol without prolongation of the bleeding time, implying a potential novel combination antithrombotic therapy.
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Systemic exposure to ER-DP was similar with and without omeprazole, based on steady-state area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12,ss, ng·h/mL) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss, ng/mL). For the treatment comparison D versus A, the percent mean ratios were 96.38 (90% confidence interval [CI] 90.96-102.13) for AUC0-12,ss and 92.03 (86.95-97.40) for Cmax,ss. The ER-DP concentration versus time profiles were nearly superimposable. There was no effect on the PDs of the ASA component: the extent of ASA inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was almost identical with and without omeprazole, with a percent mean ratio for treatment D versus A = 99.02 (90 % CI 98.32-99.72) at 4 h after last dose. All treatments were well tolerated.
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Aspirin's benefit in preventing vascular outcomes is well established. It reduces the relative risk for stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death by about 25% compared with placebo. Almost 10 years ago we learned that ticlopidine is more effective than aspirin (about 12% relative risk reduction for stroke or death). However, ticlopidine has important adverse effects. In 1996, the Clopidogrel versus Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischemic Events (CAPRIE) trial showed that clopidogrel, a new thienopyridine similar to ticlopidine, is also more effective than aspirin (by a similar amount) and is as safe as aspirin. Also in 1996, the European Stroke Prevention Study 2 (ESPS-2) showed that dipyridamole alone prevents stroke and that when combined with aspirin it is more effective, probably comparable to ticlopidine and clopidogrel. Dipyridamole combined with aspirin reduced the relative risk for stroke or death by about 13% compared with aspirin alone. Both clopidogrel and dipyridamole are safe but will cost more than aspirin. Aspirin also appears beneficial for acute stroke treatment. The Chinese Acute Stroke Trial (CAST) and the International Stroke Trial (IST) demonstrated that aspirin given at the time of an acute ischemic stroke reduces the risk for early death (about 5 less/1,000 treated), recurrence or death (about 10 less/1,000 treated), and dependence (about 5 less/1,000 treated). Overall, the benefits of aspirin in acute stroke treatment and stroke prevention are definite but modest. Combination therapy with antiplatelet agents that act through different mechanisms is a promising way to maximize the benefits of antiplatelet treatment.
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The aim was to investigate the effects of dipyridamole, aspirin, and a combination of dipyridamole plus aspirin on platelet aggregation in whole blood, PGI2 generation, and red cell deformability ex vivo.
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In patients with acute ischemic stroke, we recommend IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) if treatment can be initiated within 3 h (Grade 1A) or 4.5 h (Grade 2C) of symptom onset; we suggest intraarterial r-tPA in patients ineligible for IV tPA if treatment can be initiated within 6 h (Grade 2C); we suggest against the use of mechanical thrombectomy (Grade 2C) although carefully selected patients may choose this intervention; and we recommend early aspirin therapy at a dose of 160 to 325 mg (Grade 1A). In patients with acute stroke and restricted mobility, we suggest the use of prophylactic-dose heparin or intermittent pneumatic compression devices (Grade 2B) and suggest against the use of elastic compression stockings (Grade 2B). In patients with a history of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA, we recommend long-term treatment with aspirin (75-100 mg once daily), clopidogrel (75 mg once daily), aspirin/extended release dipyridamole (25 mg/200 mg bid), or cilostazol (100 mg bid) over no antiplatelet therapy (Grade 1A), oral anticoagulants (Grade 1B), the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin (Grade 1B), or triflusal (Grade 2B). Of the recommended antiplatelet regimens, we suggest clopidogrel or aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole over aspirin (Grade 2B) or cilostazol (Grade 2C). In patients with a history of stroke or TIA and atrial fibrillation we recommend oral anticoagulation over no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin, and combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel (Grade 1B).
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Publication of the results of the second European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS-2) provided the incentive for an update of the meta-analyses of aspirin and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of stroke. After review of published randomized trials of prolonged treatment with aspirin, dipyridamole, or their combination in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), data on the occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death were used to calculate overall relative risk reductions. The relative risk reduction for aspirin versus placebo was 13%. The same relative risk reduction was found in separate meta-analyses of trials with high (1,000-1,500 mg), medium (250-500 mg), and low (50-100 mg) doses of aspirin. Trials in which different doses were compared showed no difference in the occurrence of vascular events. The addition of dipyridamole to low-dose aspirin further reduced the risk for vascular events by 15%. We conclude from current trials that low-dose aspirin alone reduced the risk of vascular events in patients with prior stroke or TIA by 13%. There is no evidence of a dose-effect relationship. An additional reduction of the risk by 15% can be obtained by adding dipyridamole to aspirin. The overall evidence for the relative effects of the combination of dipyridamole and aspirin versus aspirin alone or placebo is highly consistent. The clinical evidence now favors the two agents in combination over aspirin alone.
A multicenter comparative trial was conducted in patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIA) to study the preventive capacity of a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamol (1,050 mg + 150 mg/day - group A) and of pentoxifylline (1,200 mg/day - group P) in the reduction of morbidity rates. Sixty-six patients, 36 on A and 30 on P, were evaluated. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups as regards age, sex, blood pressure, localisation of TIA and incidence of risk factors. Incidence of new ischemic events during a one year follow up period in the A-group was 28% compared to 10% in the P-group, this difference being statistically significant in favour of P (p less than 0.05). Stroke incidence was similar in both groups but distinctly lower (4.5%) than the natural frequency in TIA.
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Clinical trials conducted during the past five years have yielded important results that have allowed us to refine our approach to stroke prevention. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension prevents stroke and is generally well tolerated. New antiplatelet agents (clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin plus high-dose dipyridamole) have been shown to be effective in reducing vascular events in survivors of ischemic stroke, although aspirin remains the mainstay of antiplatelet therapy for stroke prevention. Several clinical trials support the benefit of lipid-lowering agents ("statins") in reducing stroke. Warfarin reduces stroke for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation. Carotid endarterectomy is highly beneficial in reducing stroke for symptomatic patients with severe carotid stenosis (greater than 70 percent), but the benefit is less for symptomatic patients with a moderate degree of stenosis (50 to 69 percent) and for patients with asymptomatic carotid disease of any severity.
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The bioequivalence trial employed a two-way crossover, randomised, open design. Trial medication was given for two periods of five days separated by a 72 h washout period. Statistical methods were employed to explore the prevalence, the time course, and the relation to individual pharmacokinetic parameters of treatment associated headaches.