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We investigated the effect of commonly used medications on the accumulation of ascorbic acid in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Although ascorbic acid is negatively charged at physiological pH, anionic compounds including drugs and metabolites had little effect on its accumulation. On the other hand, hydrophobic 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds (nifedipine and nicardipine), but not other structurally unrelated calcium channel blockers, were found to be potent inhibitors. They inhibited both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent (K+ substituting Na+) accumulation of ascorbic acid. The inhibition was non-competitive with a Ki of 108 microM and 9 microM for nifedipine and nicardipine, respectively. The efflux of ascorbic acid from cells was not affected. Previously, we reported a similar inhibition of ascorbic acid accumulation by estrogens. When nifedipine and estrogens were included in the buffer together, the combined inhibitory effect was less than additive implying that they may act through the same mechanism. The potential clinical significance of dihydropyridine usage on ascorbic acid status in human needs to be considered.
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Immunosuppressive agents have been recognized as a factor affecting the soft tissues of the periodontium. However, little is known about their effect on periodontitis progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of cyclosporin A (CsA) administration, associated or not with nifedipine, on the bone loss resulting from a ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were used. After anesthesia, the mandibular first molar was randomly assigned to receive the cotton ligature in the sulcular area while the contralateral tooth was left unligated. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: Group A--saline solution; Group B--CsA (10 mg/kg); Group C--nifedipine (50 mg/kg); Group D--CsA (10 mg/kg) plus nifedipine (50 mg/kg). Forty-five days later, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens routinely processed for serial decalcified sections. Intergroup analysis did not reveal significant differences regarding the bone loss volume in the ligated teeth between the experimental treatments (0.46 +/- 0.11, 0.63 +/- 0.32, 0.53 +/- 0.14, 0.50 +/- 0.18, for groups A, B, C and D, respectively--p > 0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed a greater bone loss volume in the ligated teeth than in the unligated ones (p < 0.05). Within the limits of the present study, the conclusion was that the administration of CsA, associated or not with nifedipine, may not influence bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.
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Rat basilar arteries of a normal group and SAH groups (1 hour, 2 days, and 1 week) were removed from the brain and cut into spiral preparations.
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Coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in adults, and cerebrovascular disease is associated with the presence of symptomatic and asymptomatic CHD. Several studies noted an association between coronary calcification and thoracic aorta calcification by several imaging techniques, but this association has not yet been examined in stable angina pectoris patients with the use of spiral computed tomography.
Ursolic acid (UA) in concentrations of l x 10(7) mol/L - 5 x 10(5) mol/L induced relaxation in gastric smooth muscle (SM) tissues, in a concentration-dependent manner. The relaxation did not change membrane potential and slow wave contraction patterns. A significant decrease in amplitude and frequency of spike- potentials was observed. UA-induced reactivity was removed when SM preparations were treated with nifedipine (1 x 10(6) mol/L). Ca2+-induced contractions of the depolarized SM preparations (42 mmol/L K+; Ca2+-free Krebs solution) were substantially reduced in the presence of UA. It was determined that, in certain concentrations, UA influenced L - type Ca2+ channels, and reduced the Ca2+ influx.
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Indapamide metabolism was studies in vitro using human liver microsomes pretreated with or without different concentrations of CYP-selective inhibitors and seven major antihypertensive drugs, felodipine, nifedipine, nitrendipine, telmisartan, irbesartan, valsartan and puerarin. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of indapamide was determined by HPLC-MS/MS to evaluate the effects of felodipine coadministered on the bioavailability of indapamide in rats in vivo.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Bay K 8644, through its facilitation of increased intracellular calcium, results in the activation of the phosphatidylinsitol-signaling pathway and cytosolic calcium oscillation-like phenomena, thereby resulting in the generation of phasic myometrial contractions.
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The severe preeclampsia group had significantly lower platelet counts, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and elevated serum uric acid concentrations. Pre-treatment plasma leptin levels were significantly increased in the severe preeclampsia group (range 18.3-49.5) compared to the the mild preeclampsia group (range 20.7-45.4) and normal controls (range 8.6-19.2). Post-treatment plasma leptin levels in both the mild and severe preeclampsia groups (range 10.2-23.5 and 11.3-24.4, respectively) were statistically similar to those of the control group (range 9.1-20.7). Estimated foetal weight, intrauterine growth retardation and demise were statistically similar in the three study groups.
Maximum inhibition of contraction amplitude was 93 +/- 2% and 67 +/- 14% for progesterone at 30 microM and vehicle (70% ethanol), respectively, P < 0.05. 17OHPC did not exert an inhibitory effect. Water soluble progesterone exerted a maximal inhibitory effect on amplitude of contractions of 82 +/- 10% at 100 microM, P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of progesterone was unaffected by potassium channel blockers. There was no difference between in vivo placebo and progesterone-treated groups in either amplitude or frequency of contractions, nor was there any difference in the response to oxytocin or the tocolytic drugs.
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In Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, under β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO; 1 µM), 8 weeks MI decreased AF threshold, indicating increased AF susceptibility. This was associated with increased atrial action potential duration (APD)-alternans at 90% repolarization, by 147%, and no significant change in the mean APD or atrial global conduction velocity (CV; n = 6-13 non-MI hearts, 5-12 MI). In atrial isolated myocytes, also under β-stimulation, L-type Ca(2+) current (I(CaL)) density and intracellular Ca(2+)-transient amplitude were decreased by MI, by 35 and 41%, respectively, and the frequency of spontaneous depolarizations (SDs) was substantially increased. MI increased atrial myocyte size and capacity, and markedly decreased transverse-tubule density. In non-MI hearts perfused with ISO, the I(CaL)-blocker nifedipine, at a concentration (0.02 µM) causing an equivalent I(CaL) reduction (35%) to that from the MI, did not affect AF susceptibility, and decreased APD.
Calcium entering the cell via different routes, e.g.,N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), plays a pivotal role in hippocampal synaptic potentiation. Since corticosteroid hormones have been reported to enhance calcium influx through VDCCs, one may predict that these hormones facilitate hippocampal synaptic efficacy. Surprisingly, though, stress and corticosteroids have so far been found to reduce synaptic potentiation. Here, we addressed this apparent paradox and examined synaptic potentiation in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices from mice with low basal corticosterone levels 1--4 h after a brief in vitro administration of corticosterone. Nifedipine and APV were used to isolate NMDA receptor-mediated and VDCC-mediated long-term potentiations (LTPs), respectively. We report that corticosterone facilitates synaptic potentiation that depends on activation of VDCCs while impairing synaptic plasticity that is mediated by NMDA receptor activation. The glucocorticoid-receptor (GR) antagonist RU 38486 blocked both the effects of corticosterone. These results indicate that the net effect of corticosteroid hormones on synaptic plasticity is determined by the balance between different types of potentiation, a balance that may be region specific and depends on the experimental conditions. We speculate that these opposite effects on synaptic efficacy are involved in the bidirectional modulation of cognitive performance by corticosteroid hormones.
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Serum estrogen was increased in OVX+EST rats (60.5 +/- 18.2 pg/mL) compared to OVX (0.2 +/- 0.2 pg/mL P < 0.05 vs OVX+EST) and CTL animals (1.3 +/- 1.0 pg/mL P > 0.05 vs OVX). OVX showed significantly less myogenic tone at 75 mm Hg (13.8 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.05 vs CTL) than CTL (29.8 +/- 4.7%) that was partially restored by estrogen therapy (21.2 +/- 4.5; P > 0.05). At serotonin concentrations of 10(-7) M, 3 x 10(-7) M, and 10(-6) M, the vessels from ischemic OVX rats showed significantly greater constriction (20.9 +/- 2.1%, 35.0 +/- 3.9%, and 39.4 +/- 3.4%, respectively) compared to nonischemic CTL rats (6.3 +/- 1.1%, 11.3 +/- 1.8%, and 16.8 +/- 2.5%, respectively P < 0.05). Estrogen therapy resulted in intermediate responses (18.2 +/- 5.3%, 25.2 +/- 6.6%, and 28.2 +/- 6.5%, respectively) that were not significantly different from the other groups. In addition, ischemia resulted in significantly greater dilation in response to 0.01 microM nifedipine in vessels from OVX animals (51.1 +/- 8.0%) compared to nonischemic CTL (18.0 +/- 3.8%; P < 0.05) and estrogen therapy resulted in an intermediate response (38.0 +/- 10.6; P > 0.05). Both reactivity to nitro-L-arginine and passive distensibility were not different among groups. There were no differences in percent infarct or neurologic deficit between ischemic groups.
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Sixteen patients with normal-tension glaucoma (mean age, 55.6+/-9.8 years; male:female ratio, 3:13) underwent color Doppler imaging to measure the resistance index, and peak systolic and end-diastolic blood flow velocities of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and nasal and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries. Measurements were taken before and during CO2 supplementation sufficient to increase the end-tidal CO2 partial pressure by 10%. The color Doppler imaging measurements were repeated after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment with 2 mg oral nilvadipine, and comparisons were made between the effects of the two treatments.
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Baseline clearance was 498.7 +/- 225.0 nl/60 min/gm (mean +/- SE). PAF at 10(-8) mol/L (n = 5) increased clearance to 3753.8 +/- 572.8 nl/60 min/gm (p < 0.01). Pretreatment with verapamil (2 mg/kg; n = 5) significantly reduced the increase in permeability caused by 10(-8) mol/L PAF (1909.1 +/- 620.2 nl/60 min/gm; p < 0.05). Nifedipine (5-10(-6) mol/L; n = 5) also significantly attenuated the impact of 10(-8) mol/L PAF (2037.2 +/- 427.5 nl/60 min/gm; p < 0.05). Neither verapamil nor nifedipine affected PAF-induced vasoconstriction.
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Over a 38-month period, 301 women were allocated to receive M (90), N (114), or I (90). Gestational age at delivery (p = 0.551) or arrest of labor >48 h, >7 days were similar between the three groups (p = 0.199, 0.654). Hypotension and tachycardia were more common in N patients compared to women receiving M or I (p = 0.003, 0.009). Patients receiving I had more fetal ductal constriction or oligohydramnios compared to M or N (p = 0.001, 0.020) but, I women were tested more often. There was one case of pulmonary edema in the M group and one with plural effusion in the N group.
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Although laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used for measuring microperfusion, it is rarely used to measure coronary microcirculation. The present in vivo study investigated the use of LDF to measure myocardial microperfusion in beating rat hearts. Ascending aortic flow and other hemodynamic parameters were simultaneously recorded. A needle probe with a holder was adhered to the epicardium of the left ventricular myocardium close to the left anterior descending coronary artery in an anaesthetized open-chest rat. Myocardial microperfusion was measured in response to bolus intravenous administration of both two representative vasodilators (captopril and nifedipine) and a vasoconstrictor (pituitrin). Myocardial microperfusion was found to be predominately diastolic, and in an opposing phase to the ascending aortic flow. Captopril (5 or 10 mg/kg) increased the initial myocardial microperfusion phase. Nifedipine at 75 microg/kg caused a sustained myocardial microperfusion elevation with a peak increase of 7.1+/-1.1%, but this was not observed using 150 microg/kg nifedipine. Both drugs caused an increase in the cardiac index. In contrast, myocardial microperfusion decreased (28.7+/-0.1% maximum decrease) in response to 1 IU/kg pituitrin. In conclusion, LDF provided a means of assessing myocardial microperfusion in beating rat hearts, and can be applied to evaluate the coronary microcirculation response to drugs.
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To evaluate the impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on contractions induced by ethanol in smooth muscle.
Drug metabolizing activities of cytochromes P450 (P450s, or CYPs) 3A4 and 3A5 in liver microsomes from the cynomolgus monkey [Macaca fascicularis (mf)] were investigated and compared with those of human P450 3A enzymes. Low activities for dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin and pentoxyresorufin were seen in recombinant monkey mfCYP3A4 and mfCYP3A5 and in recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expressed in bacterial membranes. Hydroxylation activities of mfCYP3A4 and mfCYP3A5 toward coumarin, paclitaxel, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, and S-mephenytoin were below detectable levels, as was also true for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Monkey mfCYP3A5 and mfCYP3A4 were highly active in bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. mfCYP3A5 was efficient at dextromethorphan O-demethylation, although human CYP3A5 was unable to catalyze this reaction. Apparent bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation activities of monkey liver microsomes were higher than those of human liver microsomes, possibly because of contributions of mfCYP3A5 to these P450 2D-dependent drug oxidations. mfCYP3A5 and CYP3A5 catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation at a low substrate concentration more efficiently than the corresponding CYP3A4. mfCYP3A5 had higher testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity than mfCYP3A4, but the reverse relationship was observed in oxidation of nifedipine and hydroxylation of dexamethasone. These results demonstrate that monkey P450 3A enzymes have similar substrate selectivity to that of human P450 3A enzymes, but exhibit wider substrate selectivity toward P450 2D substrates.
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Cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization has been proposed to be an important factor in the induction of emesis. The selective sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin, is known to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which consequently evokes extracellular Ca(2+) entry through cell membrane-associated channels, accompanied by a prominent rise in cytosolic Ca(2+). A pro-drug form of thapsigargin is currently under clinical trial as a targeted cancer chemotherapeutic. We envisioned that the intracellular effects of thapsigargin could cause emesis and planned to investigate its mechanisms of emetic action. Indeed, thapsigargin did induce vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent and bell-shaped manner, with maximal efficacy (100%) at 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.). Thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg) also caused increases in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the brainstem emetic nuclei including the area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), as well as enhancement of substance P (SP) immunoreactivity in DMNX. In addition, thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) led to vomit-associated and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the brainstem. We then explored the suppressive potential of diverse chemicals against thapsigargin-evoked emesis including antagonists of: i) neurokinin-1 receptors (netupitant), ii) the type 3 serotonin receptors (palonosetron), iii) store-operated Ca(2+) entry (YM-58483), iv) L-type Ca(2+) channels (nifedipine), and v) SER Ca(2+)-release channels inositol trisphosphate (IP3Rs) (2-APB)-, and ryanodine (RyRs) (dantrolene)-receptors. In addition, the antiemetic potential of inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059) were investigated. All tested antagonists/blockers attenuated emetic parameters to varying degrees except palonosetron, however a combination of non-effective doses of netupitant and palonosetron exhibited additive antiemetic efficacy. A low-dose combination of nifedipine and 2-APB plus dantrolene mixture completely abolished thapsigargin-evoked vomiting, CaMKII-ERK1/2 activation and SP elevation. In addition, pretreatment with KN93 or PD98059 suppressed thapsigargin-induced increases in SP and ERK1/2 activation. Intracerebroventricular injection of netupitant suppressed vomiting caused by thapsigargin which suggests that the principal site of evoked emesis is the brainstem. In sum, this is the first study to demonstrate that thapsigargin causes vomiting via the activation of the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-ERK1/2 cascade, which is associated with an increase in the brainstem tissue content of SP, and the evoked emesis occurs through SP-induced activation of neurokinin-1 receptors.
Almost one mountain trekker or climber out of two develops several symptoms of high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. Individual susceptibility is the most important determinant for the occurrence of high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE). Symptoms associated with HAPE are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoea at the slightest effort, orthopnoea, and cough with due to haemoptysis in an advanced stage of the disease pink frothy sputum. The hallmark of HAPE is an excessively elevated pulmonary artery pressure (mean pressures of 35 and 55 mm Hg), which precedes the development of pulmonary oedema. Elevated pulmonary capillary pressure and protein- as well as red blood cell-rich oedema fluid without signs of inflammation in its early stage are characteristic findings. Furthermore, decreased fluid clearance from the alveoli may contribute to this non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Immediate descent or supplemental oxygen and nifedipine are recommended until descent is possible. Susceptible individuals can prevent HAPE by slow ascent: an average gain of altitude not exceeding 400 m/day above an altitude of 2500 m. If progressive high altitude acclimatization is not possible, a prophylaxis with nifedipine should be recommended.
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The systemic use of a dihydropyridine CA in a clinical trial could reduce the incidence of early autoarterial conduit dysfunction and improve prognosis in the patients.
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The reaction of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with methyl propiolate and ammonium acetate in acetic acid yields 2,6-dinor-nifedipine (1a) and as a by-product not the dimethyl 2,5-dicarboxylate isomer, but the rac. 1,2-dihydropyridine (DHP) 1b, as proven by X-ray analysis. The benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridines 4-6 are synthesized from the oxidation product 2b and the photo-product 3b. The compounds 6 represent starting materials for potential anti-malarial agents.
Near the base of mammalian seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells are joined by tight junctions, which constitute the blood-testis barrier. Differentiating germ cells are completely enveloped by Sertoli cells and must traverse the tight junctions during spermatogenic cycle. Following the specific ligand activation of L-selectin, the up-regulated Rho family small G-proteins have been implicated as important modulators of tight junctional dynamics. Although the activation of L-selectin transmits subsequent intracellular signals in a Ca(+2)-dependent fashion in various cell types, little is understood regarding the signaling pathways utilized by L-selectin in Sertoli cells. Therefore, we have examined the possible resultant calcium influx triggered by specific ligand-activation of cell surface L-selectin receptors or by cross-linking of L-selectin with anti-L-selectin. Spectrofluorimetric studies demonstrate increase of intracellular Ca(+2) levels immediately after the treatment of the L-selectin ligands, fucoidan and sialyl Lewis-a, or after treatment with anti-L-selectin antibody. We then determined the mechanism of Ca(+2) influx by investigating L- and T-type voltage-operated Ca(+2) channels, which have been suggested to present in the membranes of Sertoli cells. Data demonstrate that Sertoli cells treated with L-type voltage-operated Ca(+2) channel antagonists, nifedipine, diltiazem, or verapamil, lead to dose-dependent blockage of L-selectin-induced Ca(+2) influx. Cells treated with mibedradil, a T-type voltage-operated Ca(+2) channel antagonist, results in little or no blocking effect. Therefore, we conclude that activation of Sertoli cell L-selectin induces Ca(+2) influx, which is at least partially regulated by L-type voltage-operated Ca(+2) channels.
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Many anticonvulsants are used in disorders other than epilepsy. For example, lamotrigine is reported to be effective in post-traumatic stress disorder and mania.